COST CALCULATION IN COMPLEX TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "COST CALCULATION IN COMPLEX TRANSPORT SYSTEMS"

Transcription

1 OST ALULATION IN OMLEX TRANSORT SYSTEMS Zoltán BOKOR 1 Introduction Determining the real oeration and service costs is essential if transort systems are to be lanned and controlled effectively. ost information is necessary not only for ricing or charging issues but also for analyzing efficiency or managing resource allocation. Therefore secial attention shall be aid to the calculation of transort costs so that decisions based on this information become as correct as ossible. Several methods can assist decision suort rocedures aiming to determine transort costs. Nevertheless, understanding the cost structure in comlex transort systems may be very difficult due to the extensive intern service relations within the examined comany. In such transort systems a considerable amount of resources is consumed by multile intermediate or end services. It means that cost calculations cannot be erformed in a simle way but shall be governed by an exact methodology. The urose of the modeling rocess resented in this aer is to recommend a method which is able to coe with the roblems of cost calculation in comlex transort systems. The roosed costing tool makes advantages from the results of related researches but at the same time tries to resent a slightly alternative solution to cost allocation. It aims to determine the costs of elementary transort services more exactly and more accurately. Such elementary services can be for examle freight transort tasks, assenger transort services, road or track use services, traction services, etc. Before going into the details of the imroved costing method it is worth reviewing the so called traditional transort costing tools. This short review will highlight the arguments which exlain the need for introducing a more sohisticated cost calculation instrument in the case of transort comanies oerating comlex and heterogeneous service systems. -5-

2 2 Traditional transort costing methods Traditional costing methods based on simle cost allocation techniques are often used in the transort ractice [3]. Figure 1 illustrates the most simle calculation method where the total costs of the transort comany or system are distributed among the elementary transort services, i.e. transort rofit obects ( = 1 m) gaining revenues, in one ste. Fig. 1 Simlest allocation of total transort costs to transort rofit obects transort costs tran. rof. ob. 1 tran. rof. ob. tran. rof. ob. m Source: own edition In the starting oint the total transort costs can be distributed on an equal basis so the cost of a transort rofit obect (i.e. rime cost) can be calculated as follows: (1) m where total cost of transort rofit obect ; total cost of the transort comany. This solution assumes that the transort services are fully homogenous. Nevertheless, this is generally not the case so it is worth using a cost driver reflecting the differences between the transort services. Various transort erformance indicators, e.g. gross ton kilometer, assenger kilometer or vehicle kilometer etc., are usually used for this urose. Thus the calculation formula can be modified as follows: m 1 t t (2) -6- where t erformance of transort rofit obect.

3 The alication of this formula requires the measurement of transort erformance not only in the aggregated but also in the elementary levels of the oeration structure. Although formula (2) takes into account that the different transort services are roduced at different transort erformance levels it still ignores the fact that the set of total costs may not be homogenous. There are namely cost items which can be connected to the rofit obects directly while others can not be allocated to the elementary transort services in such a way. The former cost items constitute the set of direct costs while the set of indirect costs consists of the latter cost items. The cost structures of transort comanies or systems having comlex oeration mechanisms are often characterized by high ratio of indirect costs. So it is advisable to differentiate between the allocation of direct and indirect costs as showed by Figure 2. Fig. 2 Differentiated allocation of direct and indirect transort costs to transort rofit obects direct transort costs indirect transort costs tran. rof. ob. 1 tran. rof. ob. tran. rof. ob. m Source: own edition If the accounting system is able to register the direct costs of transort rofit obects only the indirect costs shall be distributed. The registration of direct costs can in general be absolved through the u-to-date enterrise resource management systems used by transort comanies. In case of homogenous service system the following differentiated calculation formula can be created: id d (3) m d where direct cost of transort rofit obect ; id total indirect cost of the transort comany. If the service structure is not homogenous in the comlex transort comany or system the general transort erformance indicators mentioned before can also be used -7-

