ANALYSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-SPEED INTERNET USERS THE CASE STUDY OF KOREA -

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1 ANALYSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-SPEED INTERNET USERS THE CASE STUDY OF KOREA - KIM, JIN KI Department of Management Science and Systems State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY U.S.A. High-speed internet service is a main breakthrough in the telecommunications market. The diffusion of high-speed internet service has been speeding up rapidly in some Asian countries, such as Korea and Japan. It is expected that the development of telecommunications technology will further increase the speed of the services. The crucial issue of this topic is how to forecast the customers need for high-speed internet service, who is the key customer for that service and how to identify them among scores of customers. This study aims to find the characteristics of the leading customers of high-speed internet services. Several characteristics of leading customers are proposed, such as usage volume, usage pattern, disposition of selecting telecommunications services among several alternative services, and demographical characteristics. In this paper, it is analyzed that the relationship among those characteristics of customers and their needs for high-speed internet access services. The study finds some crucial factors which explain the need for high-speed internet service: high-speed users, inclination to new service, usage volume and the price willingly paid for the service. In order to verify the hypotheses, we surveyed 1,000 people randomly in Korea. The Korean market is one of the most fascinating among the high-speed internet service markets. Korean customers have witnessed the advanced service of high-speed internet. The preferences of Korean customers are influencing the trends of the market. Through the case study of Korea, we estimate the propensities of high-speed internet service customers. This paper shows that the customer who is satisfied with their current internet service has had prior experience downloading real-time video and visiting PC studio, and watches DVD often, is the most important customer in the advanced high-speed internet service market. KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 1 of 16

2 1. Introduction High-speed internet service is a main breakthrough in the telecommunications market. The diffusion of high-speed internet service has been speeding up rapidly in some Asian countries, such as Korea and Japan. The U.S. and some European countries, such as the U.K. and Germany are trying to boost up the high-speed internet service. The success of the internet in the US fundamentally rests on 30 years of consistent FCC policy which sought to maintain network openness by making key network components available to all, on costeffective terms, so as to foster competition and innovation. The internet, today, enters the third phase of its history: when a critical mass of users is about to experience always-on high-speed access to the internet from their home. At this crucial time, the FCC may abandon its successful policy and allow owners of the broadband infrastructure to foreclose access to the infrastructure they own. (Bar et. al, 2000) It is expected that the development of telecommunications technology will further increase the speed of the services. The rapid growth in the number of internet users has accelerated the use of high-speed Internet access services, including broadband multimedia services. In the delivery of broadband multimedia services to end-users, it is necessary to build a high-speed backbone and access network. To construct a broadband access network, several alternative technologies including xdsl, CATV, and FTTx have been suggested and implemented in telecommunication networks. However, even if a technology is proven to be optimal for the current environment, it can be deteriorated by the elapse of time or the advent of new challenging technologies in the future. (Yoon et. al, 2003) The Korean high-speed internet market is the leading market in the world, showing the potential growth for the service. The success of ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a good example for the service. The marketing competition is also a subject to study in this area. The direction of Korean high-speed internet market in the future will be a milestone for the world. The crucial issues in this research area are still how to forecast the customers need for high-speed internet service, who is the key customer for that and how to identify them among many customers. This study aims to find the characteristics of the leading customers of high-speed internet services. Several characteristics of leading customers are proposed, such as usage volume, usage pattern, disposition of selecting telecommunications services among several alternative services, and demographical characteristics. We analyze the relationship among those characteristics of customers and their needs for high-speed internet access services. This research tries to answer the question of what are the factors to influence the willing of users to subscribe the high-speed internet services. This research focuses on the relationship between some related services. KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 2 of 16

