1 Wireless Sensor Networks: Security, Attacks and Challenges Chaudhari H.C. and Kadam L.U. Swami Vivekanand Mahavidyalaya, Udgir Abstract The significant advances of hardware manufacturing technology and the development of efficient software algorithms make technically and economically feasible a network composed of numerous, small, low-cost sensors using wireless communications, that is, a wireless sensor network..sensor networks have great potential to be employed in mission critical situations like battlefields but also in more everyday security and commercial applications such as building and traffic surveillance, habitat monitoring and smart homes etc. However, wireless sensor networks pose unique security challenges. Security is becoming a major concern for WSN protocol designers because of the wide security-critical applications of WSNs.In this paper we have made an effort to document all the known security issues in wireless sensor networks and discusses a wide variety of attacks in WSN and their classification mechanisms and different securities available to handle them including the challenges faced. In this paper we took up the challenge and have proposed an integrated comprehensive security that will provide security services for all services of sensor network. The sensing technology combined with processing power and wireless communication makes it profitable for being exploited in great quantity in future. The wireless communication technology also acquires various types of security threats. hop wireless links. Collaboration can be carried out if multiple surrounding nodes detect the same event. In this case, one of them generates a final report after collaborating with the other nodes. The BS can process the report and then forward it through either highquality wireless or wired links to the external world for further processing. The WSN authority can send commands or queries to a BS, which spreads those commands or queries into the network. Hence, a BS acts as a gateway between the WSN and the external world. An example is illustrated in Figure. 1. I. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK A. Operation A WSN is a large network of resource-constrained sensor nodes with multiple preset functions, such as sensing and processing, to fulfill different application objectives. The major elements of WSN are the sensor nodes and the base stations. In fact, they can be abstracted as the sensing cells and the brain of the network, respectively. Usually, sensor nodes are deployed in a designated area by an authority and then, automatically form a network through wireless communications. Sensor nodes of homogeneous or Heterogeneous type can be deployed randomly or at pre-determined locations using a deterministic scheme. Sensor nodes are static most of the time, whereas mobile nodes can be deployed according to application requirements. One or several, static or mobile base stations (BSs) are deployed together with the network. Sensor nodes keep monitoring the network area after being deployed. After an event of interest occurs, one of the surrounding sensor nodes can detect it, generate a report, and transmit the report to a BS through multi Fig. 1: A Wireless Sensor Network B. Hardware Components of Sensor Node When choosing the hardware components for a wireless sensor node, evidently the application s requirements play a decisive factor. A sensor node integrates hardware and software for sensing, data processing, and communication. They rely on wireless channels for transmitting data to and receiving data from other nodes. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structure of a sensor node. The lifetime of a sensor node depends to a large extent on the battery lifetime; hence it is extremely important to adopt energy-efficient strategies for information processing. A sensor node is made up of a sensing unit, a processing unit, a transceiver unit, and a power unit as shown in Figure 2. They may also have additional application-dependent components such as a location finding system, power generator, and mobilize. Sensors, the actual interface to the physical world:
2 Wireless Sensor Networks: Security, Attacks and Challenges devices that can observe or control physical parameters of the environment is converted to digital signals by the ADC, and then fed into the processing unit. The processing unit, which is generally associated with a small storage unit, manages the procedures that make the sensor node collaborate with the other nodes to carry out the assigned sensing tasks. A transceiver unit connects the node to the network. Power units may be supported by power scavenging units such as solar cells. Fig. 2: Sensou Node Architecture Most of the sensor network routing techniques and sensing tasks require knowledge of location with high accuracy. Thus, it is common that a sensor node has a location finding system. A mobilize may sometimes be needed to move sensor nodes when it is required to carry out the assigned tasks. C. Software Components of Sensor Node 1. Operating system/software Traditional OS are not suitable for wireless sensor networks because WSNs have constrained resources and diverse data- centric applications, in addition to a variable topology. WSNs need a new type of operating system, considering their special characteristics. Sensor operating systems (SOS) should embody the following functions, bearing in mind the limited resource of sensor nodes: Should be compact and small in size Should provide real-time support Should provide efficient resource management mechanisms. Should support reliable and efficient code distribution Should support power management Should provide a generic programming interface up to sensor middleware or application software Should support parallel processing along with threading when a sensor is deployed for multiple purposes. 2. Querying sensor network For the placement, management, and processing of the sensor data, a data storage, management and query processing policy is necessary. A sensor database is needed that can store dynamic information. A web accessible query processing system is needed to provide replies to high-level user queries. Unfortunately, the resource constraints related to sensor nodes such as computation, communication, power consumption, uncertainty in sensor readings have posed a numerous challenges in query processing for sensor networks. D. Sensor Node Types Desirable functionality of sensor nodes in a WSN include: ease of installation, self-indication, selfdiagnosis, reliability, time awareness for coordination with other nodes, some software functions and DSP, and standard control protocols and network interfaces. There are many sensor manufacturers and it is too costly for them to make special transducers for every network on the market. Different components made by different manufacturers should be compatible. Therefore, in 1993, the IEEE and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) began work on a standard for smart sensor networks. IEEE 1451, the standard for smart sensor networks was the result. Commercially available sensors of many types are suitable for wireless network applications. E. Protocol Stack The protocol stack used by the sink and sensor nodes shown in Figure 1 is given in Figure 3. This protocol stack combines power and routing awareness, integrates data with networking protocols, communicates power efficiently through the wireless medium, and promotes cooperative efforts of sensor nodes. The physical layer addresses the needs of simple but robust modulation, transmission, and receiving techniques. It is responsible for frequency selection, carrier frequency generation, signal detection, and signal processing and data encryption. The data link layer is responsible for the multiplexing of data streams, data frame detection, medium access flow control and error control. It ensures reliable point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections in a communication network. The network layer takes care of routing the data supplied by the transport layer. It is responsible for specifying the assignment of addresses and how packets are forwarded Routing. The transport layer helps to maintain the flow of data if the sensor networks application requires it. This layer is especially needed when the system is planned to be accessed through the Internet or other external networks.
