THE RUSSIAN QUANTUM CENTER

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1 THE RUSSIAN QUANTUM CENTER a pilot project of setting up basic science in Skolkovo Alexander Lvovsky

2 THE DREAM

3 The open letter of Russian scientists abroad Signed by ~ 200 people Primary propositions Improvement of funding Identification of primary research strengths Financial transparency Integration into international scientific community International evaluation standards Creation of an institute for advanced research Reaction Coverage in major Russian and international media Response from the government October 02, 2009 I carefully studied the open letter

4 A follow-up article: Proposal for an institute Signed by ~ 200 people Research theme not specified Principles of funding Competition-based, transparent Internationally recognized experts to evaluate projects Evaluation according to international standards Governance Renewable steering committee Supervised by an advisory board consisting of top international scientists Most research positions temporary Exchange February 18, 2010 Sponsored program of conferences, summer schools, seminars, etc. Student research positions (all levels) Fellowships for top Russian and international scientists Outgoing fellowships for members

5 Russian quantum center: The first steps Founding fathers Serguei Beloussov, CEO of Parallels Inc. Mikhail Lukin, Professor of Harvard University Eugene Demler, Professor of Harvard University Primary goal = basic science Not oriented at immediate commercialization Basis of society s intellectual, scientific and technical culture Can result in major technological breakthroughs Neglected in Russia for many years, needs revitalization

6 Enter: Russian Quantum Center International institute with a leadership vision Researchers recruited internationally through an open competition Integrated into international research community Part of an international labor market Structure, funding, salaries and operational principles: similar to top research institutions across the world unique for Russia Why quantum technology? Strong Russian diaspora in the field Information technologies = primary area of innovations in modern society Quantum science = one of the most active fields of physics Primary importance for technological future of humanity

7 PLANNED RESEARCH

8 Quantum technology Growth of computational power increasing circuit complexity scale reduction Circuits individual particle scale Technology quantum frontier Classical experience no longer applicable A horizon for a new technology opens up What is quantum technology? Controlling complex quantum systems at the level of their individual components

9 Quantum computing Quantum bit Classicl bit: either 0 or 1 Can be in a superposition state Example: atom in a superposition of being in the ground and excited energy levels Multiple quantum bits can also be in a superposition state Example: a telephone book Abbott Adams Ahmed Albrecht can be encoded in just a few qubits 0 1 Abbott Adams Ahmed Albrecht A commercial quantum computer D-Wave, Canada Quantum mechanics permits massive parallelism in computation

10 Quantum cryptography The concept Encode information in (polarization of) a single photon A photon cannot be split Quantum state of a single particle cannot be copied Measurement destroys or alters a quantum state Eavesdropper will prevent correct transmission and is exposed Security guaranteed by fundamental laws of physics Existing technology; not science fiction Transmission by tens of km possible Commercial devices exist Longer distances will be possible by developing quantum repeaters A commercial quantum cryptography server Id Quantique, Switzerland

11 Quantum simulators Goal: understand physics of materials A complex quantum many-body problem (atoms, electrons, ) Cannot be efficiently modeled with modern computers Idea: simulate the material with another quantum object with known properties Applications A quantum microscope allows observing individual atoms in a quantum gas simulating phase transitions in a solid (M. Greiner, Harvard) Obtaining room-temperature superconductivity Eliminating losses in transmission lines Magnetically suspended vehicles Ultra-strong, ultra-light alloys

12 Optical clocks What is atomic clock? Pendulum = optical transition between quantum energy levels in a single atom or ion Atom must be isolated from environment Precision: 1 second in 3 billion years Current challenge: compact atomic clock Application Precise geopositioning (GPS) Obtained by measuring delay between signals from satellites Currently a few meters Can reach a few millimeters Fully automated operation of vehicles

13 Quantum sensors The concept An microscopic impurity in a crystal (e.g. diamond) Microscopic magnetic fields lead to quantum evolution that can be seen using lasers Spatial resolution: few tens of nanometers Applications Magnetic resonance tomography of individual biological cells or their components Full understanding of biological function Reverse engineering of human brain

14 Quantum technology centers in the world IQIS IQC MPQ MPL NIST CUA JQI ICFO IQOQI CQT ARC

15 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

16 The research groups Group leaders (5-10) Hired through open international competition Search committee consists of RQC members and members of governing boards Ads in Nature, Physics Today, etc. Consideration of research and teaching record, reference letters; interview Final decision: Board of Trustees Competitive salaries RQC position combined with a professorship at a leading Russian university Tenure or tenure-track Typical group composition 1 senior postdoc, 3 junior postdocs 5 graduate students 3 undergraduate students All positions except group leaders are temporary

