Vol. 4, No. 4 April 2013 ISSN Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences CIS Journal. All rights reserved.

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1 E-Government Based on Cloud Computing 1 Kostandina Veljanovska, 2 Violeta Zdravevska 1 Associate Professor in Information Systems and Networks, Artificial Intelligence and Systems and Data Processing at the Faculty of Administration and Information Systems Management, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, R. Macedonia. 2 Master student, Faculty of Administration and Information System Management, University St. Kliment Ohridski -Bitola, Republic of Macedonia ABSTRACT The concept of cloud computing becomes important for each government, facilitating its way of work, increasing its productivity and all that leading to cost savings. Different country chooses different strategy for adoption of cloud computing with a possibility to become better and more effective e-government. In this paper, the scope of our work is oriented toward description of cloud computing, e-government and description of the way in which Australia implemented cloud computing and where is Republic of Macedonia in these field. The analysis of the Australian cloud computing adoption strategy for e-government helps to understand the process of implementation of cloud computing that both Macedonian government and citizens will adopt it as soon as possible. Results show progress in Macedonian information society and a good start in cloud computing pilot projects. Keywords: cloud computing, e-government. Information and Communication Technology, pilot projects 1. INTRODUCTION Information and Communication Technologies are the key factor for global society development. Innovations in information and communication technology are always there in order to increase productivity, to change the way we work, to grow business economy, to share global knowledge and to have automated business processes and communications. One important innovation in information and communication technology is cloud computing. Over the past few years cloud computing made revolution in the way of working in many areas. In this paper we will see what is cloud computing, the types of clouds, architecture of cloud computing and how e-government is realized over the cloud computing architecture. Also there is a description of the Australian government strategy of adoption of cloud computing concept and where is Republic of Macedonia in adoption of cloud computing. At the end we analyze the possibility of using the cloud computing for the e-government in Republic of Macedonia. 2. CLOUD COMPUTING Cloud computing is a revolutionary concept for many businesses, governments and citizens. Definition for Cloud computing is that Cloud computing is a new way of delivering computing resources (network, services, servers, data storing), not a new technology [ENISA, European Network and Information Security Agency] [1]. The users, like businesses, customers, governments or others, can use an application without installation at any computers and can access to the required data via Internet access. Another definition is that Cloud computing is a style of Computing where scalable and elastic IT capabilities are provided as a service to a multiple customers using Internet technologies, on a pay per use basis [Melbourne IT, Australia s largest domain name registrar] [2]. According to Gather, by 2012, 20% of businesses will adopt cloud services and own no IT assets [3]. Cloud computing can be classified into 4 types based on the location where the cloud is hosted. These four types have common traits, but they also have different key features. The four types of clouds on the basis of their host location are listed below [4] [5]. Public Cloud: Cloud provider dynamically allocates resources on a per-user basis through web application. This type, public cloud, allows unlimited access and unlimited data capacity for the consumers. Private Cloud: The private cloud is known as an internal cloud. The private cloud computing is the next generation of virtualization. This type allows increased data security and customized IT network control. Hybrid Cloud: Usage of both public and private cloud together. Community Cloud: Organizations of the same community share computing infrastructure. This cloud may be managed by the organization or by a third-party. Cloud computing offers significant advantages, some of them are [3] [5]: Users pay according to the model pay-as-youuse, avoiding capital investment Scalability access to the additional resources when they are needed Availability high available application, CPU, file system, network, storage space Cost reducing lower IT cost, energy cost and carbon emission. By 2020, U.S. companies that 377

