ACVT Workshop Best practice in VET: Switzerland

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1 SWITZERLAND

2 ra Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft Confédération suisse Confederazione Svizzera Confederaziun svizra Swiss Confederation Federal Department of Economie Affairs, Education and Research EAER State Secretariate for Education, Research and Innovation SERI International Education Projects ACVT Workshop Best practice in VET: Switzerland Date: From: To: 7 January 2013 Swiss ACVT representatives: Heike Suter Hoffmann (Government, SERI), Bruno Weber Gobet (Trade Union), Jürg Zellweger (Employers), George Waardenburg (SERI) Antonio Silva Mendes, European Commission, DG Education & Culture Addressing the challenges forsetting up apprenticeships/wbl in small and medium sized companies The Swiss education system features an extensive and efficient VET 1 and PET 2 system. It contributes substantially to the competitive strength of Switzerland, which is systematically ranked as the most innovative or competitive European country by several recent international studies 3. Swiss VET trains two third of all youth in Switzerland, providing qualified personnel to all fields of industry at all levels of qualification. Around 85% of VET students train as apprentices and work as such in a real company or public administration for 3 to 4 years on average. How significant is this for businesses here in Switzerland? Thanks to the market based skills and knowledge taught to Swiss VET apprentices, youth unemployment but also general unemployment are very low in Switzerland, especially in comparison with other European countries. This means that the Swiss workforce allowing for high innovation and competitiveness as well as very high employment rate and activity rates 4 is mostly provided for by VET. The positive effects are therefore evident: low unemployment by international comparison, a consequent lack of pressure on the social welfare system and a comparatively low level of public spending. In most professions, the contribution made by these young people demonstrably outweighs the costs to the company in which they train (return on investment). Training programmes are regularly adapted to the requirements of the labor market. The Swiss education system is flexible, allowing qualified workers to study at all educational levels. The private sector is closely involved in VET, newly qualified young people normally move seamlessly from training to the labor market, and graduates from tertiary level В professional education and training are much sought after by employers. Therefore the Swiss dual track VET system can be valuable to other countries as an ideal model to analyze a dual track VET system. It displays competitive, efficient and above all, marketoriented solutions to face economic challenges. Vocational Education and Training Professional Education and Training, i.e. "Higher VET". 3 WEF Global Competitiveness Index , IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2012, European Innovation Scoreboard Switzerland has a record high net activity rate (population between the ages of 15 and 64) of 82.4% as of 2012 (Swiss Federal Statistical Office). State Secretariate for Education, Research and Innovation SERI Heike Suter Hoffmann Effingerstrasse 27, 3003 Bern Tel , Fax /2011/07439 \ COO

3 1 Information a) Potential examples of good practice to be presented and discussed at the workshop, possibly addressing the issues outlined above or those you may find important namely how to attract SME's to offer apprenticeships vacancies, how to decrease the administrative burden, how to better match apprentices needs with SME's constraints, etc. Because Switzerland has such a large and overall good functioning VET system, we mention here some fundamental systemic strengths wherewith the outlined issues (notably the participation of small- and medium-sized companies in apprenticeship training) are addressed in our country. In addition, we may prepare specific examples of good practice to present and discuss in detail during the workshop in March. 1.1 Incentives/means to encourage SMEs to become involved in setting up apprenticeships Studies have shown that one of the most important incentives for professional organizations 5 in Switzerland to involve in VET/PET is the positive cost-benefit-ratio it offers. Various studies have been conducted by Swiss researchers to find out about the prevalent benefits for the SMEs. The following lines are taken from the EENEE Policy Brief 3/2012 "Apprenticeship Training Can Be Profitable for Firms and Apprentices Alike", published in November 2012, from Stefan C. Wolter, University of Berne: Offering apprenticeships may benefit an employer in at least three ways: First, as apprentices work (part-time) for the training firm 6, the value of their productive contribution may already offset the firm's costs of providing training (i.e. material and infrastructure costs, and wages for instructors and apprentices). Second, a firm can use training as a screening device to identify the most talented and motivated apprentices. Although the apprenticeship contract ends by the end of training, the firm can always offer a work contract to the most able individuals (based on superior knowledge of the trainee's aptitudes that is not available to other firms) and thereby avoid costly mismatches. Third, a firm can train apprentices in regard to its specific skills requirements - an increasingly important advantage in times of skilled-worker shortages in many industries that make it more difficult to fill vacancies with workers form the external labor market. An externally hired worker still needs to acquire specific skills during a period of adaption that initially restricts the productivity of a new hire. In many cases, external hiring costs are substantially higher than the potential net investment associated with training an apprentice. However, the relative importance of the three types of training benefits varies across firms, sectors, occupations, and even across countries, as differences in labor market regulations may shift the focus from long-term considerations to short-run goals. Why should companies invest in VET training? 1. Receiving tangible benefits: Consistently over the past ten years cost-benefit-calculations for Swiss firms have shown that the productive contribution of an apprentice in a typical Swiss training firm exceeds the training costs by more than 6Ό00 EUR per apprenticeship. (Number: EENEE Policy Brief) 2. Strengthening the image: Customers become aware of the company taking their social responsibility seriously. 3. Knowing the latest trends: Young people bring fresh ideas and challenge old habits. 4. Investment in the future: Well-trained employees can quickly adapt to new developments and can be a decisive factor for success. Engaging in VET/PET will help to find suitable staff in the future. The VET sector is funded by the Confederation, the cantons and professional organizations, each to their own degree. The cantons are responsible for implementing VET/PET. They provide as such at least three-fourth of public funding of the VET/PET system. One-fourth of the total cost is covered by the Confederation. In 2010, around CHF 3.4 billion public funding was allocated to the VET/PET system. A total of 10% of federal funding is used to promote VET/PET development projects as well as specific activities that serve the public interest. As described above the professional organizations 5 VET/PET mainly takes place in proper market-oriented companies (SMEs and MNEs). 6 Author's note: The terms "training firms" or "host companies" are here used to describe SMEs as well as MNEs that offer VET/PET training /2011/07439 \ COO /4