17 Funding Institute funding Building / maintenance / administration Common use facilities Partnerships Salaries (internationally competitive) Basic funding for individual groups Funding of groups Group leaders control all funding associated with their groups Hires personnel Purchases equipment Allocates funding for travel, visitors, etc Basic funding available on annual basis Additional funding Grants within RQC (approved by Governing Boards) Grants through Russian government agencies Collaboration with industry

18 The Managing Director Sought among top international scientists Functions Oversees all daily activities of the center Interface between the group leaders and the governing Boards Represent the Centre at official events Directly responsible for the proper use of funds Engage in attracting additional funds to RQC as a whole from the sources in Russia and abroad Interface with universities, Academy of Sciences, commercial and foreign organizations, government Organize cooperation between RQC and partners

19 The Steering Committee Selected from among group leaders Functions Primary self-governing body of RQC Implements daily running of the Center Assists the Managing Director in all tasks Prepares annual report of the RQC Members Alexey Akimov Research Scientist, Lebedev Physics Institute Eugene Demler Professor of Physics, Harvard University Mark Shmulevich Chief Development Officer, Russian quantum center Alexander Lvovsky Professor, Canada Research Chair, University of Calgary Alexey Ustinov Director, Physikalisches Institut Universität Karlsruhe Chairmen of both governing Boards (ex-oficio)

20 The International Advisory Board Selected from the world s leaders in quantum research Functions Advisory guidance of the Center Approve appointments of the Center PIs. Appoint/dismiss the Managing Director Advise upon and assess the Center s research Members (examples) Mikhail Lukin (chair) Professor of Physics, Harvard University; Scientific Director, Harvard Quantum Optics Center, Co-Director of Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms. Wolfgang Ketterle Professor of Physics, MIT. Pioneer and recognized leader in the field of ultra-cold atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensation. Member of 12 Academies of Sciences of different countries Nobel Prize Ignacio Cirac Co-Director, Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching, Germany, pioneer in the field of the quantum theory of information and quantum computation.

21 The Board of Trustees Selected from world s leaders in science, business and politics Functions All major financial decisions Help with fundraising strategy Interface with the industry and government Help with commercialization Members (examples) Serguei Beloussov (chair) Chairman and CEO of Parallels Founder and major investor in Acronis Leading partner, Runa Capital Alexander Abramov Chairman of the Board of Directors of Evraz Alexander Galitsky Co-founder and managing partner of Almaz Capital Partners, Advisor to Runa Capital David Gross Outstanding particle physicist and string theorist Nobel Prize in Physics Paul Maritz CEO of VMware Corporatio Past senior executive at Microsoft

22 Partnerships International Fellowships Up to 10 top Russian/world scientists Funding obtained from the Center Regular visits to the Center with lectures Joint research projects Hosting of RQC junior researchers visits Prize Fellowship Program Scientists selected for two-year-long internships abroad Fellowships for international postdocs and graduate students

23 TODAY AND TOMORROW

24 Russian Quantum Center today What is done to date Governing boards formed, composed of leading scientists, government and business leaders Support from Skolkovo secured Initial purpose of Skolkovo = support of business Short-term support, requires frequent renewal Hopefully improves with SkTech membership Private endowment partially secured Necessary for creating long-term positions Research plan developed Agreement with leading Russian research and educational institutions signed First laboratories are being set up at several locations First researchers hired

25 Russian Quantum Center tomorrow What we hope to become in a few years 100 to 200 scientists, 10 to 20 groups Strong program of visits, collaborations, fellowships A research center within joint MIT-Skolkovo University (SkTech) RQC becomes one of the world s top 5 quantum research institutes Publications in leading journals Patents, innovations, start-ups Destination of choice for the world s top brains Wider impact Integration of Russian and international scientific communities Formation of a new generation of world-class scientists in Russia Revival of Russia s leadership in science and technology Quantum technology commercialization

26 Is this possible in Russia? Russia: a whole pyramid of problems In a healthy society, developing scientific infrastructure is easy Examples: Canada, Singapore, Spain But Russia has its own advantages Glorious scientific history Strong diaspora, willing to help Reasonably strong educational system Society, establishment and government understand the need for change Funding, relaxed legal framework available through Skolkovo We can make it if we are smart Funding competence honesty Management customs degrees treatment of foreigners Legal framework law enforcement health care public education efficient government Health of society

27 COME WORK WITH US!

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