4 to allocate the indirect costs to rofit obects. Thus, the formula can be modified as follows: d id m 1 t t (4) If the use of natural erformance indicators is not referred, the direct cost based indirect cost allocation may also be used as showed by equation (5): d id m 1 d d (5) Nevertheless, the ratio of direct costs is not likely to reflect the ratio of indirect costs from the oint of view of rofit obects. That is why the alication of erformance indicators as cost drivers in the allocation of indirect costs leads robably to better results, i.e. to more accurate rime cost data. So formula (4) would theoretically be an adequate cost calculation formula for comlex transort systems. Moreover, such aroaches, i.e. indirect cost allocations based on general transort erformance indicators, are often utilized in the transort sector. Thus general transort erformance indicators can effectively be used in the cost calculation regimes of transort comanies or systems having comlex oeration structures. The calculation rocedures can, however, be further imroved through alying multile erformance indicators as cost drivers. The related methods benefit from the fact that the modeling of the oerational system can be an effective tool for suorting cost allocations in comlex business-technology systems [4]. So the adatation of imroved costing methods to the secific features of transort may deliver real advantages in cost calculation and hereby in the oerative lanning and evaluation of transort systems. 3 The imroved transort costing model The backbone of the imroved costing model is the oeration model which serves as a logic model for cost allocations. The logic model deicts the oerational rocesses of the examined entity, i.e. comany or service system, and gives a guideline on how to trace indirect costs on a cause-effect basis. The oeration model or logic model is based on transort technology knowledge while the costing model can be regarded as one of the transort economics and management tools. Through -8-

5 integrating the logic model into the costing mechanism an effective combination of transort technology and transort economics knowledge can be realized. One of the methods corresonding to the requirements set before, i.e. combining technology and economics knowledge is activity-based costing (AB). This costing aroach uses activities or activity chains to trace indirect costs. AB was traditionally develoed to solve the calculation roblems of comlex manufacturing rocesses with high overhead costs [7]. After its intensive alication in the manufacturing industry the methodology was successfully adated to the service sectors as well. So alications in transort and logistics can also be found in the literature. Although AB has its focus on manufacturing oerations, it is alicable to other comany functions like distribution logistics management [20]. AB has been used to examine the alicability of different drivers for assigning activity costs to roducts in warehouse logistics environment [25]. Another examle is when the conversion of storage systems in a cellular manufacturing environment has been evaluated through estimating the economic effects of the logistics imrovements [21]. AB has been used for introducing a new cost management and decision suort system alicable for order management in suly chains. The main advantage of such systems is that they can even erform on-time rofitability and cost analyses based on the identified cost driver schemes [12]. In order to evaluate the material flows and the related logistics activities in roduction comanies a transarent reorting of logistics costs is needed. These costs remain, however, hidden in the traditional accounting systems. Activity-based costing can hel identify logistics costs classified as overhead costs in roduction systems [13]. It has also been concluded that traditional financial accounting fails to reveal real logistics costs, and AB combined with the economic value added (EVA) method can effectively be used to tackle the roblem of indirect cost allocation in logistics [24]. Suly chain management (SM) needs more accurate cost data on logistics activities. By roviding such data, AB can significantly contribute to the success of SM [1]. AB is a tool which hels managers understanding logistics costs when using the total cost aroach in managing suly chains [14]. Traditional intra-firm costing systems are not aroriate in the context of suly chains due to the missing standards of cost definitions and allocations. AB extended to suly chains can, however, be a owerful inter-firm logistics cost management tool [22]. AB can even be used for suorting tactical roduction lanning in suly chains. This tye of lanning is usually based on hysical arameters. AB can also integrate financial arameters in order to assess the costs of related logistics tasks [8]. -9-