4 (training companies) receive their investment in services and funding back through the positive costbenefit-ratio. 1.2 Support networks of companies/intermediary bodies such as chambers of commerce Vocational and Professional Education and Training in Switzerland is pursued as a joint mission of the Confederation, the cantons and professional organizations in a partnership. The professional organizations (trade associations, social partners, other relevant organization and VET/PET providers as well as companies) have a very important role in the VET/PET system, as it is in their hands to take the initiative to create or reform qualifications in their sector/branch. Professional organizations are determining the training content and national qualification procedures, the creation of apprenticeship positions, the provision of occupational skill and the development of new training courses. The Confederation (SERI, SFIVET) is responsible for strategic management and development of the VET/PET system. The cantons are responsible for implementing VET and PET at cantonal level, as well as supervising the apprenticeships through their cantonal VET/PET offices. The cantons are responsible for the classroom instruction in VET schools overlooking the curricula's as well as providing occupational, educational and career guidance counseling services. The cantons engage in apprenticeship marketing and are very involved in further development and planning of the Swiss VET/PET system. 1.3 Sharing an apprentice General training arrangements Though not being a way of sharing an apprentice, the training arrangements are an important factor. The exposure of the apprentices to a diverse and rich learning opportunity is given, even if they are doing their in-company training in a micro or small enterprise. An apprentice is being trained in three different training arrangements: In-company training, classroom instruction and industry courses. Those three settings complement each other. Industry courses often take place at third-party training centers run by the industries involved. There, apprentices can acquire skills that cannot be trained in their in-company training. This could be, because a machine or certain tools are not available. The industry courses ensure that apprentices will get the opportunity to learn all the competences that are necessary for the qualification Multi-company collaboration in the field of apprentice training (Lehrbetriebsverbund) A multi-company collaboration in the field of apprentice training is a collaboration of several enterprises towards the goal to make a broad practical VET training possible in several specialized companies. The goal of multi-company collaboration in VET is to broaden the apprenticeship market. Small and middle-sized companies, which are too specialized to offer the training in all areas specified in the training curriculum, get the chance to train apprentices together and share the cost and time invested in the training. The SERI (former OPET) has the possibility to support the establishment of multicompany collaborations in VET with initial funding. Examples: Apprenticeship Marketing What is apprenticeship marketing and why is it important? Apprenticeship marketing is a cantonal task, as the cantonal VET/PET offices are familiar with the conditions in their regions. The main objective is to establish and maintain contacts with local businesses. The VET/PET offices assess the number of available apprenticeships (apprenticeship records), take suitable measures at the right time and offer individual support to young people in their search for an apprenticeship position. Structural changes, economic fluctuations, host company ratio, demographic changes and interests of young people are all determining factors that influence the apprenticeship market. On the occasion that the apprenticeship situation is disadvantageous, the federal government may step in to offer additional financial incentives for apprenticeship marketing and support of specific VET-related projects, which aid the host companies indirectly to stay attractive for young people. The most important apprenticeship marketing measures to face these challenges are: Information and advice on careers Apprenticeship records Creation of host company networks Provision of state-sponsored transitional options (mainly bridge-year courses) /2011/07439 \ C /4

