1 CDCI Assistive Technology Tryout Center, Communication Connection! The conference call in number for today is Phone number Passcode is:859908
2 Let me show you! Using modeling to teach language and communication skills MAUREEN NEVERS, M.S. CCC-SLP VERMONT ITEAM MAY 18, 2011 Vermont ITeam
3 Today s Agenda 1. Modeling defined 2. 5 STEPS Planning Process 1. Targets 2. Teaching 3. Tasks and Tools 4. Testing 5. Team 3. References and Resources
4 Be alarmed There is also strong neuropsychological evidence that very young children with complex communication needs require early intervention, and that the consistency and quality of the instruction they receive is likely to have a lasting impact on the level of linguistic and communicative competence they will ultimately achieve. Even so, few people are ringing loud the alarm bells. Augmentative Communication News: September 2006 Volume 18, No 3
5 What is Modeling? Modeling is an instructional strategy where you show someone how to do something so that they can do it in the future.
6 What is Modeling? As a strategy for learning language, modeling occurs when the partner communicates with the person in natural contexts using the modes and materials that the person is expected to use.
7 What is Modeling? Modeling is a valuable teaching and learning strategy that is is important for learning language at any age or stage, but is critical for beginning communicators.
8 Modeling is key to intervention Despite their diversity, the research reports summarized in this article all have a common thread all studies investigate the use of aided AAC modeling as a key component of AAC instruction. Drager, 2010
9 Other Names Associated with Modeling Aided-language stimulation Non-directive language Augmented Input System for Augmenting Language (SAL) Aided Language Modeling Aided AAC Modeling Total Communication
10 Why do communicators need models? Benefits of new forms are not obvious No natural models to observe and imitate Telling doesn t work Language learning requires ongoing support
11 Don t just tell, show We just can t tell beginning communicators how to interact... using AAC We need to show them how to use the modes of communication and demonstrate that using AAC works and can work for them. Augmentative Communication News: September 2006 Volume 18, No 3
12 Why is Modeling important? Partners input is consistent with the expected output Shows the person how the system can be used Sends message that the AAC system is an acceptable form of communication Facilitates comprehension by providing additional visual information Demonstrates appropriate interaction skills Provides opportunities for learning new language concepts
13 Benefits of Modeling Provides opportunities to observe the functional uses of the AAC system Helps identify strengths and limitations of the system Sensitizes facilitators to difficulties in using the AAC approach Requires facilitators to become competent users of AAC Makes communicative interactions naturally slower, allowing more time for processing the language Ensures language input will is relevant to the context and needs of communicator
14 Targets Teaching Tasks & Tools Testing Team Learning outcomes, standards Instructional methods, formats Activities, themes, topics, materials Formal and Informal Assessment Personnel supports and services
15 Targets What are the goals or outcomes that I am hoping to achieve?
16 Potential Partner Goals 1. Set the stage for production of language using AAC. 2. Provide support for individuals who have difficulty understanding spoken language to increase their participation across activities and interactions. 3. Assist in eliciting target language forms (e.g. teach specific vocabulary, syntactic structures, or communicative functions). 4. Elicit target behavior as part of a prompt hierarchy.
17 Potential Communicator s Goals 1. Learn meaning of vocabulary 2. Increase use of morphological markers 3. Expand syntactic structures 4. Increase communicative functions 5. Follow routines can be applied to nearly any individualized language or communication goal
18 We aren t great partners... Research shows that the partners of people with complex communication needs tend to ask predominantly yes/no questions, interrupt, take the majority of conversational turns, provide few opportunities for communication, and focus on the technology rather than the individual. Augmentative Communication News: September 2006 Volume 18, No 3
19 Teaching What are the instructional methods and approaches associated with this strategy?
20 Modeling Partner use of communication modes/ materials Partner represents: own words communicator s words instructor s words others words words related to the current situation.