6 Indirect costs accounts for a high ercentage in the total costs of logistics enterrises so it is worth alying an activity cost accounting model in case of such comanies [16]. The cost structure of third-arty logistics service roviders has been analyzed with secial regard to warehousing and transorting activities. It has turned out that AB is a useful tool for assessing the oerational costs of logistics service roviders [10]. Although the determination of true service or oeration costs is one of the methodological difficulties in transortation, there are few related real-life alications resented in the literature [2]. For examle, an activity-based cost management system has been introduced for timber harvesting and long-distance transort, where AB systems were formulated searately for each of the main oerations such as trucking. The foremost use for this tye of costing method is the ability to calculate the efficiency of an individual activity or of the whole logistic system as well [19]. AB has been used to calculate the costs of elementary air transort services, i.e. individual flights through identifying the corresonding cost items and their drivers [23]. The financial erformance of air transort services has also been evaluated by AB and the costing rocedure have been combined with data enveloment analysis (DEA) in order to get information not only on the costs but also on the relative efficiency [15]. It shall be noted that DEA is one of the most significant methods used in the transort sector for efficiency analysis [17]. The most detailed and sohisticated analysis of transort costs based on AB has been carried out for the case of a land transortation comany. It has been ustified that AB utilizing business rocess modeling yields more accurate cost data of transort services than traditional costing [2]. After analyzing the AB alications, it can be concluded that this is a useful method for enhancing the caabilities of transort and logistics costing. A similar but slightly different aroach is the multi-level full cost allocation (MFA) technique where indirect costs are traced along the intern service relations identified in the multilevel structure of various organization units. This aroach has already been alied in logistics management [6]. Here, however, an attemt is made to build u a general transort MFA model and demonstrate its functions. The modeling rocess utilizes the earlier outcomes of the related researches as well. The roosed costing model is shown in Figure 3. This is the imroved version of the model resented in Figure 2. The main difference is that here the set of indirect transort costs is further differentiated and the transort cost obects are introduced as new entities. -10-

7 Fig. 3 Imroved transort cost calculation model based on MFA indirect transort costs tran. co. ob. 1 direct transort costs tran. co. ob. 2 tran. co. ob. 3 tran. co. ob. k tran. co. ob. n tran. rof. ob. 1 tran. rof. ob. tran. rof. ob. m Source: own edition ost obects are the oerational elements causing the indirect costs. They are organizational units and ieces of equiment or other resources, and are arranged into a multi-level hierarchical structure. Tyical cost obects in transort systems are for examle central management units, background service units, tactical or oerative lanning and control units, disosition units, vehicles, infrastructure elements, etc. They can serve other cost obects or can contribute to the roduction of end transort services. So the relations within the set of transort cost obects and between these units and the elementary transort services are also added to the model. ost obects are indexed as k = 1 n. When cost obects lay a role as service cost obects they are indexed as i = 1 n. Indirect costs are first recorded in the cost obects as rimary costs. The rimary cost of a cost obect can be determined on the basis of the resources assigned to it. Such resources can be for examle emloyees, various means of service roduction, etc. Each cost obect shall be rovided with an indicator measuring its erformance. These indicators serve as cost drivers during the cost allocation. The relations between the obects reresent the erformance consumtions. These are the basis of indirect transort cost allocations. The allocation of indirect -11-

8 costs goes from the highest level to the lower levels of obect hierarchy. The allocation is finished when all indirect transort costs aear in the transort rofit obects. The model shall referably be created without erformance feedbacks because they may lead to iterative or heuristic solutions. Of course the distortion of costing information due to ignoring some relations of minor imortance shall be reduced as far as it is ossible. Using the MFA model of Figure 3 the total cost of a cost obect in the examined transort system can be determined by the sum of its rimary cost and the cost items allocated according to the relative erformance consumtion: k k n i1 i ki i k n i1 i ki (6) where k total cost of cost obect k; k rimary cost of cost obect k; i total cost of service cost obect i; ki erformance consumtion of cost obect k at service cost obect i; i total erformance of service cost obect i; ki erformance intensity, i.e. relative erformance consumtion of cost obect k at service cost obect i. Similarly, the total cost of a rofit obect in the examined transort system is the sum of its direct cost and the cost items allocated according to the relative erformance consumtion: d n i1 i i i d n i1 r i i (7) where i erformance consumtion of rofit obect at service cost obect i; r i erformance intensity, i.e. relative erformance consumtion of rofit obect at service cost obect i. It shall be noted, that the sequence of the calculation is fixed: the cost of a given obect can be calculated only if the total cost data of its service obects are already available. According to the rules of full cost allocation, all costs have to be allocated to the rofit obects in the end. It means that the entire erformance of each service cost obect is to be consumed so the following restriction shall be taken into account for all i: -12-