5 VET promotion agents deal directly with companies, encouraging them to create apprenticeship positions Placement and individual mentoring of young people who have been unable to find a suitable apprenticeship 1.5 Swiss ideas on international education cooperation In the study "VET - a competitive and decisive factor for Switzerland", published in 2011 by the OPET, the goal was to get a clearer picture of the effectiveness of the Swiss VET system and to gain an indication on the way in which the Swiss system can be applied abroad. It tackles the following questions: How important is the VET sector for a country's economic prosperity and competitiveness? How does the Swiss VET sector compare with that of Germany and Britain? What are the requirements of multinational companies in terms of VET? This study shows that companies in Switzerland are much more satisfied with VET than companies in the UK. The differences with Germany are less pronounced. Though it seems that companies in Switzerland appreciate the role that the government assumes in guaranteeing quality in VET as well as the policy making towards VET more than it is the case in Germany. Because of recent international interest in Swiss VET and its high quality in international comparison, Switzerland is implementing several international cooperation projects where Swiss expertise in VET is provided to foreign countries, helping them to develop modern, competitive, company and marketbased VET provisions. We can mention here some of the more important projects that Switzerland is involved in: Slovakia and Cyprus are currently reforming their VET systems by modeling it on the Swiss VET system. 7 India has introduced dual-track VET based on the Swiss model through a pilot project in several companies and regions of the country. This project has also provided for the implementation of cooperation and partnership underlying dual-track VET between the Indian authorities and a newly created industry-based professional association. In several developing countries (Burkina Faso, Uganda, Bangladesh, Albania) Swiss VET experience and knowledge is implemented to help develop a qualified workforce supporting sustainable economic growth. 8 A number of other countries (South Africa, China, Malaysia, Netherlands) are interested in the Swiss VET system and in some cases would like to develop cooperation projects with Switzerland in order to acquire high quality dual-track VET. 2 information b) Suggestions for the agenda of such workshop Discussions concerning the following themes: Desirability and feasibility of bilateral cooperation to support, develop and enhance VET in specific countries through consulting and service provision of other European VET providers ("VET service export"). National best practice examples to improve the skill-grade-mix. Position and acceptance of the VET/PET system in the national education systems. Overview over the national definitions of the terms "work-based learning" and "dual-track systems". 3 Further reading OECD Review of Vocational Education and Training Switzerland published in OPET (2011): VET - a competitive and decisive factor for Switzerland. Survey of multinational companies and experts in Switzerland, Germany and Britain. OPET (2012): Facts and Figures - Vocational and professional education and training in Switzerland WEF Global Competitiveness Index , IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2012, European Innovation Scoreboard See for instance the following summary of VET reforms in Slovakia co-financed by Switzerland : See for instance the website of "Swisscontact": /2011/07439 \COO /4

6 w Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft Confédération suisse Confederazione Svizzera Confederaziun svizra Federal Department of Economic Affairs FDEA Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology OPET WETPLUS.CH THE PATH OF PROFESSIONALS. An initiative of the C o n f e d e r a t i o n, the cantons and p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s

7 Swiss VET/PET system МШМВШШИШмЯИИ шшшвннпв VET at international level

8 ITS Al OVERVIEW The Swiss VET/PET system enables young people to enter the labour market and ensures that there are enough specialists and managers in the future. The VET and PET sectors are closely correlated with the labour market and are an integral part of the education system. The most popular form of upper-setsniary level education and traininf Vocational education and training (VET) provides two-thirds of young people in Switzerland with a solid foundation in a given occupation. It also forms the basis for lifelong learning and opens up a wealth of job prospects. Dyal-track approach te tearnm Most VET programmes consist of part-time classroom instruction at a VET school combined with a part-time apprenticeship at a host company. Such VET programmes are referred to as dual-track VET programmes. There are around 230 occupations to choose from. The less common variety is called a full-time VET programme and is based entirely on classroom instruction (i.e. no apprenticeship). Fulltime VET programmes are generally offered by trade schools or commercial schools. Osse correlation with the labeur market VET programmes closely match the needs of the labour market, both in terms of occupational skills and the number of available jobs. The close correlation with the labour market explains why Switzerland has one of the lowest youth unemployment rates among European countries. Permeaitllfty The VET and PET sectors are an integral part of the education system. Education and training begins at upper-secondary level with learners having the option of continuing through tertiary level. VET and PET are based on clearly defined curricula and national qualification procedures. Typically, VET and PET are very flexible: learners may pursue education and training opportunities and later change the course of their professional lives with relative ease. Continuing education and training (CET) options are also available at all levels. Career prospects Professional education and training (PET) takes place at tertiary В level and is the next step after vocational education and training (VET). PET provides learners with specific qualifications and prepares them for managerial and specialised positions. There are around ĄW PET programmes leading to federal PET examinations and 52 PET college degree programmes in eight different professional fields. The Federal Vocational Baccalaureate (FVB) provides direct access to Swiss universities of applied sciences (UAS). Jeînt missisħ VET/PET is a partnership, a joint mission pursued by the Confederation, the cantons and professional organisations. jïöïal Fiuttţber of: tëarnersienrolfëd in VET tlřogigvňtmšsįį-lvщ^&а:. ':/ Murntìer; öf РейегаЩЕТ Ěertifieatis ör Federal-VETDigloniäš issued Number of Federal Vocational Baccalaureates issued > Number of PET qualifications issued ::éö,500 ; Ì2,2oCr 28,300 Federal Statistical Office [2011c], (2011 g)