3 TABLE 1: SPECIFICATIONS OF THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SENSORS Fig. 3: Generic Protocol Stack for Sensor Networks Application layer Depending on the sensing tasks, different types of application software can be built and used. The power management plane manages how a sensor node uses its power. The mobility management plane detects and registers the movement of sensor nodes, so a route back to the user is always maintained, and the sensor nodes can keep track of who their neighbor sensor nodes are. By knowing who the neighbor sensor nodes are, the sensor nodes can balance their power and task usage. The task management plane balances and schedules the sensing tasks given to a specific region. These management planes are needed so that sensor nodes can work together in a power efficient way, route data in a mobile sensor network, and share resources between sensor nodes. F. Constraints in Sensor Networks Wireless sensor networks have unique constraints as compared to traditional networks making the implementation of existing security measures not practicable. These constraints are the result of limitations regarding the sensor nodes memory, energy, transmission and processing power. These constraints, which make the design of security procedures more complicated, have been categorized into node constraints and network constraints. 3. Node Constraints Security solutions require high computation, memory, storage and energy resources which creates an additional challenge when working with tiny sensor nodes. Table 1 lists the specifications of three different types of nodes used in wireless sensor networks. Limited memory Typical sensor nodes are tiny devices which come with very limited memory and storage capacity. Berkeley s MICA2 possess 4-8 MHz, 4KB of RAM, 128KB flash and ideally 916 MHz of radio frequency [MICA2 Crossbow Technologies Inc. 2006]. Limited energy Energy is another important factor to consider when designing security measures for sensor nodes. Given the sensor network topology which makes accessing them after deployment impracticable, it is very important to limit the energy consumption and thereby extend the battery life. However, adding security measures to sensor networks necessarily has a significant impact on its energy consumption, for example, to perform the encryption and decryption functions, to store, manage and send the encryption keys etc. 1. Network constraints Sensor networks inherit all the constraints of mobile ad hoc networks such as unreliable network communication, collision related problems and their lack of physical infrastructure. Unreliable communication Wireless communication is inherently unreliable and can cause packets to be damaged or dropped. Collisions and latency Sensor networks utilize a dense arrangement of nodes potentially deploying hundreds of thousands of nodes in a sensitive application. This raises the likelihood of
4 Wireless Sensor Networks: Security, Attacks and Challenges collision and latency in packets. However, unlike in traditional networks, the energy limitations of sensor nodes makes it impracticable to resend packets in case of collision. II. SECURITY GOALS FOR SENSOR NETWORKS As the sensor networks can also operate in an ad hoc manner the security goals cover both those of the traditional networks and goals suited to the unique constraints of ad hoc sensor networks. Setting security goals for sensor networks will depend on knowing what it is that needs protecting. Sensor networks share some of the features of mobile ad hoc networks. Therefore the security goals encompass both those of the traditional networks and goals suited to the unique constraints of sensor networks. The security goals are classified as primary and secondary. The primary goals are known as standard security goals such as Confidentiality, Integrity, Authentication and Availability (CIAA). The secondary goals are Data Freshness, Self-Organization, Time Synchronization and Secure Localization. The four security goals for sensor networks are determined as Confidentiality, Integrity, Authentication and Availability (CIAA). A. Confidentiality Confidentiality is the ability to conceal messages from a passive attacker so that any message communicated via the sensor network remains confidential. This is the most important issue in network security. Carman et al. and Perrig et al. have the following to say regarding confidentiality in sensor networks: A sensor node should not reveal its data to the neighbors. For example, in a sensitive military application where an adversary has injected some malicious nodes into the network, confidentiality will preclude them from gaining access to information regarding other nodes. Establishing and maintaining confidentiality is extremely important when node identities and keys are being distributed to establish a secure communication channel among sensor nodes. B. Integrity Data integrity in sensor networks is needed to ensure the reliability of the data and refers to the ability to confirm that a message has not been tampered with, altered or changed while on the network. Even if the network has confidentiality measures in place, there is still a possibility that the data s integrity has been compromised by alterations. The integrity of the network will be in question if: A malicious node present in the network injects bogus data. Turbulent conditions due to wireless channel cause damage or loss of data. III. AUTHENTICATION Authentication ensures the reliability of the message by identifying its origin. Attacks in sensor networks do not just involve the alteration of packets, adversaries can also inject additional bogus packets. Therefore, the receiving node needs to be able to confirm that a packet received does in fact stem from the node claiming to have sent it. In other words, data authentication verifies the identity of senders. Data authentication is achieved through symmetric or asymmetric mechanisms where sending and receiving nodes share secret keys to compute the message authentication code (MAC). Due to the wifelessness of the media and the unattended nature of sensor networks, it is extremely challenging to ensure authentication. The energy and computational limitations of sensor nodes makes it impractical to deploy complex cryptographic techniques. IV. AVAILABILITY Availability determines whether a node has the ability to use the resources and whether the network is available for the messages to communicate. Since complex security measures entail a higher consumption of energy and computation power, keeping resource starved sensor networks available is challenging. However, failure of the base station or cluster leader s availability will eventually threaten the entire sensor network. Thus availability is of primary importance for maintaining an operational network. The primary goals are: A. Data Confidentiality Confidentiality is the ability to conceal messages from a passive attacker so that any message communicated via the sensor network remains confidential. This is the most important issue in network security. A sensor node should not reveal its data to the neighbors. B. Data Authentication Authentication ensures the reliability of the message by identifying its origin. Attacks in sensor networks do not just involve the alteration of packets; adversaries can also inject additional false packets. Data authentication verifies the identity of the senders and receivers. Data authentication is achieved through symmetric or asymmetric mechanisms where sending and receiving nodes share secret keys. Due to the wireless nature of the media and the unattended nature of sensor networks, it is extremely challenging to ensure authentication.