9 n k 1 m r 1 (8) ki 1 The core elements of the MFA model are the erformance intensity indicators reresenting the cost drivers. These arameters can be described in matrices as well. One of the matrices contains the relative erformance consumtions identified between the cost obects while the other one consists of the relative erformance consumtions registered between the cost obects and the rofit obects. Table 1 illustrates the merged matrices by aying attention to the restriction defined by formula (8). ost obects shall be listed in a sequence determined by their hierarchy and cost obect 1 is at the to of the hierarchy. It is obvious that ki = 0 if k = i. The calculation can be solved without iteration if no erformance feedbacks are allowed in the model, which means that ki = 0 if k < i. Tab. 1 The merged erformance intensity matrices cons./serv. co. ob. 1 co. ob. i co. ob. n co. ob n co. ob. k ki - - co. ob. n n1 - r. ob. 1 r 11 r 1n r. ob. r i r. ob. m r m1 r mn Σ i Source: own edition The MFA oeration model hels identify the relations of erformance consumtion, while erformance intensities have to be measured by aroriate technology information systems or at least estimated on the basis of verified technology lans or dedicated statistical surveys. Some mathematical models like regression analysis or analytic hierarchy rocess (AH) may also be useful here [2, 3]. It is worth noting that AH is also used in other transort management tasks, for examle in the assessment of suly quality of ublic transort [9]. Nevertheless, sound factual knowledge of the oerational characteristics of the investigated transort system or comany is needed before running the model, regardless of the methodologies and techniques used for identifying and measuring the erformance indicators. -13-

10 4 Alication After defining the MFA-based transort costing model a samle alication is carried out to demonstrate the calculation rocess. A concetual model of a transort comany is used where the examined transort system can be regarded as comlex. So the samle model deicts the oerational structure of a rail freight transort comany (see Figure 4). It is notable, that the oerational characteristics and costs of comlex railway systems are investigated by other related researches as well [18]. Fig. 4 MFA model for rail freight transort general. man. direction (No. of dir.) IT data volume (GigaByte) financial man. transaction (No. of tran.) human man. served staff (erson) service lanning oeration time (o. hour) oerative control disosition (No. of dis.) vehicle maintenance oeration time (o. hour) commercial services oeration time (o. hour) sales transaction (No. of tran.) eng. drivers working time (work. hour) wag.tye 1 running (veh. km) wag.tye V running (veh. km) eng.tye 1 running (veh. km) eng.tye Z running (veh. km) infrastructure use extern traction service freight train 1 transort erformance (ton. km) freight train Y extern logistics service consignment 1 consignment X -14- Source: [5]