21 Modeling challenges Limited AAC system Balancing use of AAC modes during interactions Understanding the demands on the communicator Determining the amount of support needed Skilled trainers for partners
22 Partner s Role/Responsibilities Modeling requires that the partner: Understand what modeling is Understand the support necessary for the communicator Know the target to model Be competent in using the AAC system Provide multiple opportunities for learning Be flexible for application in natural contexts
23 Don t just tell, show If a facilitator with competent communication skills cannot effectively communicate using a communication display, then we cannot reasonably expect the augmented speaker to develop communication competency with that display Elder and Goossens, 1994
24 Communicator s Role/Responsibilities Modeling requires that the communicator: Pay attention Retain an image of the model to reproduce later Have multiple opportunities to practice the modeled behavior Be motivated (internally or externally) to imitate the behavior Make the effort to reproduce the model
25 Modeling Notes Communicators need to experience models of their language Aided language communication does not naturally occur, so we have to create this environment Language is not learned through straight imitation, but through broad experiences of concepts, vocabulary and applications. Give logical feedback for communicator s attempts Focus on the interaction, having a conversation as opposed to working on the system Talk in short sentences while pointing to targets
26 Modeling Guidelines Application is genuine, natural, meaningful Partners are trained and supported Partners practice, with and without the communicator Supports are accessible, available Supports contain sufficient quantity of symbols representing range of functions Models are at and above student s current expressive skills - Model one more stage of language for the child Partners point to one or more symbols per utterance Communicator is not required to use the support Partners comment, wonder, observe, notice
27 Partner Modeling Strategies Teach partners to become effective facilitators by using strategies such as: Responding to the child s point of focus Using aided AAC modeling Using expectant delay Asking open-ended questions Use cuing hierarchy
28 What are the types of modeling? 1. Language Immersion 2. Comprehension 3. Production 4. Prompt
29 Modeling as a Language Immersion Approach Goal: setting the stage for production of language using AAC rather than eliciting it Measured by: increase in person s use of AAC modes and speech. Focus is on activities and interactions, not instruction Modeling and scaffolding occur throughout the day In natural contexts With multiple partners who are competent users of the language Learners experience people interacting with them Learners observe people as they interact with one another. Total immersion is ideal, but partial immersion is possible
30 Large Group Reading and Modeling in Classroom
31 Get Ready for Outside Language - Preschool
32 Modeling to Support Comprehension Goal: provide support for individuals who have difficulty understanding spoken language to increase their participation across daily activities and interactions Measured by: increase in comprehension and participation, possibly decrease in frustration or challenging behaviors Trained facilitators use AAC paired with speech Examples: speak + point to icons on device speak + sign speak + point to symbol + point to its referent Examples: Visual scene displays (VSDs) Visual supports, such as calendards, schedules Written scripts
33 Modeling with a High Tech Device Grocery Store Schedule on ipad
34 Modeling to Support Specific Language Target Production Goal: elicit target language forms (e.g. teach specific vocabulary, syntactic structures, or communicative functions) Measured by: child successfully uses targeted language forms in expanding contexts Skilled clinician models the language target while speaking May combine with scaffolding strategies Helpful for young children or early communicators who are learning language and using AAC for expression.
35 Navigating to cut after model
36 Modeling as Part of a Prompting Hierarchy Goal: elicit target behavior Measured by: number of times child produces the target behavior and under what circumstances Adult/teacher models are commonly used as part of a prompt hierarchy to elicit specific behaviors Visual (point to), verbal ( say ) and tactile (touch arm) prompts are also often part of prompt hierarchies Carryover and maintenance are also important factors to track
37 YouTube Video Mom with Book Goal: elicit target behavior Measured by: number of times child produces the target behavior and under what circumstances Adult/teacher models are commonly used as part of a prompt hierarchy to elicit specific behaviors Visual (point to), verbal ( say ) and tactile (touch arm) prompts are also often part of prompt hierarchies Carryover and maintenance are also important factors to track
38 Scaffolding and Response Strategies Response strategies are modeling techniques that are specifically employed after the user has communicated a message. Scaffolding is helps us determine what we model.