9 [ 3 SWISS YET/PET SYSTEM Vocational education and training (VET) is provided at upper secondary level. Professional education and training (PET) is provided at tertiary В level. Both VET and PET use clearly defined curriculums and national qualification procedures. They are also characterised by a high degree of permeability: it is possible for learners to pursue additional education and training opportunities and change the course of their professional lives with relative ease. A wealth of continuing education and training (CET) courses can also be found at all levels. The Swiss VET/PET system offers a broad selection of available training options. Courses cater to different abilities and are geared to the needs of different age groups. Vocational edueatlen and training tveti VET programmes lead to recognised qualifications and pave the way for lifelong learning. Three or four year VET programmes leading to a Federal VET Diploma Provide learners with the skills needed to carry out a specific occupation and gain access to tertiary level В professional education and training (PET). Two year VET programmes leading to a Federal VET Certificate Allow more practically minded learners to obtain a federally recognised certificate that matches the needs of a specific occupational profile. Graduates of the two year VET programme may enrol directly in a three or four year VET programme leading to the Federal VET Diploma. Proîessienal education ana training IPETÎ PET programmes combine solid practical skills with established theoretical expertise. They also prepare learners for managerial and/or specialised positions. Federal PET examinations There are two federal PET examinations: the Federal PET Diploma Examination is intended for people with several years of professional experience who would like to specialise in a given field; the Advanced Federal PET Diploma Examination is generally for learners who have acquired a great deal of professional expertise and/or who intend to hold a managerial position in an SME. Depending on which federal PET examination is taken, candidates will be awarded either the Federal PET Diploma or the Advanced Federal PET Diploma. Federal Vocational Baccalaureate (FVB) The optional FVB is available to learners who attend the FVB preparatory course, which consists of general education subjects. FVB holders are entitled to enrol in any of Switzerland's universities of applied sciences (DAS) without having to take an entrance examination. FVB holders may also take the University Aptitude Test (UAT) to obtain the additional qualification needed to enrol in a cantonal university or either of Switzerland's two federal institutes of technology (ΕΤΗ in Zurich or EPF in Lausanne). PET college degree programmes PET college degree programmes are based on a core curriculum. Generally speaking, programmes last for two years (full time) or three years (part time) and lead to a federally recognised PET college degree.

10 FåCTI Preparation for weatienal ediicatîan and training Bridge-year courses Bridge-year courses consist of practical training and pre-apprenticeships upon completion of lower-secondary level. Bridge-year courses are generally designed to prepare learners for admission to an upper-secondary level VET programme. Job-relaîeti continuing eiucatien and training ÍCET! Regardless of their stage in life, learners will find a wide range of job-related CET options (i.e. non-formal courses, seminars, etc.) at all training levels. Ш 111МШШЩ(Ш111ВДИ МВ WessiänaleäM át(í#énä:ťrsiningí Federal PET examinafions ÎS 5 PET colleges Universities of applied ssiėnęes: Universities/ Federal institutes Ш1еШа1од5к1;:Щ jjllp^millîlte Щ Ш 11 И 1 (ίίΐίΐιιιβϊϊριι Federal VĘF -.. : ;ц Ши Federal VET Diplorņaļ į jį Vocational education and training General education schools iií ilbim íli^itfàliiílmi î Direct access S Additional qualifications or work experience required VET for adults Adults may take remedial courses to acquire a VET qualification. The Federal Vocational and Profes sional Education and Training Act leaves several avenues open in this regard: these range from regu lated, structured procedures for occupational categories (or subcategories] to individual recognition procedures.

11 ills Aiö FIGURE! ONE MISSION, THREE PARTNERS The provision of VET and PET is a mission shouldered by the Confederation, the cantons and professional organisations. These three partners are jointly committed to the highest possible standard of VET/PET. They also strive to ensure the availability of an adequate number of apprenticeships and CET courses. ЩМщвШШа Strategic management and development í«oai fs surs:n ê; : :ân Confederation Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology (OPET) Responsible for the VET and PET sectors at federal level. Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (SFIVET) Mainly provides basic and continuing training to VET and PET professionals, particularly teachers. SFIVET is also involved in research and the provision of services. It has three regional campuses: in Lausanne, Lugano and Zollikofen. ' υ cqwş^lfroughoul j!& ^įfflfcss'':-.yl? ĪļiEņaņtmeņt of* aroan d : 3ft;VĘl;;ffrdinsnfliś:: f : Rëeögnitiöff of Ша mi nat1oì;:;rlfаща vį 7 anärcöre-cürficiülä för PET ά *[Яесо пщопш%шащ progŕairimesľfor >v VET arvdvfet professiţ»naţşl ; ; «Pàyiilënt öl one-fourth öl риьш^есфг-:; ^expenditure for the:;vēt/petsystems.; Promotion of innovation and support for specificactįvitiėsin the public interest

12 ^ЕШйШйЕИЕ^^Цаш. ': Ое1ет1даЩп.М1гаШт^е1Мел1 апщ S;. лащййб EJiJâlílreatIon pţpceâúтш>?ш *greatiftrt:mäpp r sntieeship:;positl ::AfpřřSton:Of;Q^Gupa io:né:í:::stó : ľfleffiloflmgrit; flf^^lrąlningtotirsesr:; Professieiial orianisatíens Trade associations Determine training content and national qualifica tion procedures, organise VET and PET courses. Social partners, other relevant organisations and VET/PET providers Together with trade associations, they are also involved in the further development of VET/PET. Companies Where possible, companies provide VET appren ticeships and PET traineeships, thereby paving the way for the next generation of qualified work ers. Their involvement in VET/PET is voluntary. lillliiil 1шр1е1реп1Шщ1И11пс1 superyislort.;; į ^ ; VÍT/PEJ"õffícgs/sup : erví Щ^ЩsçbAoM,^F tjmë and: féí tjmeg U ' ;i;0 upatröffialv:emcatiö ia{ and cariar : : ^ gyį-ijanle^sįiilrs:;:^.. Äp;prgnieeship:rnarkeţing>: :" ; iţh vo lve mesiin fu rf bë r devě tő p nie nt and '?ч. planning :öf tftg^awişşiveţ/jieţ.şystem įį;;': Canføns Swiss Conference of cantonal Ministers of Education (EDK) The cantons are generally responsible for educa tion and training in Switzerland. Intercantonal cooperation through EDK helps to consolidate cantonal authority over education. 26 cantonal VET/PET offices Responsible for implementing VET and PET at cantonal level, VET/PET offices coordinate their activities through the Swiss Conference of VET/PET Offices (SBBK), one of EDK's specialised conferences. Occupational, educational and career guidance counselling services Provide information and guidance to both young people and adults. VET schools VET schools provide classroom instruction and prepare learners for the Federal Vocational Baccalaureate Examination. Some VET schools offer a full-time curriculum.