11 The model resented is not alied to a articular comany but relies on observed and documented oerational features of rail transort service roviders [5]. Thus it should be adated to the concrete comany characteristics before a real-world imlementation. The ilot alication does not aim to deliver exact figures of transort costs but it intends to demonstrate how the cost calculation can be ut on a more exact basis through utilizing the MFA model. That is why arameters are used instead of real data when elaborating the calculation formulas. The oeration model suorting the samle cost calculation comrises 5 levels of cost obect hierarchy. Levels 4 and 5 contain the organizational units of central and general management and the information technology (IT) unit. ost obects assigned to levels 1-3 are resonsible for the tactical and oerative lanning and execution of rail freight transort services. The vehicles used can also be found in this grou: wagon tyes (v = 1 V) and engine tyes (z = 1 Z). These cost obects are served by the cost obects of levels 4 and 5 and serve each other or the rofit obects directly. Some relations between the cost obects of levels 4-5 and the ones of levels 1-3, and also within levels 1-3 are deicted in a simlified way; for further details see the calculation broken down later on. Each cost obect is rovided with a erformance indicator. The dimensions of the indicators aear in brackets. Note that some erformance feedbacks may be ignored in levels 4 and 5. As the cost connected to these relations amounts to only a minor art of the total cost of the comany, these simlifications will resumably not affect the ultimate cost data significantly. rofit obects are arranged into two levels. The ultimate rofit obects are the consignments (x = 1 X), i.e. the transortation tasks of consignments. Some direct costs and indirect cost allocations, however, can not be defined at this level so freight trains (y = 1 Y) have to be introduced as technical rofit obects. Extern logistics service costs are the direct cost items of consignments while the costs of freight trains are allocated to the consignments on the basis of consumed transort erformance. The costs of infrastructure use and of extern traction service are the direct costs of freight trains. The other allocations can be erformed by following the identified erformance relations deicted by the model of Figure 4. As mentioned, the ilot calculation is carried out in a arametric way by using and extracting the general formulas (6) and (7). Before defining the concrete calculation formulas a dedicated notation is introduced for the obects and their erformance indicators (see Table 2). Note that the extended erformance indicators substituted for the formulas reresent the relative erformance consumtion. For examle means: (the number of directions consumed by financial management) / (the total number of directions roduced by general management) and so on. -15-

12 Tab. 2 Abbreviations used for the calculation formulas obect erformance indicator name abbr. name abbr. general management GM direction dr information technology IT data volume dv financial management FM transaction tr human management HM served staff ss service lanning S oeration time ot oerative control O disosition ds vehicle maintenance VM oeration time ot commercial services S oeration time ot sales SA transaction tr engine drivers ED working time wt wagon tye WT running ru engine tye ET running ru freight train FT transort erformance t consignment O - - Source: own edition The cost calculation can be done in the sequence exlained in the following. As a first ste, the total costs of general management and IT can be determined as these obects are laced at the to of calculation hierarchy. Their total costs equal to their rimary costs: GM GM (9) IT IT (10) The second ste is the calculation of the total costs of financial management and human management. Their total costs consist of their rimary costs and the allocated costs coming from general management and IT: FM FM GM drfm / GM ITdvFM / IT (11) HM HM GM drhm / GM ITdvHM / IT (12) The total cost of service lanning can be calculated in the third ste by adding u its rimary cost and the allocated cost items coming from the management cost obects and IT: S dr ss (13) S GM S / GM IT dvs / IT FM trs / FM HM S / HM The total costs of oerative control, vehicle maintenance, commercial services and sales are determined in the fourth ste. The total costs of these cost obects consist -16-

13 of their rimary costs and the allocated costs coming from the management cost obects, IT, and service lanning: O HM ss O O / HM S ot O / S GM dr O / GM IT dv O / IT FM tr O / FM (14) VM HM ss VM VM / HM S ot VM / S GM dr VM / GM IT dv VM / IT FM tr VM / FM (15) S HM ss S S / HM S ot S / S GM dr S / GM IT dv S / IT FM tr S / FM (16) SA HM ss SA SA / HM S ot SA / S GM dr SA / GM IT dv SA / IT FM tr SA / FM (17) The fifth ste contains the total cost calculation of engine drivers, wagon tyes and engine tyes. The total cost of engine drivers is the sum of its rimary cost and the allocated costs coming from oerative control, IT, financial management and human management. The total costs of wagon tyes and engine tyes consist of their rimary costs and the allocated costs coming from oerative control, vehicle maintenance, IT and financial management: ED WTv ETz ds ss (18) ED WTv O O ED / O IT dved / IT FM tred / FM WTv / O VM otwt v / VM IT dvwt v / IT HM FM ED / HM ds tr (19) ETz O ETz / O VM otet z / VM IT dvet z / IT FM WTv / FM ds tr (20) ETz / FM The sixth ste is the calculation of the total costs of freight trains. These are the sum of their direct and indirect costs. The direct cost items are the costs of infrastructure use and extern traction service. The indirect costs are allocated form the engine drivers, engine tyes and commercial services: FTy in. use FTy ext. trac. FTy ED wt FTy / ED Z z1 ETz ru FTy / ETz S ot FTy / S (21) At last the total costs of the ultimate rofit obects, i.e. consignments, can be determined by registering their extern logistics service costs as direct costs, adding the allocated indirect costs coming from wagon tyes, commercial services and sales, furthermore, allocating the relevant costs form the technical rofit obects: -17-

