THE LUWIANS H. CRAIG MELCHERT BRILL LEIDEN BOSTON 2003 EDITED BY

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1 THE LUWIANS EDITED BY H. CRAIG MELCHERT -c BRILL LEIDEN BOSTON 2003

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface List of Abbreviations List of Maps, Figures and Plates xi xiii xvii CHAPTER ONE: Introduction (H. Craig Melchert) 1 1. Definition: who were the Luwians? 1 2. Sources 3 3. Dating and Chronology 4 4. Geography 5 CHAPTER TWO: Prehistory (H. Craig Melchert) 8 1. General Considerations 8 2. Luwian as an Indo-European Language Indo-European Anatolian Languages in the Late Third Millennium Palaic Luwian Lycian and Carian Hittite (Nesite) Lydian Indo-European Speakers in Anatolia: when and from where?. 23 CHAPTER THREE: History (Trevor R. Bryce) 27 A. Introduction 27 B. The Luwians in their Bronze Age Context The Luwian Population Groups of Western Anatolia The Arzawa Lands The Geographical Extent of the Arzawa Lands The Lukka People 40 2 History of Western Anatolia in the Late Bronze Age The Limitations of Luwian History Early Contacts and Conflicts between Hatti and the Arzawa Lands The Luwians of Western Anatolia during the First Half of the Hittite Kingdom 54

3 vi TABLE OF CONTENTS 2.4 Prospects for a Luwian Empire The Arzawa Lands as Hittite Vassal States Further Unrest amongst the Western States Lukka in the context of Western Anatolian History The Final Years of the Bronze Age Kingdoms The Diffusion of Luwian-speakers The Luwians of Southeastern Anatolia 88 C. The Luwians in their Iron Age Context The Kingdom of Hartapu Tabal Luwian Elements in Lycia and Cilicia Cilicia in non-classical Sources Cilicia in Classical Sources Lycia Legendary Traditions Sources for the History of Lycia Patterns of Settlement Some Historical Information The evidence of the coinage Lycia in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods Greek elements in Lycia Some Final Observations 124 CHAPTER FOUR: Scripts and Texts (J. D. Hawkins) Introduction Recognition Cuneiform Luwian Hieroglyphic Decipherment of Hieroglyphic Initial considerations Successful entry Seals (Bogazkoy) The Bilingual (KARATEPE) Further seals (Ras Shamra) Publications The 'new readings' Luwian united: progress since The Texts Cuneiform Luwian,. 138

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS vil 5.2 Hieroglyphic The Empire corpus Luwian character Seals Dating Empire-Late transition The Late corpus The Scripts Cuneiform Hieroglyphic Empire script: external appearance Empire script: internal characteristics Peculiar graphic practice: 'initial-a-final' Late script: external appearance Late script: internal characteristics Origins 166 CHAPTER FIVE: Language (H. Craig Melchert) 170 A. Forms of Luwian Cuneiform and Hieroglyphic Luwian Lycian, Carian, Pisidian and Sidetic 175 B. Phonology Phonemic Inventory Phonological Rules/Variation Rhotacism Deletions Insertions 'Sandhi' Rules Vowel Lengthening Phonotactics Consonants Vowels Accent 185 C.M-rphology Nominal Inflection Gender and Number Case mutation' Possessive Adjectives in/-assa-/? 188

5 Vlli TABLE OF CONTENTS 2. Pronouns Personal Pronouns Demonstrative, Interrogative-Relative, and Indefinite Pronouns Verbal Inflection Finite Forms of the Verb Non-finite Forms of the Verb Word Formation Word Classes Nominal Stem Formation Verbal Stem Formation 199 D. Syntax Word Order Agreement Use of Cases Adpositions Use of Pronouns Use of Verbal Categories Negation Questions Subordinate Clauses Non-subordinating Conjunctions Local Particles 210 CHAPTER SIX: Aspects of Luwian Religion (Manfred Hutter) A. Introduction Defining 'Luwians' chronologically and geographically Defining Luwian Religion as a religion of its own 215 B. The Gods of the Luwians 218 General outline Tarhunt and Tiwad: gods of all Luwians The Storm-god The Sun-god Some further male gods: Arma, Santa, LAMMA The main Luwian goddesses: Kamrusepa, Maliya, Huwassanna 230 C. Festivals and Magical Rituals from Local Luwian Centers Greater Arzawa The Lower Land? Istanuwa and Lallupiya 239

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS IX 2.2 Huwassanna's cult at Hupisna Magical rituals from the Lower Land Luwian rituals from Kizzuwatna The function of Luwian religious texts in the Hittite capital 254 D. Religious Experience, Values, and the People Approaching the gods' sacredness Elements of the Luwian idea of man 260 E. Continuity and Change in the First Millennium Western Anatolia and contacts with the '(Pre)-Greek world Tabal and the ongoing 'mixed' population in the Lower Land Kizzuwatna 275 F. Conclusion: Luwian religion a fragmentizing approach 277 CHAPTER SEVEN: Art and Architecture (Sanna Aro) 281 A. Scope of this chapter and terminology 281 B. Luwian art and architecture in the Bronze Age? 285 C. Luwian art and architecture in the Iron Age context State of research and limits of present overview Archaeological research Monographs and handbooks on art and architecture Datings of Luwian art in the Iron Age 'Luwian' centers in North Syria: continuity or discontinuity? Architecture Defensive walls and monumental gate structures Palaces and other public buildings Sacral Buildings Figured Works of Art Portal figures Lions Sphinxes Orthostat reliefs Stelae Storm-god Tarhunza Kubaba and other goddesses Kubaba with Karhuha Tutelary and other deities

7 X TABLE OF CONTENTS Rulers Rulers and deities together Other funerary or grave stelae Statuary Cult-statues of deities Ruler statues Statuettes Statue bases Rock reliefs 333 Bibliography 338 Indices 364 Persons 364 Deities 367 Lands, Peoples, and Dynasties 369 Cities and Sites 372 Mountains 375 Rivers, Lakes, and Seas 375 Languages 376 Cuneiform Luwian 376 Hieroglyphic Luwian 379 Hittite 381 Lycian 382 Lydian 382 Other Languages 383 Plates

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