5 C. Data Integrity Data integrity in sensor networks is needed to ensure the reliability of the data and refers to the ability to confirm that a message has not been tampered with, altered or changed. Even if the network has confidentiality measures, there is still a possibility that the data integrity has been compromised by alterations. The integrity of the network will be in trouble when: A malicious node present in the network injects false data. Unstable conditions due to wireless channel cause damage or loss of data. D. Data Availability Availability determines whether a node has the ability to use the resources and whether the network is available for the messages to communicate. However, failure of the base station or cluster leader s availability will eventually threaten the entire sensor network. Thus availability is of primary importance for maintaining an operational network. The Secondary goals are: E. Data Freshness Even if confidentiality and data integrity are assured, there is a need to ensure the freshness of each message. Informally, data freshness suggests that the data is recent, and it ensures that no old messages have been replayed. To solve this problem a nonce, or another time related counter, can be added into the packet to ensure data freshness. F. Self-Organization A wireless sensor network is a typically an ad hoc Network, which requires every sensor node be independent And flexible enough to be self-organizing and self-healing According to different situations. There is no fixed Infrastructure available for the purpose of network Management in a sensor network. This inherent feature Brings a great challenge to wireless sensor network security. If self-organization is lacking in a sensor network, the damage resulting from an attack or even the risky Environment may be devastating. G. Time Synchronization Most sensor network applications rely on some form of Time synchronization. Furthermore, sensors may wish to Compute the end-to-end delay of a packet as it travels Between two pair wise sensors. A more collaborative Sensor network may require group synchronization for Tracking applications. H. Secure Localization Often, the utility of a sensor network will rely on its Ability to accurately and automatically locate each sensor in the network. A sensor network designed to locate faults will need accurate location information in order to Pinpoint the location of a fault. Unfortunately, an attacker can easily manipulate no secured location information by Reporting false signal strengths, replaying signals. V. TAXONOMY OF ATTACKS Wireless networks are vulnerable to security attacks due to the broadcast nature of the transmission medium. Furthermore, WSNs have an additional vulnerability because nodes are often placed in a hostile or dangerous environment where they are not physically protected. For a large-scale sensor network, it is impractical to monitor and protect each individual sensor from physical or logical attack. Attackers may device different types of security threats to make the WSN system unstable. Here in this section we present a layerbased classification of WSN security threats and also based on the capability of the attacker and defenses proposed in the literature. A. Based On the Capability of the Attacker 1. Outsider versus insider (node compromise) attacks Outside attacks are defined as attacks from nodes, which do not belong to a WSN; insider attacks occur when legitimate nodes of a WSN behave in unintended or unauthorized ways. To overcome these attacks, we require robustness against Outsider Attacks, Resilience to Insider Attacks, Graceful Degradation with Respect to Node Compromise and Realistic Levels of Security. 2. Passive versus active attacks Passive attacks include eavesdropping on or monitoring packets exchanged within a WSN; active attacks involve some modifications of the data steam or the creation of a false stream. 3. Mote-class versus laptop-class attacks In mote-class attacks, an adversary attacks a WSN by using a few nodes with similar capabilities to the network nodes; in laptop-class attacks, an adversary can use more powerful devices (e.g., a laptop) to attack a WSN. These devices have greater transmission range, processing power, and energy reserves than the network nodes. B. Attacks on Information in Transit In a sensor network, sensors monitor the changes of specific parameters or values and report to the sink
6 Wireless Sensor Networks: Security, Attacks and Challenges according to the requirement. While sending the report, the information in transit may be attacked to provide wrong information to the base stations or sinks. The attacks are: 1. Interruption Communication link in sensor networks becomes lost or unavailable. This operation threatens service availability. The main purpose is to launch denial-ofservice (DoS) attacks. From the layer-specific perspective, this is aimed at all layers. 2. Interception Sensor network has been compromised by an adversary where the attacker gains unauthorized access to sensor node or data in it. Example of this type of attacks is node capture attacks. This threatens message confidentiality. The main purpose is to eavesdrop on the information carried in the messages. From the layerspecific perspective, this operation is usually aimed at the application layer. 3. Modification Unauthorized party not only accesses the data but also tampers with it. This threatens message integrity. The main purpose is to confuse or mislead the parties involved in the communication protocol. This is usually aimed at the network layer and the application layer, because of the richer semantics of these layers. 4. Fabrication An adversary injects false data and compromises the trustworthiness of information. This threatens message authenticity. The main purpose is to confuse or mislead the parties involved in the communication protocol. This operation can also facilitate DOS attacks, by flooding the network. 5. Replaying existing messages This operation threatens message freshness. The main purpose of this operation is to confuse or mislead the parties involved in the communication protocol that is not time- aware. C. Host Based Vs Network Based 1. Host-based attacks It is further broken down in to User compromise: This involves compromising the users of a WSN, e.g. by cheating the users into revealing information such as passwords or keys about the sensor nodes. Hardware compromise: This involves tampering with the hardware to extract the program code, data and keys stored within a sensor node. The attacker might also attempt to load its program in the compromised node. Software compromise: This involves breaking the software running on the sensor nodes. Chances are the operating system and/or the applications running in a sensor node are vulnerable to popular exploits such as buffer overflows. 