3 Recently, we are expecting some advanced high-speed internet services. This research contributes to market those services. And we are also expecting to give some insights for developing the bundled services and implementing the Next Generation Networks (NGN) by using the relationship between related services. 2. Previous Research Research on the high-speed internet services is shown in various areas. From the view of sociology, the impact of information systems on human being is considered a main research topic. Ichiko et. al. (2001) argues that the behavior of human beings cannot be unconsciously applied to the above network types because the communication gap between space and time causes a communication obstruction. There are some concrete case studies that are reported to have tentative solutions toward applications for advanced real-time software concepts and fundamentals for a multimedia telecommunications environment. From the economic and managerial approach, pricing and cost models are essential. Once accepted that charging Internet services is an economically valid approach, suitable charging technology is required. Stiller et al. (2003) motivates and introduces a suitable Internet charging system. The development of incentive-compatible pricing models for multiservice networks determines the corresponding economic question. The problem of today s flat rates shows that high-speed networks are priced simply and customers like them. However, Internet service providers tend to show a severe economic instability in the market, while technologies emerge on a fast time-scale. Therefore, a better than flat fee approach termed cumulus pricing scheme is introduced, solving the feasibility problem of pricing Internet services. The remote line issue is especially important because these lines were classified on the other side of the digital divide as the have-nots of the high-speed Internet age. As Glass et al. (2003) demonstrate, the capability prediction was accurate, but rapid technological breakthroughs have reduced the cost of upgrading remote lines considerably. A rural telephone company can now offer many of its remote customers broadband service where in the past the cost was prohibitive. In the engineering area, evolution path for broadband access networks is crucial research topic. Yoon et al. (2003) concentrate on the selection of an evolution path for broadband access networks. They develope an optimization model for selecting the best technology and evolution path with the minimum total cost. The problem can be formulated as a mixed integer programming model. Wireless local area networks now offer high-speed Internet access at numerous locations in both public and private environments. Associated with this rapid growth, numerous social implications come to the fore, especially relating to practices, such as the free use and sharing of bandwidth. Using case-based comparative analysis, Rao and Parikh KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 3 of 16

4 (2003) examine three primary strategies involved in providing wireless broadband access. Based on this research, we discuss the future of Wi-Fi growth, emergent competing technologies, and the broad social implications of this phenomenon. From the view of telecom management or telecom strategy, prediction of consumer willingness to subscriber the service is one of main themes in this area. Shih (2004a) shows that individual attitudes toward e-shopping are strongly and positively correlated with user acceptance. And Shih (2004b) combines Davis s technology acceptance model (TAM) and the information behavior model to develop an extended TAM for Internet use. The empirical results not only confirmed TAM, but also showed that the relevance of information needs strongly determines perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user attitudes toward the Internet use for information seeking, as well as strongly influencing individual performance during the information use stage. Augereau and Greenstein (2001) investigate why an ISP chooses to offer neither, one or both high-speed data transmission technologies. They show that scale of investment, local infrastructure s quality and explicit costs shape investment decisions by young firms in emerging markets. Matthews and Schrum (2003) revealed positive perceptions of Internet use for academics were weakly but significantly associated with internal locus of control for academic effort. There is a lot of research on characteristics of high-speed internet users. Rice and Katz (2003) show that Internet and mobile phone usage was very similar, and that several digital divides exist with respect to both Internet and mobile phone usage. The study identifies and analyzes three kinds of digital divides for both of the Internet and mobile phones - users/nonuser, veteran/recent, and continuing/dropout - and similarities and differences among those digital divides based on demographic variables. Kim (2003) proposes two key triggers for the WLAN era in the foreseeable future. The first one is keeping the WLAN service charges low to the wire-line broadband service will be the most important factor for the development of the burgeoning WLAN services. The other factor is the penetration of the equipment embedded with WLAN card. Hand-off policy generated incentives for service providers to exert capital expenditure in the new WLAN market and to commercialize public WLAN services aggressively. Yoon and Lee (2002) analyze the characteristics of subscription and usage of the high-speed internet in Korea. Using the logit regression analysis, they show that the probability of subscription to the high-speed internet service is higher, as the age of household is lower, the education period is longer, the number of family and the ratio of teens in the family are higher. However, constraint to the analysis for comparison to the low-rate internet user, the media characteristics have more power to explain than these demographic variables. High-speed internet users watch television longer than low-speed internet users. They also use mobile telephones and CATV more. That means that the high-speed internet is a substitute for KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 4 of 16