13 TRAINING ARRANGEMENTS The trademark and strength of VET/PET is the direct correlation with the labour market. This is reflected in various training arrangements. Vocational educatie«ani training IVET} In-company training With the dual-track approach to learning, learners attend courses at VET schools on a part-time basis. The remaining time is spent doing an apprenticeship at a host company where they are taught the practical skills needed for their chosen occupation. Host company networks: in some cases, host companies may wish to combine their strengths to offer one or more apprenticeships in a modular format. Such host company networks are suitable for companies which have limited staff capacities or which are specialised in only one or more aspects covered by the VET programme. Classroom instruction VET schools provide classroom instruction. This consists of classroom instruction in vocational and general education subjects. There are a number of ways in which VET programmes can be structured: the standard way is for learners to attend courses one to two days per week at the VET school and do their apprenticeship at a host company for the remaining three to four days per week; the sliding-scale model (initially more days attending courses at the VET school and gradually decreasing the number of days to spend more time doing the apprenticeship) is another alternative; basic training years are a third alternative, etc. Some VET schools also offer a full-time curriculum (e.g. trade schools, commercial schools, etc.) without the need for learners to do an apprenticeship. VET schools also prepare learners for the Federal Vocational Baccalaureate Examination. Professional eiacatíoñ and traimnf {PET) Preparation for federal PET examinations Federal PET examinations are sponsored by professional organisations. Public and private PET providers offer part-time courses to prepare learners for federal PET examinations, which lead to either the Federal PET Diploma or the Advanced Federal PET Diploma. PET college degree programmes Part-time and full-time PET college degree programmes are organised by professional organisations, private businesses or public education institutions. Jeb-related continuini education and trainini ICET) There is a wide range of job-related CET courses. These courses are tailored to suit the requirements of the given occupation or profession. CET courses are mainly organised by the private sector. Industry courses Industry courses are meant to complement classroom instruction and work-based training. Industry courses often take place at third-party training centres run by the industries involved.

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16 "ÄCI APPRENTICESHIP MARKET There are two sides to the apprenticeship market: the supply side (host companies offering apprenticeship positions) and the demand side (young people looking for apprenticeship positions). The State plays a mediating role: it ensures the best possible general conditions for host companies, encourages the provision of apprenticeship positions and helps young people to choose an occupation. Structural changes: The number of apprenticeship positions;:; reflects the long-term needs of the: ; r ï labour market. Demographic changes: ing to the Federal Statistical l i P I ^ ^ I ß f f i c e IPSO), the number of ^ ^ H l l ^ ^ ^ k o n d a r y school graduates J ļ U l ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ d e c r e a s i n g since 2009, Ш Ц И Ш И ^ ^ ^ Д ^ h will affect demand. Economic fluctuatíöiísrk : Economic fluctuatibte^reŕstsäa,; factor since сотрзтшпеее^ l f į į ; } a large enough orttstsoofefffiörcfer to take on apprenticeswithinthe:; :::: framework of а аиаидщгжтьв programme. Host company ratio: Around 30% of the companies in Switzertanaïv take part in VET programmes. Host companies derive a tangible benefit from the apprenticeships they provide. Apprenticeship m a r t e t i n g a cantenal task Cantonal VET/PET offices are familiar with the conditions in their regions. They also establish and maintain contacts with local businesses. Accordingly, they are the best placed to assess the number of available apprenticeships, to take suitable measures at the right time and to offer individual support to young people in their search for an apprenticeship position. If the apprentice ship situation is disadvantageous for the host company, then the federal government may step in to offer additional financial incentives. ^ в Щ Ц 1 р ^ р 1 5 of young people: l l ļ ļ l ^ ļ ^ ^ ^ i g h t occupation is an I B ^ ^ ^ J ļ ļ ļ J f i young people's lives. «..^.. ^^^^ЯЙ^Р^ 8 1 ' ' 0 teke η * 0 account i ^ e i l i ļ l l l l l l l ^ ^ a p p r e n t i c e s h i p positions WĘlEEEEEESEIlįmmSįįRn deciding which direction U H l J I ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ p r r e s p o n d s to their hopes and I l l l ^ ^ p l i i l i l l ^ n w i s h e s. Occupational guidance щ Л Щ Ц ^ ^ ^ Ш * ' offices provide young people with Sillllllllllí^* information and advice. The most important apprenticeship marketing measures Information and advice on careers Apprenticeship records» Creation of host company networks Provision of state sponsored transitional options (mainly bridge year courses] VET promotion agents deal directly with companies, encouraging them to create apprenticeship positions «Placement and individual mentoring of young people who have been unable to find a suitable apprenticeship