2. Network-based attacks It has two orthogonal perspectives layer-specific compromises, and protocol-specific compromises. This includes all the attacks on information in transit. Apart from that it also includes Deviating from protocol: When the attacker is, or becomes an insider of the network, and the attacker s purpose is not to threaten the service availability, message confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of the network, but to gain an unfair advantage for itself in the usage of the network, the attacker manifests selfish behaviors, behaviors that deviate from the intended functioning of the protocol. D. Based On Protocol Stack This section discusses about the WSN layer wise attack. 1. Physical Layer Jamming This is one of the Denial of Service Attacks in which the adversary attempts to disrupt the operation of the network by broadcasting a high-energy signal. Jamming attacks in WSNs, classifying them as constant (corrupts packets as they are transmitted), deceptive (sends a constant stream of bytes into the network to make it look like legitimate traffic), random (randomly alternates between sleep and jamming to save energy), and reactive (transmits a jam signal when it senses traffic). To defense against this attack, use spreadspectrum techniques for radio communication. Handling jamming over the MAC layer requires Admission Control Mechanisms. Network layer deals with it, by mapping the jammed area in the network and routing around the area. Algorithms that combine statistically analyzing the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) values, the average time required to sense an idle channel (carrier sense time), and the packet delivery ratio (PDR) techniques can reliably identify all four types of jamming. Radio interference In which the adversary either produces large amounts of interference intermittently or persistently. To handle this issue, use of symmetric key algorithms in which the disclosure of the keys is delayed by some time interval.
7 Tampering or destruction Given physical access to a node, an attacker can extract sensitive information such as cryptographic keys or other data on the node. One defense to this attack involves tamper-proofing the node s physical package. Self Destruction (tamper-proofing packages) whenever somebody accesses the sensor nodes physically the nodes vaporize their memory contents and this prevents any leakage of information. Second - Fault Tolerant Protocols the protocols designed for a WSN should be resilient to this type of attacks. 2. Data Link Layer (a)continuous Channel Access (Exhaustion): A malicious node disrupts the Media Access Control protocol, by continuously requesting or transmitting over the channel. This eventually leads a starvation for other nodes in the network with respect to channel access. One of the countermeasures to such an attack is Rate Limiting to the MAC admission control such that the network can ignore excessive requests, thus preventing the energy drain caused by repeated transmissions. A second technique is to use timedivision multiplexing where each node is allotted a time slot in which it can transmit. (b) Collision: This is very much similar to the continuous channel attack. A collision occurs when two nodes attempt to transmit on the same frequency simultaneously. When packets collide, a change will likely occur in the data portion, causing a checksum mismatch at the receiving end. The packet will then be discarded as invalid. A typical defense against collisions is the use of error-correcting codes. (c)unfairness: Repeated application of these exhaustion or collision based MAC layer attacks or an abusive use of cooperative MAC layer priority mechanisms, can lead into unfairness. This kind of attack is a partial DOS attack, but results in marginal performance degradation. One major defensive measure against such attacks is the usage of small frames, so that any individual node seizes the channel for a smaller duration only. (d)interrogation: Exploits the two-way request-tosend/clear to send (RTS/CTS) handshake that many MAC protocols use to mitigate the hidden-node problem. An attacker can exhaust a node s resources by repeatedly sending RTS messages to elicit CTS responses from a targeted neighbor node. To put a defense against such type of attacks a node can limit itself in accepting connections from same identity or use Anti replay protection and strong link-layer authentication. (e)sybil Attack: This type of attack is very much prominent in Link Layer. First type of link layer Sybil Attack is Data Aggregation in which single malicious node is act as different Sybil Nodes and then this may many negative reinforcements to make the aggregate message a false one. Second type is Voting. Many MAC protocols may go for voting for finding the better link for transmission from a pool of available links. Here the Sybil Attack could be used to stuff the ballot box. An attacker may be able to determine the outcome of any voting and off course it depends on the number of identities the attacker owns. 3. Network Layer (a) Sinkhole: Depending on the routing algorithm technique, a sinkhole attack tries to lure almost all the traffic toward the compromised node, creating a metaphorical sinkhole with the adversary at the center. Geo-routing protocols are known as one of the routing protocol classes that are resistant to sinkhole attacks, because that topology is constructed using only localized information, and traffic is naturally routed through the physical location of the sink node, which makes it difficult to lure it elsewhere to create a sinkhole. (b) Hello Flood: This attack exploits Hello packets that are required in many protocols to announce nodes to their neighbors. A node receiving such packets may assume that it is in radio range of the sender. A laptopclass adversary can send this kind of packet to all sensor nodes in the network so that they believe the compromised node belongs to their neighbors. This causes a large number of nodes sending packets to this imaginary neighbor and thus into oblivion. Authentication is the key solution to such attacks. Such attacks can easily be avoided by verify bi-directionality of a link before taking action based on the information received over that link. (c) Node Capture: It is observed and analyzed that even a single node capture is sufficient for an attacker to take over the entire network. Good solution to this problem would definitely constitute a groundbreaking work in WSN. (d) Selective Forwarding/ Black Hole Attack (Neglect And Greed): WSNs are usually multi-hop networks and hence based on the assumption that the participating nodes will forward the messages faithfully. Malicious or attacking nodes can however refuse to route certain messages and drop them. If they drop all the packets through them, then it is called a Black Hole Attack. However if they selectively forward the packets, then it is called selective forwarding. To overcome this, Multi path routing can be used in combination with random selection of paths to destination, or braided paths can be used which represent paths which have no common link or which do not have two consecutive common nodes, or use implicit acknowledgments, which ensure that packets are forwarded as they were sent.
