# Algorithm Design and Analysis

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1 Algorithm Design and Analysis LECTURE 27 Approximation Algorithms Load Balancing Weighted Vertex Cover Reminder: Fill out SRTEs online Don t forget to click submit Sofya Raskhodnikova 12/6/2011 S. Raskhodnikova; based on slides by E. Demaine, C. Leiserson, A. Smith, K. Wayne

3 Load Balancing Input. m identical machines; n jobs, job j has processing time t j. Job j must run contiguously on one machine. A machine can process at most one job at a time. Def. Let J(i) be the subset of jobs assigned to machine i. The load of machine i is L i = j J(i) t j. Def. The makespan is the maximum load on any machine L = max i L i. Load balancing. Assign each job to a machine to minimize makespan. Hardness. Load Balancing is NP-complete even for 2 machines. Exercise. Prove this statement. Hint: to prove NP-hardness, reduce from Number Partitioning. Today: approximation algorithms for Load Balalncing. 3

4 Load Balancing: List Scheduling List-scheduling algorithm. Consider n jobs in some fixed order. Assign job j to machine whose load is smallest so far. List-Scheduling(m, n, t 1,t 2,,t n ) { for i = 1 to m { L i 0 load on machine i J(i) jobs assigned to machine i } } for j = 1 to n { i = argmin k L k J(i) J(i) {j} L i L i + t j } return J machine i has smallest load assign job j to machine i update load of machine i Implementation. O(n log n) using a priority queue. 4

5 Load Balancing: List Scheduling Analysis Theorem. [Graham, 1966] Greedy algorithm is a 2-approximation. First worst-case analysis of an approximation algorithm. Need to compare resulting solution with optimal makespan L*. Lemma 1. The optimal makespan L* max j t j. Pf. Some machine must process the most time-consuming job. Lemma 2. The optimal makespan Pf. The total processing time is j t j. L * m 1 j t j. One of m machines must do at least a 1/m fraction of total work. 5

6 Load Balancing: List Scheduling Analysis Theorem. Greedy algorithm is a 2-approximation. Pf. Consider load L i of bottleneck machine i. Let j be last job scheduled on machine i. When job j assigned to machine i, i had smallest load. Its load before assignment is L i - t j L i - t j L k for all 1 k m. blue jobs scheduled before j machine i j 0 L i - t j L = L i 6

7 Load Balancing: List Scheduling Analysis Theorem. Greedy algorithm is a 2-approximation. Pf. Consider load L i of bottleneck machine i. Let j be last job scheduled on machine i. When job j assigned to machine i, i had smallest load. Its load before assignment is L i - t j L i - t j L k for all 1 k m. Sum inequalities over all k and divide by m: Now L i (L i t j ) t j 2L *. L* Lemma 1 L i t j m 1 k L k 1 m k t k L * L* Lemma 2 7

8 Load Balancing: List Scheduling Analysis Q. Is our analysis tight? A. Essentially yes. Ex: m machines, m(m-1) jobs length 1 jobs, one job of length m machine 2 idle machine 3 idle machine 4 idle m = 10 machine 5 idle machine 6 idle machine 7 idle machine 8 idle machine 9 idle machine 10 idle list scheduling makespan = 19 8

9 Load Balancing: List Scheduling Analysis Q. Is our analysis tight? A. Essentially yes. Ex: m machines, m(m-1) jobs length 1 jobs, one job of length m m = 10 optimal makespan = 10 9

10 Load Balancing: LPT Rule Longest processing time (LPT). Sort n jobs in descending order of processing time, and then run list scheduling algorithm. LPT-List-Scheduling(m, n, t 1,t 2,,t n ) { Sort jobs so that t 1 t 2 t n for i = 1 to m { L i 0 J(i) } load on machine i jobs assigned to machine i } for j = 1 to n { i = argmin k L k J(i) J(i) {j} L i L i + t j } return J machine i has smallest load assign job j to machine i update load of machine i 10

11 Load Balancing: LPT Rule Observation. If at most m jobs, then list-scheduling is optimal. Pf. Each job put on its own machine. Lemma 3. If there are more than m jobs, L* 2 t m+1. Pf. Consider first m+1 jobs t 1,, t m+1. Since the t i 's are in descending order, each takes at least t m+1 time. There are m+1 jobs and m machines, so by pigeonhole principle, at least one machine gets two jobs. Theorem. LPT rule is a 3/2 approximation algorithm. Pf. Same basic approach as for list scheduling. L i (L i t j ) L* t j 3 L *. 2 1 L* 2 Lemma 3 ( by observation, can assume number of jobs > m ) 11

12 Load Balancing: LPT Rule Q. Is our 3/2 analysis tight? A. No. Theorem. [Graham, 1969] LPT rule is a 4/3-approximation. Pf. More sophisticated analysis of same algorithm. Q. Is Graham's 4/3 analysis tight? A. Essentially yes. Ex: m machines, n = 2m+1 jobs, 2 jobs of length m+1, m+2,, 2m-1 and one job of length m. Exercise: Understand why. 12

13 Load Balancing: State of the Art Polynomial Time Approximation Scheme (PTAS). (1 + )-approximation algorithm for any constant > 0. [Hochbaum-Shmoys 1987] Consequence. PTAS produces arbitrarily high quality solution, but trades off accuracy for time.