39 Scaffolded Response Strategies imitate Partner repeats message that was expressed by the communicator repeat Partner repeats message that was expressed in another form (e.g. person standing at the door, partner says go and out with Core) expand Partner adds to message (e.g. person says want, partner expands to want this )
40 Scaffolded Response Strategies connect Partner adds a connecting word (e.g. because, and, then, so, but) to encourage person to continue. correct Partner repeats message using the correct grammar or marker (e.g. person says that want, partner models want that )
41 Tasks What are the activities that will provide an appropriate context for learning?
42 Modeling should occur During meaningful exchanges In natural environments Across contexts and activities Again, and again, and again
43 Tools What materials and supports will be necessary?
44 Modeling Materials No-tech Speaking only Low-tech Paper-based tools Pair with speech Mid-tech Recordable devices High-tech Speech generating devices Personal digital electronic devices (e.g. ipad)
45 No-tech Modeling Adult: Tell me about Wilbur Student: small Adult: Yes, he is small
46 Low Tech Book for Modeling
47 Modeling with a Low Tech Board
48 Modeling with Low Tech Materials Emergency prep lesson Saying help
49 Modeling with a High Tech Device
50 Modeling with a High Tech Device Grocery Store Schedule on ipad
51 Modeling Materials It may be necessary to have separate or supplemental displays for the adults to use so that they have access to the greater volume of vocabulary
52 Modeling Materials The only pre-requisite for modeling is that the communicator s AAC supports have to be available. See the child, see the device See the communicator, see their voice
53 Change is purposeful Being an effective communication partner or AAC facilitator is not intuitive. It often requires one to change long-established, unconscious ways of communicating. Augmentative Communication News: September 2006 Volume 18, No 3
54 Testing How will I evaluate the student s progress towards the identified outcomes?
55 Measuring Communicator Outcomes increase in person s use of AAC modes and speech. increase in comprehension and participation, possibly decrease in frustration or challenging behaviors child successfully uses targeted language forms in expanding contexts number of times child produces the target behavior and under what circumstances
56 Outcomes of Modeling In addition to changing partner behaviors, Drager and her colleagues found that instruction in modeling resulted in increases in: communicative turn-taking use of communicative functions lengths of utterances semantic diversity syntactic complexity Drager, 2010
57 Team What are the resources and supports that the Team will need to implement this intervention?
58 Opportunity is purposeful While we know modeling is an important, if not key, instructional strategy, we also know that modeling does not flow naturally from environmental exposure and daily social interactions. Rather, it must be orchestrated Augmentative Communication News: September 2006 Volume 18, No 3
59 The reality Few guidelines for how to model Few people trained to model Most people don t model Communicators have a deficit of appropriate input Communicators have few opportunities for rich communication experiences
60 Partner Instruction Model 1. Pretest and solicit the partner s commitment to learning the targeted strategy. 2. Describe the strategy. 3. Demonstrate use of the strategy. 4. Provide verbal practice of the strategy steps 5. Practice implementing the strategy in controlled contexts (i.e., in role plays with the first author). 6. Practice implementing the strategy in natural contexts (i.e., book reading with the children). 7. Complete posttest and solicit the partner s commitment to long-term implementation of the strategy. 8. Demonstrate generalized use of the strategy. Binger, 2010
61 Planning to Model The Instructor models (shows or uses) the communication display: targeted word(s) or language targets: for: a specific length of time a specific activity specific event/occurrence a defined quantity of models
62 Resources and References Binger, C. (2010) Teaching Educational Assistants to Facilitate the Multisymbol Message Productions of Young Students Who Require Augmentative and Alternative Communication American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology Vol Drager, K. (2009) Aided Modeling Interventions for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Require AAC Perspectives on Augmentative and Alternative Communication Goossens, C., Crain, S., & Elder, P. (1992). Engineering the preschool environment for interactive, symbolic communication. Birmingham, So utheast Augmentative Communication Conference Publications.
63 Resources and References Augmentative Communication News: September 2006 Volume 18, No 3 Description: Modeling is the target topic of this issue of the ACN newsletter. This 11-page document is an excellent resource on this topic, and is available for anyone to download from the link below. Web address: Teaching Strategies - Modeling in Everyday Activities Multi-page handout on how to use model.