8 Wireless Sensor Networks: Security, Attacks and Challenges (e) Sybil Attack: In this attack, a single node presents multiple identities to all other nodes in the WSN. This may mislead other nodes, and hence routes believed to be disjoint with respect to node can have the same adversary node. A countermeasure to Sybil Attack is by using a unique shared symmetric key for each node with the base station. (f) Wormhole Attacks: An adversary can tunnel messages received in one part of the network over a low latency link and replay them in another part of the network. This is usually done with the coordination of two adversary nodes, where the nodes try to understate their distance from each other, by broadcasting packets along an out-of-bound channel available only to the attacker. To overcome this, the traffic is routed to the base station along a path, which is always geographically shortest or use very tight time synchronization among the nodes, which is infeasible in practical environments. (g) Spoofed, Altered, or Replayed Routing Information: The most direct attack against a routing protocol in any network is to target the routing information itself while it is being exchanged between nodes. An attacker may spoof, alter, or replay routing information in order to disrupt traffic in the network. These disruptions include the creation of routing loops, attracting or repelling network traffic from select nodes, extending and shortening source routes, generating fake error messages, partitioning the network, and increasing end-to-end latency. A countermeasure against spoofing and alteration is to append a message authentication code (MAC) after the message. Efficient encryption and authentication techniques can defend spoofing attacks. (h) Acknowledgment Spoofing: Routing algorithms used in sensor networks sometimes require Acknowledgments to be used. An attacking node can spoof the Acknowledgments of overheard packets destined for neighboring nodes in order to provide false information to those neighboring nodes. The most obvious solution to this problem would be authentication via encryption of all sent packets and also packet headers. (i) Misdirection: This is a more active attack in which a malicious node present in the routing path can send the packets in wrong direction through which the destination is unreachable. In place of sending the packets in correct direction the attacker misdirects those and that too towards one node and thus this node may be victimized. If it gets observed that a node's network link is getting flooded without any useful information then the victim node can be scheduled into sleep mode for some time to over come this. (j) Internet Smurf Attack: In this type of attack the adversary can flood the victim node's network link. The attacker forges the victim's address and broadcasts echoes in the network and also routes all the replies to the victim node. This way the attacker can flood the network link of the victim. If it gets observed that a node's network link is getting flooded without any useful information then the victim node can be scheduled into sleep mode for some time to over come this. (k) Homing: uses traffic pattern analysis to identify and target nodes that have special responsibilities, such as cluster heads or cryptographic- key managers. An attacker then achieves DoS by jamming or destroying these key network nodes. Header encryption is a common prevention technique. Using dummy packets throughout the network to equalize traffic volume and thus prevent traffic analysis. Unfortunately, this wastes significant sensor node energy, so use it only when preventing traffic analysis is of utmost importance. 4. Transport layer (a) Flooding: An attacker may repeatedly make new connection requests until the resources required by each connection are exhausted or reach a maximum limit. It produces severe resource constraints for legitimate nodes. One proposed solution to this problem is to require that each connecting client demonstrate its commitment to the connection by solving a puzzle. As a defense against this class of attack, a limit can be put on the number of connections from a particular node. (b) De-synchronization Attacks: In this attack, the adversary repeatedly forges messages to one or both end points which request transmission of missed frames. Hence, these messages are again transmitted and if the adversary maintains a proper timing, it can prevent the end points from exchanging any useful information. This will cause a considerable drainage of energy of legitimate nodes in the network in an end less synchronization-recovery protocol. A possible solution to this type of attack is to require authentication of all packets including control fields communicated between hosts. Header or full packet authentication can defeat such an attack. 5. Application layer (a) Overwhelm attack: An attacker might attempt to overwhelm network nodes with sensor stimuli, causing the network to forward large volumes of traffic to a base station. This attack consumes network bandwidth and drains node energy. We can mitigate this attack by carefully tuning sensors so that only the specifically desired stimulus, such as vehicular movement, as opposed to any movement, triggers them. Rate-limiting and efficient data-aggregation algorithms can also reduce these attacks effects. (b) Path-based DOS attack: It involves injecting spurious or replayed packets into the network at leaf nodes. This attack can starve the network of legitimate traffic, because it consumes resources on the path to the base station, thus preventing other nodes from sending
9 data to the base station. Combining packet authentication and anti replay protection prevents these attacks. (c) Deluge (reprogram) attack: Networkprogramming system let you remotely reprogram nodes in deployed networks If the reprogramming process isn t secure, an intruder can hijack this process and take control of large portions of a network. It can use authentication streams to secure the reprogramming process. A. Why need Security? VI. SECURITY Wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and sensor networks have many applications in military, homeland security, and other areas. In that many sensor networks have mission-critical tasks. Security is critical for such networks deployed in hostile environments, and security concerns remain a serious impediment to widespread adoption of these wireless networks. The security issues in MANETs are more challenging than those in traditional wired computer networks and the Internet. Providing security in sensor networks is even more difficult than in MANETs due to the resource limitations of sensor nodes. Most sensor networks actively monitor their surroundings, and it is often easy to deduce information other than the data monitored. Such unwanted information leakage often results in privacy breaches of the people in the environment. Moreover, the wireless communication employed by sensor networks facilitates eavesdropping and packet injection by an adversary. The combination of these factors demands security for sensor networks at design time to ensure operation