14 Ox SA tr ext. l. ser. Ox Ox / SA Y t V ru FTy Ox / FTy WTv Ox / WTv S Ox / S y 1 v1 (22) Theoretically, the intermediate formulas (9) (21) can systematically be substituted for the final formula (22) and so the cost calculation of elementary transort services can even be carried out in one ste. Thus, finally the costs of elementary transort services are described as a function of the direct transort costs, the rimary transort costs and the relative erformance consumtions. Nevertheless, if the calculation is realized in one ste the detailed costing information of cost obects and technical rofit obects is lost. When this intermediate information is also needed for decision making uroses, it is worth referring the stewise cost calculation rocedure resented above. ot 5 Discussion The alication of the MFA model in transort systems can deliver significant advantages for decision makers. The main ositive methodological contribution is that the costs of elementary transort services, ust as in the corresonding AB models, can be determined on a more exact basis through allocating indirect costs in a transarent way. Furthermore, the cause-effect based allocation makes it ossible to exlore and identify the influencing factors of transort service costs so that the interventions aiming to imrove cost efficiency in transort systems can be established more effectively. There are further cost and erformance management functions in transort comanies which can be suorted by using the MFA costing model. For examle the imacts of smaller business rocess reengineering (BR) actions not altering the oerational structure may be modeled through incororating the modifications of cost or erformance arameters and evaluating the outcomes from the oint of view of changing service costs. Moreover, when using the model for integrated businesstechnology lanning, a detailed analysis of lan-fact deviations can also be carried out. Besides the advantages, the ossible constraints of the imlementation shall also be identified. The most imortant requirement of running the transort costing model is the availability of high quality additional inut data resented in the requested format. These are the rimary costs of cost obects and the relative erformance consumtions. roviding the additional inut data may, however, need extra data transformations or collections consuming considerable financial or human resources. -18-

15 Sometimes even estimations or industrial norms relying on ractical exerience can only be used instead of real data. Another imortant methodological difficulty to be considered is the fact that the oerational model is generally a simlified deiction of the real-world business and technology rocesses. It means that some simlifications shall be made and acceted during the modeling hase in order to make the model alicable and calculable. Using estimations and acknowledging simlifications may reduce the correctness of transort costing. Nevertheless, the accuracy of transort service costs calculated through MFA will robably be higher than of the cost data delivered by traditional costing regimes. Similar exerience has been verified by the relevant AB alications as well [2]. A ossible solution to the roblem of simlified oeration modeling can be the use of rocess maing tools which can be adated to the secific features of transort comanies as well [11]. onsequently, it can be stated that the MFA method adated to transort can deliver real methodological advantages in management and engineering ractice but at the same time may need extra resources. Due to the contingent simlifications and estimations the accuracy of the model is not absolute but it is generally still more accurate than the traditional costing rocedures. 6 onclusions As accurate service and oerational cost data are essential to lan, evaluate and manage transort systems or comanies, secial attention shall be aid to the calculation methods alied in ractice. Traditional costing methods may be sufficient cost management tools in the case of transort comanies characterized by a relatively simle oerational structure or a homogeneous set of services. Transort systems with comlex oerational features and inhomogeneous service structures, however, need an imroved cost calculation where the allocation of indirect costs can be erformed on a cause-effect basis. One of the alicable methods is the multi-level full cost allocation technique. It has been shown that MFA can be adated to transort and delivers advantages for cost and erformance management through combining technology and economics knowledge. The elementary transort cost data become more accurate while other management or engineering functions like cause-effect analysis, imact analysis or business-technology lanning can also be suorted effectively. Nevertheless, the imlementation of the imroved transort costing method may have -19-