5 the traditional media, such as TV and also a complement for the new media, such as CATV or new mobile communications services. There is some gap between these studies. Most studies are based on the demographic variables. This research help classify the target users. However, there is no research on which factors to influence the subscription to the high-speed internet service in the classified user segment. In order to answer these questions, this study search for the characteristics of highspeed internet users, using the relationship between related services, which are estimated that have similar usage pattern to the high-speed internet users. 3. High-speed Internet Service Market in Korea The Korean high-speed market is the subject of this study. It is because that the Korean market shows a successful example in the high-speed internet service, and leads in the technology and business sectors. These are some brief history and current status for the highspeed internet market in Korea. In Korea, the high-speed internet service launched in July 1998 by the Thrunet, which uses a cable modem network. Following that, the Hanaro telecom started providing the ADSL service at the first from April 1999 and then the KT followed from December In Korea, the high-speed internet service was growing up with ADSL and cable modem. Since 1999, the high-speed internet service has shown rapid growth. In 2002, the number of subscribers reached 10 million people. After that the growth keeps going on, but the growth rate is slowing down. Figure 1 shows the trends of the number of subscribers for the high-speed internet service in Korea. KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 5 of 16

6 12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000, Sep-00 Dec-00 Mar Sep-01 Dec-01 Mar Sep-02 Dec-02 Mar Sep-03 Dec-03 Mar Figure 1 The number of high-speed internet subscribers in Korea The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is 65% from June 2000 to June The number of subscribers in June 2004 is about 7.5 times than those in June Figure 2 shows the changes of market share of carriers in this market. KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 6 of 16

7 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% KT Hanaro Thrunet Dreamline SKTelecom Dacom Onse Value-added Resalers 10.00% 0.00% 00 Sep- 00 Dec- 00 Mar Sep- 01 Dec- 01 Mar Sep- 02 Dec- 02 Mar Sep- 03 Dec- 03 Mar Figure 2 Market shares of high-speed internet service by carrier in Korea The KT was a follower before the beginning of However, the KT caught up the leaders, such as Thrunet and Hanaro telecom. The KT s market share shows around 45-50% after that. The second largest carrier is the Hanaro telecom, which has share of around 25-30%. The third, the first mover, Thrunet shows the decline to around 10%. In the view of technology, the first launch was with cable modem by Thrunet. However, after Hanaro telecom and KT launch the ADSL, the ADSL is more popular than cable modem. The ADSL has around 55-60% market, whereas the cable modem shows around 35% of market share. Figure 3 shows the portions of technology for the high-speed internet market in Korea. KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 7 of 16

8 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% ADSL Cable modem LAN Satellite B-WLL 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 00 Sep- 00 Dec- 00 Mar Sep- 01 Dec- 01 Mar Sep- 02 Dec- 02 Mar Sep- 03 Dec- 03 Mar Figure 3 Portions of technology for high-speed internet service in Korea Recently, there is a new trend at this market. That is Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL). VDSL transmits data in the 13 Mbps - 55 Mbps range over short distances, usually between 1000 and 4500 feet ( meters), of twisted pair copper wire. VDSL provides the highest rate among xdsl which shows 52M bps at maximum. It can transmit symmetric or asymmetric. The most popular rate is 26M bps for download and 3M bps for upload in the person market, whereas in business market 13M bps for upload or download. VDSL provides the maximum rate among technologies, which are based on coaxial cable, and is easy to move from ADSL. In Korea, the VDSL is launched from the second half of Some vendors are developing some products, which provides 50M bps, and the rate of competition of highspeed internet service providers will be more fierce. The background of launching VDSL early is that the investment costs of carriers are reduced due to the rapid development of technology related with VDSL and the costs of system are lower rapidly. Major high-speed internet carriers are trying to launch their VDSL services with the development of technology and the reduction of system cost. The leading company in this market, KT plans to launch the test service of 100Mbps at the end of According to the KT, they allocate about 100Mbps, which are 60Mbps for three channels of digital television, 20Mbps for the Internet, and 20Mbps for home network service. As the Fiber To The Home (FTTH) is realized, the demand for the high-speed KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 8 of 16