safety, secrecy of sensitive data, and privacy for people in sensor environments. Significant efforts and research have been undertaken to enhance security levels of wireless networks. Currently, there are three levels of security available in wireless networking environments. B. Why Security Complicated In WSN? Security in sensor networks is complicated by the constrained capabilities of sensor node hardware and the properties of the deployment. The overall cost of the WSN should be as low as possible. Sensor nodes are susceptible to physical capture, but because of their targeted low cost, tamper-resistant hardware are unlikely to prevail. Sensor nodes use wireless communication, which is particularly easy to eavesdrop on. Similarly, an attacker can easily inject malicious messages into the wireless network. Advanced anti-jamming techniques such as frequency- hopping spread spectrum and physical tamper proofing of nodes are generally impossible in a sensor network due to the requirements of greater design complexity and higher energy consumption. The use of radio transmission, along with the constraints of small size, low cost, and limited energy, make WSNs more susceptible to denial-of-service attacks. Ad-hoc networking topology of WSN facilitates attackers for different types of link attacks ranging from passive eavesdropping to active interfering. Attacks on a WSN can come from all directions and target at any node leading to leaking of secret information, interfering message, impersonating nodes etc. Security also needs to scale to large-scale deployments. Most current standard security protocols were designed for two-party settings and do not scale to a large number of participants. There is a conflicting interest between minimization of resource consumption and maximization of security level. A better solution actually gives a good compromise between these two. Since sensor nodes usually have severely constrained, asymmetric cryptography is often too expensive for many applications. Thus, a promising approach is to use more efficient symmetric cryptographic alternatives. Instead, most security schemes make use of symmetric key cryptography. One thing required in either case is the use of keys for secure communication. Managing key distribution is not unique to WSNs, but again constraints such as small memory capacity make centralized keying techniques impossible. C. Security Requirements In short, the goal of security is to provide security services to defend against all the kinds of threat explained in this chapter. The paper  provides the analysis of security and survivability requirements concern with the design goals of scalability, efficiency, key connectivity, resilience and reliability. Security services include the following: Authentication ensures that the other end of a connection or the originator of a packet is the node that is claimed. Access-control prevents unauthorized access to a resource. Confidentiality protects overall content or a field in a message. Confidentiality can also be required
10 Wireless Sensor Networks: Security, Attacks and Challenges to prevent an adversary from undertaking traffic analysis. Privacy prevents adversaries from obtaining information that may have private content. The private information may be obtained through the analysis of traffic patterns, i.e. frequency, source node, routes, etc. Ensures that a packet is not modified during transmission is known as Integrity. Authorization: authorizes another node to update information (import authorization) or to receive information (export authorization). Anonymity hides the source of a packet or frame. It is a service that can help with data confidentiality and privacy. Non-repudiation proves the source of a packet. In authentication the source proves its identity. Nonrepudiation prevents the source from denying that it sent a packet. Freshness ensures that a malicious node does not resend previously captured packets. Availability mainly targets DoS attacks and is the ability to sustain the networking functionalities without any interruption due to security threats. Resilience to attacks required to sustain the network functionalities when a portion of nodes is compromised or destroyed. Forward secrecy a sensor should not be able to read any future messages after it leaves the network. Backward secrecy a joining sensor should not be able to read any previously transmitted message. Survivability is the ability to provide a minimum level of service in the presence of power loss, failures or attacks. Ability to change security level as resource availability changes is the Degradation of security services. D. Guiding Principles for Securing WSN As an initial contribution towards developing a paradigm for securing sensor networks based on a holistic approach to securing multiple layers in the protocol stack. Wang proposed a set of principles for addressing the problem of securing wireless sensor networks. A solution in the context of these principles supports a differential security service that can be dynamically configured to cope with changing network state. Security of a network is determined by the security over all layers. In a massively distributed network, security measures should be amenable to dynamic reconfiguration and decentralized management. In a given network, at any given time, the cost incurred due to the security measures should not exceed the cost assessed due to the security risks at that time. If physical security of nodes in a network is not guaranteed, the security measures must be resilient to physical tampering with nodes in the field of operation. E. Security Classes Pfleeger and Pfleeger have identified four classes of security in computing systems all of which have been integrated into the proposed framework. While the major assets in computing systems are the hardware, the software, and the data, in sensor networks the goal is to protect the network itself, i.e. the nodes and communication between the sensor nodes. The four classes of threats which exploit the vulnerability of our security goals are illustrated below in Figure In an interruption, a communication link in sensor networks becomes lost or unavailable. Examples of this sort of threat are node capture, message corruption, insertion of malicious code etc. An interception means that the sensor network is compromised by an adversary whereby the attacker gains unauthorized access to sensor node or data stored within it. An example of this is a node capture attack. Modification means an unauthorized party not only accesses the data but tampers with it, for example by modifying the data packets being transmitted or causing a denial of service attack such as flooding the network with bogus data. In fabrication, an adversary injects false data and compromises the trustworthiness of the information relayed. VII. SECURITY MECHANISM The security mechanisms are actually used to detect, prevent and recover from the security attacks. A wide variety of security schemes can be invented to counter malicious attacks and these can be categorized as high level and low-level. Figure 3 shows the order of security mechanisms.