17 ITS ÄI ENTERING THE LABOUR MARKET Around two-thirds of young people coming out of compulsory education enrol in a VET programme. Dual-track VET programmes (i.e. part-time classes at a VET school, part-time apprenticeship at a host company) are by far the most common form of vocational education and training in Switzerland. Entirely school-based VET programmes at VET schools are more popular among students in the Frenchand Italian-speaking regions of Switzerland than among students in the German-speaking region. Enrolment in upper-seconiary level2 100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10, ,000 77,800 76,100 75,400 75,100 78,100 78,300 82,000 81,200 Dual-track VET* 62,200 62,800 60,200 59,900 61,400 61,700 65,600 65,600 68,500 68,300 Entirely schoolbased V E T " 13,800 15,000 15,900 15,500 13,800 13,900 12,600 12,800 13,500 12,900 General education 23,700 23,600 24,100 25,400 27,200 28,000 28,700 28,500 28,000 27,900 VET Of which: excl informal two-year apprenticeshif: * nel. commercial and IT schools ÍET by lînţplstk region in 2S % ШШ 90% :ШВ%:: : шшт ϋ?%! Italian-speaking Total 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% German-speaking region of Switzerland French-speaking region of Switzerland region of Switzerland Apprenticeship Classroom instruction (full-time or part-time) Federal Statistical Office (2011 a), (2011d] Federal Statistical Office (2011 b)

18 râcts Al Tstal number sf apprenticeship contracts în relatien to fermai {i.e. leadinf to Federal VET Certificatei and informal two-year apprenticeships 4 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1, Federal VET Certificate 0 1,600 3,600 5,200 6,800 8,000 8,500 Informal two-year apprenticeship 4,700 4,400 2,800 2,300 2,000 2,000 fmn peeple enrolling in upper-secondary le el immediately after lower-seceniary 5 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% VET* 51.7% 50.4% 48.6% 48.2% 47.3% 48.2% 47.7% 48.6% 48.1% General education 24.9% 25.4% 26.0% 27.2% 27.2% 27.4% 27.0% 26.2% 26.7% Bridge-year courses** 12.8% 13.1% 13.9% 13.6% 14.3% 14.2% 15.2% 14.7% 14.6% Number of lowersecondary students 80,400 79,800 81,800 84,300 85,700 87,000 88,300 88,200 85,600 * incl. informal two-year apprenticeships ** Bridge-year courses include 10th school years, pre-apprenticeships and preparatory courses Broad range of bridge-year courses Upon completion of compulsory education, the vast majority of lower-secondary school students enrol directly in upper-secondary level, entering either the VET sector (VET school) or the general education sector (i.e. baccalaureate school or specialised school). Transitional options such as a 10th school year, pre-apprenticeship, or preparatory courses are available to lower-secondary school graduates who do not have immediate follow-up plans. Young people sometimes take advantage of the bridge-year period between lower-secondary and upper-secondary to do an exchange semester or learn a foreign language abroad. Federal Statistical Office [2011 h) Federal Statistical Office I2011f],!2011g)

19 ACTS AIIO FISO GRADUATION RATE OF 90 PERCENT VET qualifications increase a person's job prospects on the labour market and form the basis for lifelong learning. In Switzerland, 90% of young people hold upper secondary level qualifications. The aim is to increase this figure even more in the coming years. Upper secöndfarf level qualifications6 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% / VET 67.9% 68.3% 66.2% 6/1.9% 649% 64.6% 64.5% 65.0% 68.7% General education 22.3% 22.5% 22.1% 21.7% 22.2% 23.2% 23.0% 23.2% 22.5% 9.8% 9.2% 11.7% 13.4% 13.0% 12.2% 12.5% 11.9% 8.8% No upper secondary level qualifications 2009 Completed upper secondary level education and training in Male Female ΙΙΙΪΙϊϊΙΙ 0% И 10% 20% 30% 40% Federal Statistical Office (2009bl c) Federal Statistical Office (2009bl, [2011c) 50% Federal VET Diploma or Federal VET Certificate į: General education НИ :i2 áíé No upper secondary level qualifications 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