2 use cloud computing will be able to achieve annual energy savings of $12.3 billion and annual carbon reduction equivalent to 200 million barrels of oil enough to power 5.7 million cars for one year (Based on Bureau of Transportation Statistics average miles per gallon, Federal Highway Administration average annual mileage and the Energy Information Agency gallons of gasoline per barrel of oil. Survey was made on 2,653 U.S. global companies with annual revenues of more than $1 billion in the U.S.) [6]. Cloud computing software facilitates the manipulation of large databases Multi-tenancy Virtualization Service oriented software Advances security technology Businesses, governments and individuals benefit from using the services offered by cloud computing. 3. ARCHITECTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING The concept of cloud computing would be clear by describing the cloud computing architecture. Cloud computing provides a set of services and can be represented as layered architecture. There are three architectural layers according to its provided services: SaaS, PaaS and IaaS. Software as a Service (SaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider s application running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices, such as a web browser. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings [7]. According to a Gather Group estimate [8], SaaS sales in 2010 reached $ $10 billion and were projected to increase to $12.2 in In the fourth quarter of 2011, only 17 percent of organizations have replaced or plan to replace parts of their core business intelligence functions with clouds/saas offerings. Almost a third (27%) already uses or plans to use cloud/saas option to augment their business intelligence capabilities for specific lines of business or subject areas in the next 12 months [9]. Platform as a Service (PaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications, created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations [7]. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to provide processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over: operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of selected networking components (e.g. host firewalls) [7]. The technologies behind the Cloud are: virtualization, distributed computing, grid technology, free and open source platform, service oriented architecture, browser as a platform. Other technologies are: Service Level Agreement (SLA), autonomic system, web 2.0, web application framework and others [3]. 4. E-GOVERNANCE OVER THE CONCEPT OF CLOUD COMPUTING Cloud computing can be a choice of interest for a government with a view to become e-government and to be effective and proactive regarding to the change that happens in the area of Information technology. E- government is a process of reform in the way how governments work, share information, engage citizens and deliver services to external and internal clients while the government and clients that they serve benefit from this way of working. Many governments worked on projects to adopt the concept of cloud computing, for example: Australia, USA where administration started a project related to cloud computing for identifying services that can use cloud computing, United Kingdom where a project for adopting cloud computing was started with the objective to reduce its administrative costs, Canada, New Zealand, Japan which that work on project for various ministries to share platforms and infrastructure. In Europe, countries that are among the leaders in adopting cloud computing for e- governance working are France, Sweden and Spain [4]. E-government realized through the concept of cloud computing offers an effective way of sharing information to the citizens and businesses, helps budget management and decision makers, reduces its efforts of providing services and effectively utilizes resources provided by its services. The government s ministries, interested in the environmental pollution and involved in the Go green projects, collaborate with each other through cloud computing, using a common infrastructure, platform and applications and delivering cost-effective 378

3 services to the public. All of these efforts can drive the growth of the economy and government productivity. privacy required for the government transactions and services for the citizens [10]. E-government s services provided over the concept of cloud computing need to be automated. E- government s services fall into the following categories [5]: Government to Government (G2G): Interaction between government organizations, departments and ministries with the intention to exchange information, to collaborate, to deliver services and so on. Typically, when some services from this category are provided, the level of message passing across government organizations, departments and ministries is really high. Government to Enterprise (G2E): Services that belong to this category are delivered to the enterprises. Enterprises need to react according to the policies implemented in those services and those services are controlled by the government. The high level of law enforcement is one of the main characteristics for the G2E services. Government to Business (G2B): Government provides services for the businesses over creating and managing contracts for business working. Government to Citizens (G2C): Government provides innumerable services from this category for the citizens. In this category, different government s departments offer various services for the citizens. With the e-government adoption of cloud computing, all government s services are virtualized. Because e-government requires 24/7 hours infrastructure availability, with cloud computing this can be achieved. Also cloud computing application offers unlimited supply of data storage, CPU, memory and bandwidth. 