11 greatest ease of deployment among currently available network cryptographic approaches. A. Low-Level Mechanism Fig. 3: Security mechanisms Low-level security primitives for securing sensor networks includes, Key establishment and trust setup Secrecy and authentication Privacy Robustness to communication denial of service Secure routing Resilience to node capture 1. Key establishment and trust setup The primary requirement of setting up the sensor network is the establishment of cryptographic keys. Generally the sensor devices have limited computational power and the public key cryptographic primitives are too expensive to follow. Keyestablishment techniques need to scale to networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes. In addition, the communication patterns of sensor networks differ from traditional networks; sensor nodes may need to set up keys with their neighbors and with data aggregation nodes. The disadvantage of this approach is that attackers who compromised sufficiently and many nodes could also reconstruct the complete key pool and break the scheme. 2. Secrecy and Authentication Most of the sensor network applications require protection against eavesdropping, injection, and modification of packets. Cryptography is the standard defense. Remarkable system trade-offs arise when incorporating cryptography into sensor networks. For point-to-point communication, end-to-end cryptography achieves a high level of security but requires that keys be set up among all end points and be incompatible with passive participation and local broadcast. Link-layer cryptography with a network wide shared key simplifies key setup and supports passive participation and local broadcast, but intermediate nodes might eavesdrop or alter messages. The earliest sensor networks are likely to use link layer cryptography, because this approach provides the 3. Privacy Like other traditional networks, the sensor networks have also force privacy concerns. Initially the sensor networks are deployed for legitimate purpose might subsequently be used in unanticipated ways. Providing awareness of the presence of sensor nodes and data acquisition is particularly important. 4. Robustness to communication denial of service An adversary attempts to disrupt the network s operation by broadcasting a high-energy signal. If the transmission is powerful enough, the entire system s communication could be jammed. More sophisticated attacks are also possible; the adversary might inhibit communication by violating the medium access control (MAC) protocol by, say, transmitting while a neighbor is also transmitting or by continuously requesting channel access with a request-to send signal. 5. Secure routing Routing and data forwarding is a crucial service for enabling communication in sensor networks. Unfortunately, current routing protocols suffer from many security vulnerabilities. For example, an attacker might launch denial of- service attacks on the routing protocol, preventing communication. The simplest attacks involve injecting malicious routing information into the network, resulting in routing inconsistencies. Simple authentication might guard against injection attacks, but some routing protocols are susceptible to replay by the attacker of legitimate routing messages. 6. Resilience to node capture One of the most challenging issues in sensor networks is resiliency against node capture attacks. In most applications, sensor nodes are likely to be placed in locations easily accessible to attackers. Such exposure raises the possibility that an attacker might capture sensor nodes, extract cryptographic secrets, modify their programming, or replace them with malicious nodes under the control of the attacker. Tamper-resistant packaging may be one defense, but it s expensive, since current technology does not provide a high level of security. Algorithmic solutions to the problem of node capture are preferable. B. High-Level Mechanism High-level security mechanisms for securing sensor networks, includes secure group management, intrusion detection, and secure data aggregation.