14 11.4 The Pricing Method: Vertex Cover

15 Weighted Vertex Cover Weighted vertex cover. Given a graph G with vertex weights, find a vertex cover of minimum weight weight = weight = 2+9=11 15

16 Weighted Vertex Cover Pricing method. Each edge must be covered by some vertex. Edge e pays price p e 0 to get covered. Fairness. Edges incident to vertex i should pay w i in total for each vertex i : e ( i, j) p e w i Fairness Lemma. For any vertex cover S and any fair prices p e : e p e w(s). Proof. ee p e is e( i, j) p e is w i w( S). each edge e covered by at least one node in S sum fairness inequalities for each node in S 16

17 Big Ideas Push prices up Start with all prices set to 0 Increase gradually Maintain fairness: for each vertex i : A vertex v becomes tight when sum of prices equals weight: e ( i, j) p e w i e(i, j ) p e w i At the end of the algorithm, tight vertices form a vertex cover within a factor 2 of optimal How do we increase weights? Find some edge for which neither end is tight Increase as much as you can

18 Pricing Method: Example price of edge a-b vertex weight Figure 11.8

19 Pricing Method: Algorithm Pricing method. Set prices and find vertex cover simultaneously. Weighted-Vertex-Cover-Approx(G=(V,E), w) { foreach e in E p e 0 foreach v in V total v 0 total i = w i while ( edge (i,j) such that neither i nor j is tight) select such an edge e \\give p e maximum increase without violating fairness increase max(w i -total i,w j -total j ) p e p e + increase total i total i + increase total j total j + increase } S set of all tight nodes return S

20 Pricing Method: Analysis Theorem. Pricing method gives a 2-approximation. Pf. Algorithm terminates since at least one new node becomes tight after each iteration of while loop. Let S = set of all tight nodes upon termination of algorithm. S is a vertex cover: if some edge i-j is uncovered, then neither i nor j is tight. But then while loop would not terminate. Let S* be an optimal vertex cover. We show w(s) 2w(S*). w(s) w i i S i S p e e(i,j) iv p e e(i,j) 2 p e 2w(S*). e E fairness lemma all nodes in S are tight S V, each edge counted twice prices 0 Running time: O(m).

21 11.6 LP Rounding: Vertex Cover

22 Weighted Vertex Cover: IP Formulation Weighted vertex cover. Given an undirected graph G = (V, E) with vertex weights w i 0, find a minimum weight subset of nodes S such that every edge is incident to at least one vertex in S. Integer programming formulation. Model inclusion of each vertex i using a 0/1 variable x i. x i 0 if vertex i is not in vertex cover 1 if vertex i is in vertex cover Vertex covers in 1-1 correspondence with 0/1 assignments: S = {i V : x i = 1} Objective function: minimize i w i x i. Constraints for each edge (i,j): must take either i or j: x i + x j 1. 22

23 Weighted Vertex Cover: IP Formulation Weighted vertex cover. Integer programming formulation. (ILP) min w i x i i V s. t. x i x j 1 (i, j) E x i {0,1} i V Observation. If x* is optimal solution to (ILP), then S = {i V : x* i = 1} is a min weight vertex cover. 23

24 Weighted Vertex Cover: LP Relaxation Weighted vertex cover. Linear programming formulation. (LP) min w i x i i V s. t. x i x j 1 (i, j) E x i 0 i V Observation. Optimal value of (LP) is optimal value of (ILP). Pf. LP has fewer constraints. Note. LP is not equivalent to vertex cover. ½ ½ Q. How can solving LP help us find a small vertex cover? A. Solve LP and round fractional values. ½ 24

25 Weighted Vertex Cover Theorem. If x* is optimal solution to (LP), then S = {i V : x* i ½} is a vertex cover whose weight is at most twice the min possible weight. Pf. [S is a vertex cover] Consider an edge (i, j) E. Since x* i + x* j 1, either x* i ½ or x* j ½ (i, j) covered. Pf. [S has desired cost] Let S* be optimal vertex cover. Then w i i S* * w i x i 1 w 2 i i S i S LP is a relaxation x* i ½ 25

26 Weighted Vertex Cover Theorem. 2-approximation algorithm for weighted vertex cover. Theorem. [Dinur-Safra 2001] If P NP, then no -approximation for < , even with unit weights Open research problem. Close the gap. 26

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