5. AUSTRALIA: COUNTRY THAT DEVELOPED CLOUD COMPUTING STRATEGY FOR E- GOVERNMENT The Australian Government has the US Government s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) definition for cloud computing, and that is: Cloud computing is an ICT sourcing and delivery model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction [10] [11]. The Australian government s businesses activities are dependent upon the Information and Communication technologies. With cloud computing, services are delivered to the end user s devices on demand, but, when cloud computing concept is adopted for e-government working, there are different requirements concerning security and Since 2011, Australian government s agencies investigated opportunities for cloud solutions and implemented cloud solutions through a risk-managed approach taking into consideration cloud computing services for money, benefits, security requirements and service level requirements. Australian government had a vision to become government s ICT ecosystem and to satisfy the needs of businesses, citizens and enterprises by using cloud computing. Using the strategy for cloud computing, Australia tends to satisfy those needs in an optimal way related to cost, flexibility and security. This strategy is both, tactical and strategic and it s based on a risk-based approach [10]. 6. PILOT PROJECTS FOR CLOUD COMPUTING BY AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT S AGENCIES According to the Australian Government Cloud Computing Strategy, Australian government s agencies seek innovative ways to deliver government services and want to rationalize their ICT asset. Some agencies have already commenced small pilots and proofs of concepts to evaluate the potential of application, platforms and infrastructure cloud computing. The agencies are [10]: Agency Pilots / proof of concepts / implementation of cloud computing West Australian DTF implemented private cloud. Department of This was announced in August Treasury and Finance (DTF) West Australian WA Health implemented private Health (WA cloud. This was announced in Health) August 2010 and anticipated competition for WA Health data centers were in April 2011 and June Department of DIAC implemented hybrid cloud Immigration and and important issue was centrality Citizenship versus distributed centers. (DIAC) Department of DHC implemented public cloud and Human Services this department is only in the stage (DHS) of the proof of concept. Australian AMSA implemented public cloud. Maritime Safety This department adopted cloud Authority (AMSA) computing of pilot-cloud based application on a vendor platform (Force.com). Australian Government Information Management Office (AMIGO) AMIGO adopted IaaS and PaaS cloud computing delivered models. The data sets on the data.gov.au were migrated onto the public Amazon cloud. The data.gov.au and 379

4 govspace.gov.au websites were migrated onto a private cloud. find appropriate model for the MIOA and governmental institutions. The Australian Government Cloud Computing Strategy is consisted of three streams [10]: Stream 1: Started in 2011 with preparation to adopt cloud computing (policies, principles, contract guidance and knowledge sharing) for agencies. Example: sharing information. Stream 2: It s parallel with Stream1 and started in 2011 until onwards. Includes tactical adoption of government s cloud computing where public and hybrid clouds are commercially available. Using public clouds means low-risk information/services dissemination. Example: open government data, government websites and portals. Stream 3: Started in mid 2011 until onwards. Includes strategic adoption of government s cloud computing integrated with Data center strategy for public and community clouds. There is advanced virtualization and/or community/private cloud. Using public clouds mean low risk services, outsourced private clouds mean medium risk services and using community clouds for government mean low, medium and high risk services. Example: agency-specific applications, shared business processes, citizen-driven service delivery. 7. REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA AND CLOUD COMPUTING The Republic of Macedonia has been making a continual progress in the field of information society. Projects have been realized for simulation and encouraging development of innovative products and services. Macedonian industry and society in general are actively moving toward new achievements in all fields. The Government of the Republic of Macedonia, through the Ministry of Information Society and Administration, already works on the realization of a pilot project for evaluating the cloud computing potentials [Speech of Marta Arsovska Tomovska Deputy Minister of Information society and administration at the 2012 Skopje BizTech, the International business technology fair, 6 th February, 2012]. The Government and the Ministry of Information Society and Administration (MIOA) are thinking about a central provider of hardware and software for government s systems and applications. They are in the stage to decide whether the cloud