12 Wireless Sensor Networks: Security, Attacks and Challenges 1. Secure group management Each and every node in a wireless sensor network is limited in its computing and communication capabilities. However, interesting in-network data aggregation and analysis can be performed by groups of nodes. For example, a group of nodes might be responsible for jointly tracking a vehicle through the network. The actual nodes comprising the group may change continuously and quickly. Many other key services in wireless sensor networks are also performed by groups. Consequently, secure protocols for group management are required, securely admitting new group members and supporting secure group communication. The outcome of the group key computation is normally transmitted to a base station. The output must be authenticated to ensure it comes from a valid group. 2. Intrusion detection Wireless sensor networks are susceptible to many forms of intrusion. Wireless sensor networks require a solution that is fully distributed and inexpensive in terms of communication, energy, and memory requirements. The use of secure groups may be a promising approach for decentralized intrusion detection. 3. Secure data aggregation One advantage of a wireless sensor network is the finegrain sensing that large and dense sets of nodes can provide. The sensed values must be aggregated to avoid overwhelming amounts of traffic back to the base station. For example, the system may average the temperature of a geographic region, combine sensor values to compute the location and velocity of a moving object, or aggregate data to avoid false alarms in realworld event detection. Depending on the architecture of the wireless sensor network, aggregation may take place in many places in the network. All aggregation locations must be secured. VIII. CHALLENGES OF SENSOR NETWORKS The nature of large, ad-hoc, wireless sensor networks presents significant challenges in designing security schemes. A wireless sensor network is a special network which has many constraint compared to a traditional computer network. A. Wireless Medium The wireless medium is inherently less secure because its broadcast nature makes eavesdropping simple. Any transmission can easily be intercepted, altered, or replayed by an adversary. The wireless medium allows an attacker to easily intercept valid packets and easily inject malicious ones. Although this problem is not unique to sensor networks, traditional solutions must be adapted to efficiently execute on sensor networks. B. Ad-Hoc Deployment The ad-hoc nature of sensor networks means no structure can be statically defined. The network topology is always subject to changes due to node failure, addition, or mobility. Nodes may be deployed by airdrop, so nothing is known of the topology prior to deployment. Since nodes may fail or be replaced the network must support self-configuration. Security schemes must be able to operate within this dynamic environment. C. Hostile Environment The next challenging factor is the hostile environment in which sensor nodes function. Motes face the possibility of destruction or capture by attackers. Since nodes may be in ahostile environment, attackers can easily gain physical access to the devices. Attackers may capture a node, physically disassemble it, and extract from it valuable information (e.g. crypto graphic keys). The highly hostile environment represents a serious challenge for security researchers. D. Resource Scarcity The extreme resource limitations of sensor devices pose considerable challenges to resource-hungry security mechanisms. The hardware constraints necessitate extremely efficient security algorithms in terms of bandwidth, computational complexity, and memory. This is no trivial task. Energy is the most precious resource for sensor networks. Communication is especially expensive in terms of power. Clearly, security mechanisms must give special effort to be communication efficient in order to be energy efficient. E. Immense Scale The proposed scale of sensor networks poses a significant challenge for security mechanisms. Simply networking tensto hundreds of thousands of nodes has proven to be a substantial task. Providing security over such a network is equally challenging. Security mechanisms must be scalable to very large networks while maintaining high computation and communication efficiency. F. Unreliable Communication Certainly, unreliable communication is another threat to sensor security. The security of the network relies heavily on a defined protocol, which in turn depends on communication.
13 Unreliable Transfer: Normally the packetbased routing of the sensor network is connectionless and thus inherently unreliable. Conflicts: Even if the channel is reliable, the communication may still be unreliable. This is due to the broadcast nature of the wireless sensor network. Latency: The multi-hop routing, network congestion and node processing can lead to greater latency in the network, thus making it difficult to achieve synchronization among sensor nodes. G. Unattended Operation Depending on the function of the particular sensor network, the sensor nodes may be left unattended for long periods of time. There are three main cautions to unattended sensor nodes: Exposure to Physical Attacks: The sensor may be deployed in an environment open to adversaries, bad weather, and so on. The probability that a sensor suffers a physical attack in such an environment is therefore much higher than the typical PCs, which is located in a secure place and mainly faces attacks from a network. Managed Remotely: Remote management of a sensor network makes it virtually impossible to detect physical tampering and physical maintenance issues. No Central Management Point: A sensor network should be a distributed network without a central management point. This will increase the vitality of the sensor network. However, if designed incorrectly, it will make the network organization difficult, inefficient, and fragile. Perhaps most importantly, the longer that a sensor is left unattended the more likely that an adversary has compromised the node. IX. CONCLUSION The deployment of sensor nodes in an unattended environment makes the networks vulnerable. Wireless sensor networks are increasingly being used in military, environmental, health and commercial applications. Sensor networks are inherently different from traditional wired networks as well as wireless ad-hoc networks. Security is an important feature for the deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks. This paper summarizes the attacks and their classifications in wireless sensor networks and also an attempt has been made to explore the security mechanism widely used to handle those attacks. The challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks are also briefly discussed. This paper motivate future researchers to come up with smarter and more robust security mechanisms and make their network safer. REFERENCES  Adrian Perrig, John Stankovic, David Wagner, Security in Wireless Sensor Networks Communications of the ACM, Page53-57, year 2004  Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Hyung-Woo Lee, Choong Seon Hong, Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Issues and Challenges, International conference on Advanced Computing Technologies, Page , year 2006  Chris Karlof, David Wagner, Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Attacks and Countermeasures, AdHoc Networks (elsevier), Page: , year 2003  Ian F. Akykildiz, Weilian Su, Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, and Erdal Cayirci, A Survey on Sensor Networks, IEEE Communication Magazine, year 2002  John Paul Walters, Zhengqiang Liang, Weisong Shi, Vipin Chaudhary, Wireless Sensor Network Security: A Survey, Security in Distributed, Grid and Pervasive Computing Yang Xiao (Eds), Page3-5, 10-15, year 2006  Pathan, A.S.K.; Hyung-Woo Lee; Choong Seon Hong, Security in wireless sensor networks: issues and challenges Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), Page(s):6, year 2006  Tahir Naeem, Kok-Keong Loo, Common Security Issues and Challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks and IEEE Wireless Mesh Networks, International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications, Page Volume 3, Number 1, year 2009  Undercoffer, J., Avancha, S., Joshi, A. and Pinkston, J. Security for sensor networks. In Proceedings of the CADIP Research Symposium, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA, year  Zia, T.; Zomaya, A., Security Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks, Systems and Networks Communications (ICSNC) Page(s):40 40, year 2006  Xiangqian Chen, Kia Makki, Kang Yen, and Niki Pissinou, Sensor Network Security: A Survey, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 2,page(s): 52-62, year 2009.
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