20 THE 20 MOST COMMON OCCUPATIONS In Switzerland, there are VET programmes for around 230 different occupations. The 20 most popular occupations in 2009 account for about 60% of all newly signed apprenticeship contracts. New enrolments CommertiatenSpfayąe; /й.- rišlia illilį JŠÄeKtaVempíoýea FVfeAàÎ ;^^^^е00щш10щ 1^;;Д;ЙЙШ ЯеаИгеа ŕe: wöriíer' ;: ''t Ш^Ш^У" ;S1$Ä isealjėgęftorkgklserįi:11 'ĮįĄ Е:Шз/Щ. ЩЕ^уШЩЕЕЩЩШ'- ':;":: Щ;2,.1о v ÍÄCtHrl^í;ŕ: ; a^il^sal ii iils^lrø' ^Me^tiiolėogihi^KįilJv ;?%ÏilispeEįa^įįįaį^r^^ūSe SgygSįfft JP^Mghj^ip^y-l^iliJi^r^i 'ШЕ Ш įutoiticįtivę roscbįpipslf ШЕШШ 'lhi^^sė(eiįi:;;;;;;įl^;i;i,.į/įj; '0УШ}Ш : ÍäJi3ssistariís;;5iSK:iE:;:;;b!lli# filili.eø6inat^l^ ; ;.^yitfc^e-- ;ке:г11:,щ: ÍMg}0uan>^::ťz'^\::^ ^^^^^ ^^йл^щ^щл^щ ļs#i:;38s;i ВШ*Ш^:^ШШ1ШШШШ<ЕШ 1ЩШШ Ιΐΐΐΐΐΐί; Щ}^^^Шх!ЕШШ' ;5ί;22 ) Cai^^^ilJJ'į'-^įį.^į^į; Ж 1;оШ Ш^ШШЩ;М:Ш:5ЙШ!ЩШШШк 2,000 Λ,ΟΟΟ Federal Statistical Office h] 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000

21 FVB: A SUCCESS STORY The Federal Vocational Baccalaureate (FVB) was introduced in 1994 It is awarded to learners with strong academic skills. Issued as a complement to the Federal VET Diploma, the FVB entitles the holder to enrol directly in a Swiss university of applied sciences (UAS). If an FVB holder takes the University Aptitude Test (DAT), then enrolment in a cantonal university or one of Switzerland's two federal institutes of technology (FIT) is also possible. Psrcentaf e f VET cjraiyates whs also obtained an FYi 9 16% u% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% ti ï Male 0.5% 12.3% 12.9% 13.4% 13.4% 12.9% 13.1%.13.3% 13.5% Female 0% 8.4% 9.9% 10.9% 10.7% 10.7% 10.9% 10.9% 12.0% Total 0.3% 10.3% 11.4% 12.2% 12.1% 11.8% 12.0% 12.0% 12.8% Attendance f FVffpreparatery courses % 80% 60% 40% 20% tarila 0% If' P' P' ' 111^ IIP Attended during VET programme Attended after completing VET programme Propertion of FYB holders whs enrolled in a UAS degree programme! ' Immediate enrolment 24.8% 20.6% 19.9% 18.9% 19.3% 19.5% 21.2% 21.7% Enrolment after one year 13.5%. 16.3% 15.7% 17.1% 19.3% 20.4% 19.6% Enrolment after two or more years 16.9% 17.0% 15.9% 14.7% 15.2% Total 55.2% 53.9% 51.5% 50.6% 53.9% ' Federal Statistical Office (2011e) 10 Federal Statistical Office (2011 h) " Federal Statistical Office i)

22 HIGHER LEVEL PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS Swiss tertiary level is comprised of professional education and training (PET), universities of applied sciences (UAS) and cantonal universities/federal institutes of technology (FIT). The PET sector places great emphasis on the actual skills needed for a given profession and therefore provides learners with a solid foundation on the labour market. Employed persons in Switzerland include as many holders of PET qualifications as holders of university qualifications. FET ciualifkatiens'2 PET college degree 3,700 4,100 4,100 4,100 4,200 4,200 7,200 7,300 Advanced Federal PET D iploma 3,000 3,200 2,600 2,900 2,600 2,800 2,700 3,200 11,200 11,400 12,300 13,200 11,700 12,500 12,200 13,100 8,100 10,700 \ 10,600 9,400 8,800 8,100 5,400 4,600 26,000 29,400 ; 29,500 29,700 27,200 27,600 27,500 28, Federal PET Diploma Other PET qualifications Total Tertiary le el qaaliflcatiens by economic branch13 EgndiniândjiÍ5yraínca;r:;s4ví:.tí 0% 10% И Tertiary level В Federal Statistical Office (2011c] Federal Statistical Office 2009а) 20% 30% 40% Jį Те rt ia ry-level A and В 50% 60% 70% Щ Tertiary-level A

23 SWISS VET/PET FUNDING The VET sector is funded by the Confederation, the cantons and professional organisations, each to their own degree. Most of the costs of PET and job-related CET programmes are borne by companies and private individuals. Public funilnf The cantons are responsible for implementing VET/PET. As such, they provide at least threefourths of public funding. The Confederation will increase its share of public funding of the VET/PET system to one-fourth of the total cost. A total of 10% of federal funding will be used to promote VET/PET development projects as well as specific activities that serve the public interest. Public funding of the VET/PET system currently stands at around 12% of total public education funding in Switzerland. In 2010, around CHF 3-4 billion was allocated to the VET/PET system. Proiessienal erfanisafiens Professional organisations provide both services and funding for the Swiss VET/PET system: they do the groundwork, run their own training centres and promote specific occupations (VET sector) and professions (PET sector). Generally speaking, host companies stand to benefit from taking part in VET programmes. According to a cost/benefit study conducted in 2004, gross costs of involvement in VET amounted to CHF 4-7 billion. This figure was outweighed by the productive output generated by learners, which amounted to CHF 5-2 billion. YET/PIT fynds Under VPETA provisions, VET/PET funds are specific to a given economic branch. These funds ensure that all companies, including those that do not belong to the professional organisation, make suitable contributions to help cover the cost of the professional organisation's VET/PET activities. The Confederation may declare some VET/PET funds to be of general interest and therefore mandatory for all companies within a given economic branch.

