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3 are very important in designing efficient routing algorithms. In the ad hoc environment, after a spanning tree is built to connect a group of mobile devices, a packet can be always flooded to all members along the tree structure without loop and duplicated transmission [1]. As spanning tree maintains security associations only with neighbors, the proposed security scheme makes use of this mechanism. Number of Nodes Compute distance between nodes Construct Spanning tree Message Encryption of the Message Key Figure 1. System Architecture [Encryption at the Source] MINIMUM SPANNING TREE Figure 2. shows the example scenario of the chosen undirected graph and using the spanning tree construction procedure the minimum spanning tree is constructed as in Figure 3. Every node exchanges data only with its neighbors. Information about the neighbors is maintained in a neighbor table. A node also maintains an adjacency table which contains the list of all nodes with which it can exchange messages. Figure 2. Undirected Graph 11

4 Figure 3. Minimum Spanning Tree Number of nodes Plot the Wireless Nodes on NAM Compute the distance between Nodes Sort the distance between Nodes in ascending order Select minimum distance and include in the spanning tree path [involves all nodes without forming cycle] Figure 4. Spanning Tree Construction 3. KEY EXCHANGE MECHANISM The proposed security scheme consists of RSA key exchange mechanism and a novel encryption mechanism to provide security. Each node in the network has its own symmetric key called the Neighborhood key. To perform encryption and decryption each node must have access to other nodes neighborhood key. At source, Neighborhood Key is encrypted with the public key of the receiver and transmitted to the destination node. At destination, neighborhood key is decrypted with the node s own private key. 3.1 ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM Each node has its own symmetric key called neighborhood key which is encrypted. Then, the message is encrypted using the message specific key which is the MAC address. Further, the message specific key is encrypted with neighborhood key. Then, the sender appends the destination nodes ID and transmits this message to its authenticated neighbors. Source Node A creates a Message Specific Key[MKey(M)]. Message is encrypted with Message Specific Key [E MKey(M) (M)]. Further the Message Specific Key is encrypted with A s neighborhood key [E NKey(A) (MKey(M)]. Then, the Destination node s ID is appended to the Ciphertext [( E NKey(A) (MKey(M) E MKey(M) (M) ) Node ID(B)]. 12

5 3.2 DECRYPTION ALGORITHM At receiving end, if the ID of the node matches, then it is the intended recipient and decryption is performed with neighborhood key of sending node and the plain text message is obtained. As a next step, further decryption is done with the message specific key and the original message is obtained. If the node is not the intended recipient, it again reencrypts the message with the neighborhood key and transmits to its authenticated neighbor nodes. The procedure is repeated until destination node is found and the original message is decrypted at the destination node. Two different symmetric encryption algorithms are used to encrypt the message and the neighborhood key with the message-specific key. The advantage of implementing two different encryption procedures is to make it to improve the security of the message being forwarded in the ad hoc network which is susceptible to more vulnerable attacks. 3.3 NEIGHBORHOOD KEY EXCHANGE PROCEDURE Key exchange with only neighborhood nodes aims at reducing crypto-functions processing overheads occurred in a pure reactive approach. This neighbor detection scheme is identity-free and is carried over through a handshake process between any pair of neighbors. Handshaking procedure is basically carried over for key exchanges between a given node and its new detected neighbors. After the handshake procedure, each pair of nodes shares a chain of secret keys. HELLO messages are periodically sent to the nodes in the group. To forward the information the RREQ and RREP messages are used by each intermediate node to establish the route between the source and the destination nodes in the network. 13

6 4. SIMULATION RESULTS The spanning tree is constructed using NS2 simulator. NS simulator is based on two languages: an object oriented simulator, written in C++, and OTcl (an object oriented extension of Tcl) interpreter, used to execute user's command scripts. A simulation script generally begins by creating an instance of this class and calling various methods to create nodes, topologies, and configure other aspects of the simulation. As the nodes are organized in spanning tree topology in this security scheme, the nodes exchange keys and data only with its authenticated neighbors. This avoids expensive global rekeying operations when the membership in the network changes or when the network is partitioned. Figure 6. is a simulation output of wireless nodes plotted on NAM in the form of a spanning tree and the packets transferred between the nodes involved in the spanning tree path is obtained. Figure 7. and Figure 8. represents the simulation output of the throughput of the packets sent and the packets received. 14

7 5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS The advantage of this security scheme is that since encryption is done twice with two different encryption schemes, one with neighborhood key and other with message specific key, more security is imposed. It ensures backward secrecy (a new member of network cannot access data transmitted before the member joined) and forward secrecy (a member cannot access the data that is transmitted after the member leaves the group)[1]. Whenever the topology changes with 15

8 the inclusion or exclusion of a member, new neighborhood key is computed and is distributed to all authenticated neighbors. A novel security scheme in ad hoc networks is presented which can address the security issues such as authentication, confidentiality and key management that would avoid global re-keying. The proposed scheme which aims at sender deniable encryption can be widely applicable for voting and auction protocols. This shall be applicable wherever group communications is to be established in a secured manner in an ad hoc environment. The future enhancement to the implementation of the proposed security scheme is to incorporate the key storage, message storage at the node level and compare the performance of spanning tree with and without the inclusion of features such as key storage and message storage. REFERENCES [1] Jorg Liebeherr, Guangyu Dong, An overlay approach to data security in ad-hoc networks Science Direct, Ad Hoc Networks, pp , July [2] Matthew J. Moyer, Josyula R. Rao, Pankaj Rohatgi, and Thomas.J, A Survey of Security Issues in Multicast Communications, IEEE Network, November [3] David Manz, Jim Alves-Foss and Shanyu Zheng, Network Simulation of Group Key Management Protocols, Journal of Information Assurance and Security, pp , January [4] Lidong Zhou and Zygmunt J. Haas, Securing Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Network, November [5] Vesa Kärpijoki, Security in Ad Hoc Networks, Seminar on Network Security, [6] X.B. Zhang, S.S. Lam, H. Liu, Efficient group rekeying using application-layer multicast, in Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, (ICDCS 2005), June [7] C. Gui, P. Mohapatra, Efficient overlay multicast for mobile ad hoc networks, in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), March [8] Y.C. Hu, A. Perrig, A survey of secure wireless ad hoc routing, IEEE Security and Privacy 2 (3) (2004). [9] Kevin Fall, Kannan Varadhan, The ns manual, The VINT project, December [10]Brent Welch, Practical Programming in Tcl and Tk, Prentice Hall, May ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank their Professer Dr. R.Saravanan, school of computing sciences, for his valuable suggestions in carrying out this work. Also wish to acknowledge the members of family and friends for their kind support. 16

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