9 internet service as a substitute, which can compromise the disadvantages of degrading the speed of transmission will be increased. 4. Research Design In this study, the users to be surveyed are high-speed internet users who are between 15 and 54 years-old and reside in Seoul and five other metropolitan areas. The users are sampled by the rate of population of the region and ages. Female and male are each half. The size of sample is 720 people. The sample error is ±3.7% at the 95% of confident interval. The interview was carried out by personal interview which is carried by the Hankook research, on the structural questionnaire, from July 25 to August 25, The dependent variable is the demand for advanced high-speed internet service. The interviewer explained the advanced high-speed internet service. It has a higher speed than the VDSL service, no delay, no interruption, is safe from hacking or viruses, and allows communication by video telephone. The user can get an integrated messaging service, where the user can check , voice mail or fax by the telephone. The tariff of this service is based on the size of downloading and the user has flexible price options to take. The user can control the speed of downloading. After these explanations by the interviewer, the interviewees are asked to answer whether they want to use it or not, measure by the Likert s five-scale. The independent variables are classified into two groups. The first one is the usage pattern of current high-speed internet service, and the second is the experience and frequency of other related services. Table 1 Independent variables Classification Variables Naming Usage pattern of Frequency of accessing to the Internet FAI current high-speed Time of accessing to the Internet TAI internet service Usage tariff for the Internet service UTI Satisfaction to the Internet service SFI Experience and Experience of Internet shopping EIS frequency of other Frequency of Internet shopping FIS related services Experience of downloading real-time video ERV Experience of wireless LAN service EWL Frequency of wireless LAN service FWL Own DVD OWD Frequency of watching DVD FWD Experience of cable TV ECT KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 9 of 16

10 Frequency of watching cable TV Experience of Internet broadcasting Frequency of watching Internet broadcasting Experience of visiting PC studio Frequency of visiting PC studio Experience of visiting DVD studio Frequency of visiting DVD studio FCT EIB FIB EPS FPS EDS FDS For the scale of variable, questions on experience or owning are Yes or No questions. For the questions on frequency, 7-scale is used (1: everyday, 2: once in two or three days, 3: once a week, 4: twice or three times a month, 5: once a month, 6: once in two months, and 7: rare). To find out the relevantly influent factors on the high-speed internet use, a three-step methodology is used. At the first step, each variable is checked the relationship with the demand of advanced high-speed internet service, the dependent variable one by one. We use the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). It is to check the significant difference between the sub-groups, which are positive response, negative response, and no opinion groups. At the second step, the relationship between each variable and the dependent variable, the demand of advanced high-speed internet service are checked, using the simple regression method. For the independent variables which are relevant related with the dependent variable, the multiple regression is carried out. To improve the validity the results, three different methods are used in the multiple regression. Those are stepwise, backward, and forward methods. After checking the validity of independent variables in the model, we estimate a model to explain the relationship between independent variables and the dependent variable, using the Enter method. 5. Results From the one-way ANOVA, the difference of demand for advanced high-speed internet service among subgroups is checked for each independent variable. Among 19 independent variables, only 5 independent variables are shown the significant difference. In table 2, the independent variables, which are the significantly different demand for advanced high-speed internet service among sub-group, are shown. Table 2 Results of one-way ANOVA Variables Demand for advanced high-speed internet service Yes No No P-value KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 10 of 16

11 opinion ERV Experience of downloading real-time video EWL Experience of wireless LAN service OWD Own DVD ECT Experience of cable TV EPS Experience of visiting PC studio At the second step, simple regression method is used to find out the relationship between each independent variables and the dependent variable, the demand for advanced high-speed internet service. Table 3 shows the results of simple regressions. Table 3 Results of simple regression Independent variables p-value UTI Usage tariff for the Internet service SFI Satisfaction to the Internet service FIS Frequency of Internet shopping ERV Experience of downloading real-time video OWD Own DVD FWD Frequency of watching DVD ECT Experience of cable TV FCT Frequency of watching cable TV EIB Experience of Internet broadcasting FIB Frequency of watching Internet broadcasting EPS Experience of visiting PC studio FPS Frequency of visiting PC studio Satisfaction to the Internet service (SFI), experience of downloading real-time video (ERV), frequency of watching DVD (FWD), and experience of visiting PC studio (EPS) are shown as the relevant independent variables. At the third step, the relationship of the dependent variable and multiple independent variables are examined. As the independent variable, those four variables shown as significant and three independent variables are included to increase the power of explanation of the model. Those variables are Usage tariff for the Internet service (UTI), Frequency of Internet shopping (FIS), and Frequency of watching Internet broadcasting (FIB). To guarantee the relevance of the model, three regression methods are used: stepwise, backward, and forward. Stepwise method employs a combination of the procedures used in the forward entry and backward removal methods. At Step 1, the procedures for forward entry are performed. At any subsequent step where two or more effects have been selected for entry KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 11 of 16