24 FACTS Public expenditure for ÏET/PET system In 2mů4 р Preparation for VET ДвщЩ:11Я 111 VET schools Industry courses ""3^р^Щ : 1 1Щ Qualification procedures *'1ШЯ1^^И1Ш1Ш! 11 ШШШ PET colleges PET sector Preparation for federal PET examinations and job-related CET MHSlmlMĶ VET and PET professionals F С тмтшм Projects and special services -. 'С Ш^ШШЩоф, 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Share of total public expenditure for VET/PET system Cast/benefit ratio for Swiss campâmes inwelved in VET programmes» surmy fear Productive output by learners «rehf;ł2:biufofk Gross costs Net benefit ' fí^hpös^íujtó' 0 2 üost/benefit rati by apprenticeship duration, in CHF 140, , ,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20, year VET programme" Gross cost Productive output Net benefit u,5 " 17 Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology {201 lì Mühlemannetal. (2007) Fuhrerand Schweri 12010) Mühlemannetal ) 3 year VET programme" 4 year VET programme"

25

26 VETAT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL Maintaining a very close correlation with the labour market, Switzerland's VET/PET system has proven to be a successful model. The Confederation works at various levels to draw greater international attention to the strengths of Switzerland's dual track approach to learning. Its objectives include greater recognition of VET and PET qualifications as well as greater mobility of qualified workers. C penha en Process Permeability, transparency and mobility between European education systems are the main objectives of the Copenhagen Process. Represented by the Federal Office for Professional Education and Training (OPET), Switzerland is currently drafting a national qualifications framework as well as diploma supplements for VET and PET qualifications. The aim is to achieve a better positioning of VET (upper secondary level) and PET (tertiary B level) both at the national and international level. ЕУ Lifelong Learnin Profjramme ÍLLP} Since 2011, Switzerland is entitled to fully take part in the European Commission's Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP), which includes a sub programme "Leonardo da Vinci" devoted specifically to the VET sector. There are also multilateral projects to further develop VET systems as well as partnerships to make use of synergies. SECO studies en VET systems In 2009, Switzerland took part in two OECD country studies on VET and innovations within the VET sector: the first study report published was "Learning for Jobs" and the second "Systemic Innovations in VET". Switzerland was praised in both reports. Since 2011, Switzerland serves as a case study for another OECD country study on PET. The corresponding study report is entitled "Skills beyond School". YET/PET research OPET maintains active networking ties in the area of VET/PET research. It also provides funding for publications in the international journal "Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training (ERVET)". etresearch Exporting education and traüninf Based on Switzerland's international strategy for education, research and innovation, which was approved by the Federal Council in 2010, the Swiss education system should be better positioned as an export product. Initial cooperation in this direction has already taken place between Switzerland and India, where aspects of the dualtrack approach to VET were implemented. wwwjjbt.admin.ch/edijcatlon cosperätion International and natienal cømpetitiens Each year, numerous trade associations send their best qualified workers to national skills competitions. The winners of these competitions qualify to take part in EuroSkills and the WorldSkills competitions. The next EuroSkills Competition will take place in Spa Francorchamps (Belgium) in October The next WorldSkills Competition will be held in Leipzig (Germany) in July skills.ch/fr* * Information available in French. German and Italian only.

27 и 5 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Directory of occupations List of all federally recognised occupations: Legal bases and addresses. OPĚT daču mentation Collection of OPET publications on VET and PET. VET/PET portal Information about the Swiss VET/PET system and instruments used in the VET sector. Vetptas.ch Information on the full range of options within the VET/PET system. Apprenticeship barometer Representative survey of the apprenticeship situation from the perspective of young people and host companies. Conducted every April and August since Traiiîînf of VET and PET professionals Here you will find information on recognition of training programmes for VET and PET professionals as welt as on equivalency of their qualifications. Yalldatlen f prior learnin This initiative gives adults the opportunity to obtain federally recognised qualifications without having to attend formal education and training programmes. Host company label In recognition of their work, companies that train apprentices receive a special label from the cantonal VET/PET office. This label can also be used for marketing purposes. Leaeünf Houses Leading Houses are responsible for anopet programme to support the continuing development of VET/PET research activities in Switzerland. Cost/benefit sur ey of Swiss companies i!i ölved in VET pregrammes Conducted by the University of Bern's Centre for Research in Economics of Education, this survey focuses on the economic aspects of VET. Portal for occupational, educational and career guidance Swiss education server Document server for education Electronic VET/PET newsletter УЕТ/РЕТ Lexicon Federal Statistical Office (FSO) stat.admin.ch Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training ÍSFIVETJ Swiss Conference of Cantonal Ministers of Education (EDK) Information available in French and German only.

28

29 Orders Centact Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology, Effingerstrasse 27, CH-3003 Bern, Tel +41 (0) , berufsbildungtabbt.admin.ch,

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