computing would be adopted by the concept where the government will be the provider or the project would be realized by the private sector. A study about the cloud computing service costeffectiveness in the public sector will start soon, in order to Cloud computing will change the manner of work in all sectors, including public sector connecting it to the global IT migration process. The process has enormous influences on companies providing IT equipment, software, IT support and services. This influences the global savings in industry and initiates new wave of technological revolution [Speech of Ivo Ivanovski - Minister of Information society and administration at the Conference 9 th SEEITA and 8 th MASIT Open Days, Skopje, 18 th October, 2011]. The adoption of cloud computing in Republic of Macedonia would be facilitated after the acceptance of the new law on public partnership. In 2011 the Government and the Ministry of Information Society and Administration (MIOA) started open e-services project which was based on the public partnership including 138 services and 60 documents. According to this project, IT companies get the opportunities to develop electronic services that are offered by the public institutions to the citizens and to provide fast access to them via Internet. IT companies will make profit from this way of working and citizens and the private sector will have new possibility for getting electronic services without waiting at counter desks. By realization of this project, Republic of Macedonia would be the leader in the Europe by e-services that are offered by the state. [12] 8. CONCLUSION The concept of cloud computing is widespread popular because it offers all-in-one solution and can satisfy the IT needs that grow all the time. We can conclude that Republic of Macedonia noticed the importance of this concept and declares that it will start realizing projects to adopt it. Although Australia already started pilot projects based on a risk-based approach, when we compare these two countries we will see that Republic of Macedonia with it potential in the field of information and communication technologies and Macedonian government s intervention, is on the right scent at adoption of cloud computing. REFERENCES [1] ENISA, Cloud computing: benefits, risks and recommendations for information security, 2009 [2] [3] Andy Malone, The cloud Chronicles: Security over the rainbow, page 4-9, 2011 [4] Australian Academy of Technological Science and Engineering (ATSE), Cloud Computing: Opportunities and Challenges for Australia, page 1-3, 13-15,

5 [5] International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT), Cloud Computing for E-government, Hyderabad, India, page 3-7, 2010 [6] Carbon Disclosure Project, Carbon Disclosure Project Study 2011, Cloud Computing The IT solutions for 21 st Century [7] David C. Wyld, The cloud future of government IT: Cloud computing and the public sector around the world, Vol 1, Num 1, page 2-3, January 2010 [8] McHall, Tom. Gather Says Worldwide Software as a Service Revenue is Forecast to Crow 21 Percent in 2011,7 July 2011 (http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id= ) [9] Petey Christy. Gartner Says Nearly One Third of Organizations Use or Plan to Use Cloud Offerings to Augment Business Intelligence Capabilities, 25 January 2012 (http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id= [10] Australian Government, Department of Finance and Deregulation, Cloud Computing Strategic Direction Paper, Opportunities and applicability for use by the Australian Government, Version 1.0, page 5-10, 22, 31, April 2011 [11] Peter Mell and Thomoty Grance, The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Special Publication , page 2-3, September 2011 [12] AUTHOR PROFILE 1. Prof. Kostandina Veljanovska: Dr Kostandina Veljanovska completed her education at the University "Sts. Kiril i Metodi", Skopje (BSc in Computer Science), at the University of Toronto, Toronto (MASc in Applied Engineering) and got her MSc and also her PhD in Technical Sciences at the University St. Kliment Ohridski, Bitola, R. Macedonia. She worked as a Research assistant at the ITS Centre and Testbed at the Faculty of Applied Science, University of Toronto, Canada. Currently, she works as an Associate Professor in Information Systems and Networks, Artificial Intelligence and Systems and Data Processing at the Faculty of Administration and Information Systems Management, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, R. Macedonia 2. Violeta Zdravevska: Violeta Zdravevska received her Bachelor s degree in Information systems management from the Faculty of administration and information system Management, Bitola, University Sv.Kliment Ohridski, Republic of Macedonia. After graduation, the rector of the Sv. Kliment Ohridski University awarded her an honorable mention and an award for the best achieved success (10,00) on the Faculty of administration and information system management. Since 2011, Violeta Zdravevska has been master student in the Faculty of administration and information system management, Bitola, department: Engineering and management of software application, module: Computer engineering. 381

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