12 into the model, forward entry is performed if possible, and backward removal is performed if possible, until neither procedure can be performed and stepping is terminated. Stepping is also terminated if the maximum number of steps is reached. In the backward removal method, at each step after step 0, the removal statistic is computed for each effect eligible to be removed from the model. If no effect has a value on the removal statistic, which is less than the critical value for removal from the model, then stepping is terminated, otherwise the effect with the smallest value on the removal statistic is removed from the model. Stepping is also terminated if the maximum number of steps is reached. In the forward method, at each step after step 0, the entry statistic is computed for each effect eligible for entry in the model. If no effect has a value on the entry statistic which exceeds the specified critical value for model entry, then stepping is terminated, otherwise the effect with the largest value on the entry statistic is entered into the model. Stepping is also terminated if the maximum number of steps is reached. Table 4 shows the results from each method of regression analysis. Table 4 Variables to be included in the models by different method of regression Regression Methods Variables to be included in the models Stepwise SFI, ERV, FWD, EPS Backward SFI, FIS, ERV, FWD, EPS Forward SFI, ERV, FWD, EPS From the results of three different regression methods, it is shown that four independent variables are relevant. Those variables are SFI, ERV, FWD, and EPS. The results are shown with the same results of simple regressions. Table 5 shows the scales of those independent variables and the dependent variable. Table 5 Scales of variables Classification variables Scales Dependent Willingness to subscribe 1: No, I don t 2: Maybe not 3: No idea 4: variable the Internet service (WIS) Maybe 5: Yes, I do Satisfaction to the Internet service (SFI) 1: Very unsatisfied 2: Unsatisfied 3: No opinion 4: Satisfied 5: Very satisfied Experience of downloading 1: Yes 2: No real-time video (ERV) Independent Frequency of watching 1: Everyday 2: Once in two or three days 3: variables DVD (FWD) Once a week 4: Two or three times in a month 5: Once a month 6: Once in two months 7: Rare Experience of visiting PC 1: Yes 2: No KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 12 of 16

13 studio (EPS) ITS Usage Patterns II From the different kinds of methods of multiple regression analysis, SFI, ERV, FWD, and EPS are shown as relevant independent variables which explain the dependent variable. As the final step, the enter method of multiple regression is carried out. In the enter method, either critical F values or critical p values can be specified to be used to control entry and removal of effects from the model. If p values are specified, the actual value used to control entry and removal of effects from the model is 1 minus the specified p values. The critical value for model entry must exceed the critical value for removal from the model. A maximum number of steps can also be specified. If not previously terminated, stepping stops when the specified maximum number of steps is reached. From the enter method of regression analysis, the model is constructed as following formula. Y = SFI 0.131ERV 0.033FWD EPS (1) Table 6 Results of the regression analysis Variables Constant SFI ERV FWD EPS coefficient t-value p-value Conclusions This study aims to find the characteristics of the leading customers of high-speed internet services. Several characteristics of leading customers are proposed, such as usage volume, usage pattern, disposition of selecting telecommunications services among several alternative services, and demographical characteristics. We analyze the relationship among those characteristics of customers and their needs for high-speed internet access services. To select relevant variables which are included in the model, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and simple regression analysis are carried out. From those analyses, four independent variables are shown as the relevant variable to explain the characteristics of the high-speed internet user. Those are satisfaction to the Internet service (SFI), experience of downloading real-time video (ERV), frequency of watching DVD (FWD), and experience of visiting PC studio (EPS). From the results, we can mention that the high-speed internet user who is satisfied with their current service have experiences of downloading real-time video or visiting PC studio, and often watch DVD have more intention to subscriber the advanced high-speed KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 13 of 16

