Major Insects of Apple, Peach and Pear Trees in the Home Orchard

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1 Major Insects of Apple, Peach and Pear Trees in the Home Orchard Henry W. Hogmire West Virginia University Tree Fruit Research and Education Center Kearneysville, WV

2 Apple Pests

3 Plum Curculio Beetle (snout weevil) 3/16 inch long Dark brown with whitish to gray patches 3 pairs of humps on back Overwinter in leaf litter in woods, hedgerows

4 Plum Curculio Move into apple trees during bloom Fruit injury begins at petal fall stage, continues for about 4-6 weeks Most injury occurs when temperatures above 70 F Primary injury from egglaying, some feeding

5 Plum Curculio Egg-laying injury appears as crescent-shaped slit May be multiple scars per fruit Earlier blooming varieties are injured first

6 Plum Curculio Crescent or D -shaped scars enlarge as fruit expands Most larvae are crushed by expanding fruit Some injured fruit drop Larvae survive and continue development in fallen fruit, pupate in soil

7 Codling Moth Moth is 3/8-inch long Gray with coppery patch at wing tip Begin emerging at late bloom to petal fall, continuing into late June 2 nd flight early July into August Partial 3 rd flight late August into September

8 Codling Moth Eggs laid on leaves and fruit of apple and pear Hatching larvae enter fruit through calyx or side May be multiple injuries per fruit Excrement (frass) and sap exudes from entry sites Entries may be deep or shallow (stings)

9 Codling Moth Deep entry tunnels usually extend to core Often feed on seeds Larvae are creamy white to pink, up to 5/8-inch Feed in fruit 3-4 weeks Premature drop of injured fruit

10 Codling Moth Mature larvae exit fallen fruit and crawl up trunk Spin cocoon under bark of trunk to overwinter

11 Codling Moth Monitor with traps Lure contains female sex attractant (pheromone) Males attracted to trap Captured on sticky-coated trap bottom 2 traps per site Control if >5 moths/trap/ week

12 Apple Maggot Adult fly is ¼-inch long Wings with 4 black bands White spot and 3 (males) or 4 (females) white stripes Emerge from soil from mid- June through August Emergence typically follows rain event

13 Apple Maggot Females insert eggs beneath skin of apple Punctures appear as pits or dimples Multiple injuries/fruit Early maturing and thinskinned apples are more severely infested Eggs hatch in 2-10 days

14 Apple Maggot Larvae (maggots) cause brown, winding trails through fruit flesh. Discoloration of fruit flesh due to bacteria

15 Apple Maggot Larvae (maggots) up to ¼-inch long Creamy white, legless, 2 mouth hooks Feed in fruit flesh for days Injured fruit often drop early Maggots exit fruit and pupate in soil

16 Apple Maggot Monitor fly emergence with yellow panel trap Surface coated with protein bait and glue Control within 7 days of capturing 1 fly/trap/week

17 Apple Maggot Monitor fly emergence with sticky red sphere With or without apple volatile Threshold is 1 fly/trap/ week or 5 flies/trap/week if apple volatile used Control immediately if threshold reached

18 Peach Pests

19 Catfacing Insects Tarnished plant bug Brown stink bug Pest complex responsible for various injuries Most severe injury resembles cat s face Injury caused by adults that move between weed hosts and fruit trees Dusky stink bug Green stink bug

20 Catfacing Insects Early season injury when fruit ½-1-inch diameter Corky, depressed areas Fruit becomes deformed Hand thin injured fruits Catfacing Injury

21 Catfacing Insects Injury when fruit 1 to 2- inch diameter Small corky, depressed areas Fruit not deformed Scarring Injury

22 Catfacing Insects Injury when fruit >1-inch diameter Strings or droplets of gum Darker green blotches Late season injuries may increase brown rot Gummosis/water-soaked Injuries

23 Oriental Fruit Moth Moth is ¼-inch long Mottled gray color Emergence begins at pink to bloom 4-5 generations/year Eggs laid on twigs, terminal leaves or fruit

24 Oriental Fruit Moth 1 st and 2 nd generation larvae injure shoot tips, called flagging Larvae in shoots for weeks Single larvae can injure multiple shoots

25 Oriental Fruit Moth 2 nd and later generation larvae injure fruit Larvae and injury similar to codling moth Excrement (frass) and gum on fruit surface Larvae may also enter fruit through stem near harvest

26 Oriental Fruit Moth Monitor male moths with pheromone traps 2 traps/site Control if capture >15 moths/trap/week for 1 st flight or >10 moths/trap/ week for later flights

27 Lesser Peachtree Borer Moth is ½-inch long Metallic blue-black with yellow bands Clear wings Emergence begins in early May Day fliers 2 generations/year

28 Lesser Peachtree Borer Eggs laid in wounds of all stone fruit trees on trunk, scaffold limbs and small branches Higher infestations on older trees with more wounds

29 Lesser Peachtree Borer Feeding girdles scaffold limbs and branches which break from fruit load Gradual decline in production Tree loss from trunk girdling or from diseases that enter wounds

30 Lesser Peachtree Borer Larvae up to ¾-inch long Creamy white with light brown head Feed beneath bark in cambium for days Overwinter in various larval stages Control if >2 larvae/tree

31 Lesser Peachtree Borer Injury indicated by brown sawdust-like wood borings and excrement (frass) mixed with gum Clear gumming not from borer injury

32 Lesser Peachtree Borer Injury indicated by empty pupal case protruding from wound, from where moth emerged Control if >2 empty pupal cases/tree

33 Peachtree Borer Female Male Moths are ¾-inch long Metallic blue-black Narrow yellow bands on male Broad orange band on female Emergence begins in June 1 generation/year

34 Peachtree Borer Injure trunk near soil line Can attack healthy trees Wood borings and excrement (frass) mixed with gum at base of tree Tree loss from trunk girdling or from diseases that enter wounds

35 Peachtree Borer Can girdle and kill young tree in 1 year Moth balls around trunk will repel adult borers

36 Lesser Peachtree and Peachtree Borer Monitor male moths with pheromone traps 2 traps/site Control if >10 moths/ trap/week

37 Pear Pest

38 Pear Psylla Adult is 1/8-inch long Reddish-brown to black Like miniature cicada Young (nymphs) are yellow to brown 3 generations/year

39 Pear Psylla Sooty mold grows on honeydew excreted by pear psylla Sooty mold blackens fruit, foliage and bark, reduces photosynthesis and return bloom

40 Non-Chemical Control Pick up and destroy fallen fruit. Shallow cultivation beneath trees in summer (destroy larvae of PC, CM, AM). Wrap apple and pear trunks with corrugated cardboard bands in late summer (collect CM larvae) and destroy bands in winter. Use sticky red spheres (1 per 100 fruit) for apple maggot. Control broadleaf weeds with cultivation or mulching (reduces TPB & SB numbers).

41 Chemical Control

42 Chemical Control Oil Good for aphid and mite eggs, scale, pear psylla Apply when first green tissue appears Do not apply within 24 hrs of freezing temperatures Spray trees to drip

43 Chemical Control Most Fruit Insects Permethrin Carbaryl Carbaryl Malathion Captan Pyrethrins Sulfur

44 Chemical Control Aphids, Scales Borers & Many Other Fruit Insects Malathion Permethrin

45 Many Fruit Pests Chemical Control Organic Options Codling moth, Oriental fruit moth, leafrollers Rotenone Pyrethrins Neem-based Soap Bacillus thuringiensis Spinosad

46 Thanks! Questions?

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