14 internet service. That means that the users who feel need much bandwidth for their internet service is inclined to subscribe the advanced high-speed internet service. 7. Implications and Contributions From the results of this study, we have some of the implications in the high-speed internet service market. In the view of the telecom carrier, selecting the target user at the time of service launching is a crucial concern. In this study, it is shown that the user-groups who have more experience of high-volume data services, such as real-time video, are accustomed to digital product or experience of visiting at the places which are provided those high-speed internet services can be major target users. Based on the results from this study, it is recommended that the advanced high-speed internet service providers should develop the bundling services which include related services with the advanced high-speed internet service. That means service providers should concern the advanced high-speed internet service as a method to satisfy the users needs for highbandwidth products. The relevant bundling with those products or services can be effective marketing tools. This study engages exploratory research to find out some characteristics for the user of advanced high-speed internet service. This study shows some characteristics from analyses of survey data. These characteristics can be a basis for marketing of the advanced internet service. References [1] Angelique Augereau and Shane Greenstein, The need for speed in emerging communications markets: upgrades to advanced technology at Internet Service Providers, International Journal of Industrial Organization, Vol.19, pp , July [2] Francois Bar, Stephen Cohen, Peter Cowhey, Brad DeLong, Michael Kleeman, and John Zysman, Access and innovation policy for the third-generation internet, Telecommunications Policy, Vol.24, pp , August [3] Robert Fildes and V. Kumar, Telecommunications demand forecasting a review, International Journal of Forecasting, Vol.18, pp , October/December [4] Victor Glass, Salvatore Talluto, and Chris Babb, Technological breakthroughs lower the cost of broadband service to isolated customers, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 20, pp , May [5] Hankook Research, Survey Report on Next Generation Networks, October KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 14 of 16

15 [6] Takao Ichiko, Masaki Yamamoto, Yousuke Kawamura, and Motochika Hanano, Advanced multimedia telecommunications using a high speed broadband backbone network beyond all aspects of the current internet, Computers & Education, Vol.37, pp , November/December [7] Jae-Kyung Kim, How to succeed in the WLAN a Lesson from Wired ADSL in Korea, The 14th ITS European Regional Conference, September [8] Seung-Hoon Lee, young-joo Kweon, Doo-Young Yoon, and Dong-Min Lim, Sector of Telecommunications Services, Trends of Information and Communications Industry, Korea Information Strategy Development Institute (KISDI), December (in Korean) [9] Gwanghoon Lee, Sungmoon Shin, and Yongwoo Park, The study of subscriber churn in the high speed Internet service market, KISDI Research Report, Vol , Korea Information Strategy Development Institute (KISDI), December (in Korean) [10] Denise Matthews and Lynne Schrum, High-speed Internet use and academic gratifications in the college residence, Internet and Higher Education, Vol.6, pp , 2 nd Quarter [11] Bharat Rao and Mihir A. Parikh, Wireless broadband drivers and their social implications, Technology in Society, Vol.25, pp , November [12] Ronald E. Rice and James E. Katz, Comparing internet and mobile phone usage: digital divides of usage, adoption, and dropouts, Telecommunications Policy, Vol.27, pp , September/October [13] Hung-Pin Shih, An empirical study on predicting user acceptance of e-shopping on the Web, Information & Management, Vol.41, pp , January (a) [14] Hung-Pin Shih, Extended technology acceptance model of Internet utilization behavior, Information & Management, Vol.41, pp , July (b) [15] Eric C.C. Shiu and John A. Dawson, Comparing the impacts of Internet technology and national culture on online usage and purchase from a four-country perspective, Internet and Higher Education, Vol.6, 2 nd Quarter 2003, pp Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, February [16] Burkhard Stiller, Peter Reichl, Jan Gerke, Hasan, and Placi Flury, Charging and accounting in high-speed networks, Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol.19, pp , January [17] Choon-Han Yoon and Gwanghoon Lee, Logit Analysis of Broadband Internet Service Subscription Households Characteristics: A Case Study of South Korea, Korean Journal of Industrial Organization, Vol.10, pp , (in Korean) [18] Soo-Hyeon Yoon, Moon-Gil Yoon, and Jinjoo Lee, On selecting a technology evolution path for broadband access networks, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, KIM, JIN KI (SUNY at Buffalo, USA) Page 15 of 16

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