16 several constraints so a sound consideration of the ositive results exected and the requirements to be met is recommended before deciding on the actual introduction. This work is connected to the scientific rogram of the Develoment of quality oriented and harmonized R+D+I strategy and functional model at BME roect suorted by the New Széchenyi Develoment lan (roect ID: TÁMO-4.2.1/B- 09/1/KMR ). Furthermore, this aer is reared with the suort of the roect Modeling and multi-obective otimization based control of road traffic flow considering social and economical asects of OTKA (roect ID: NK 78168). References [1] Askarany, D., Yazdifar, H., Askary, S.: Suly chain management, activity-based costing and organisational factors. International Journal of roduction Economics, vol. 127, no. 2, 2010, , doi: /.ie [2] Baykasoglu, A., Kalanoglu, V.: Alication of activity-based costing to a land transortation comany: A case study. International Journal of roduction Economics, vol. 116, no. 2, 2008, , doi: /.ie [3] Bokor, Z.: Elaborating cost and erformance management methods in transort. romet Traffic & Transortation, vol. 21, no. 3, 2009, , doi: /tt.v21i3.228 [4] Bokor, Z.: Imroving transort costing by using oeration modeling. Transort, vol. 26, no. 2, 2011, , doi: / [5] Bokor, Z.: ost calculation models for rail transort. Horizons of Railway Transort, vol. 2, no. 1, 2011, [6] Bokor, Z.: Integrating logistics cost calculation into roduction costing. Acta olytechnica Hungarica, vol. 9, no. 3, 2012, [7] Boons, A. N. A. M.: roduct costing for comlex manufacturing systems. International Journal of roduction Economics, vol. 55, no. 3, 1998, , doi: /s (98) [8] omelli, M., Fenies,., Tchernev, N.: A combined financial and hysical flows evaluation for logistic rocess and tactical roduction lanning: Alication in a comany suly chain. International Journal of roduction Economics, vol. 112, no. 1, 2008, , doi: /.ie [9] Duleba, Sz., Mishina, T., Shimazaki, Y.: A dynamic analysis on ublic bus transort s suly quality by using AH. Transort, vol. 27, no. 3, 2012, , doi: / [10] Griful-Miquela,.: Activity-based costing methodology for third-arty logistics comanies. International Advances in Economic Research, vol. 7, no. 1, 2001, , doi: /bf

17 [11] Hraskova, D., Maercak,.: rocess-driven transort comany. LOGI Scientific Journal on Transort and Logistics, vol. 3, no. 2, 2012, [12] Khataie, A. H., Bulgak, A. A., Segovia, J. J.: Activity-based costing and management alied in a hybrid decision suort system for order management. Decision Suort Systems, vol. 52, no. 1, 2011, , doi: /.dss [13] Kranc, J., Logozar, K., Korosec, B.: Activity-based management of logistic costs in a manufacturing comany: a case of increased visibility of logistic costs in a Slovenian aer manufacturing comany. romet Traffic&Transortation, vol. 24, no. 1, 2012, , doi: /tt.v24i1.265 [14] Lin, B., ollins, J., Su, R. K.: Suly chain costing: an activity-based ersective. International Journal of hysical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 31, no. 10, 2001, , doi: /eum [15] Lin, W-h.: Financial erformance and customer service: an examination using activity-based costing of 38 international airlines. Journal of Air Transort Management, vol.19, no. 1, 2012, , doi: /.airtraman [16] Ma, X., Li, J., Yang, B.: Accounting analysis on activity cost in logistic enterrise. In: 18th IEEE International onference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IE&EM), hangcun, IEEE, 2011, , doi: /iieem [17] Markovits-Somogyi, R.: Review and systematization of efficiency measurement methods used in the transort sector. romet Traffic & Transortation, vol. 23, no. 1, 2011, , doi: /tt.v23i1.147 [18] Merkert, R., Smith, A. S. J., Nash,. A.: Benchmarking of train oerating firms a transaction cost efficiency analysis. Transortation lanning and Technology, vol. 33, no. 1, 2010, , doi: / [19] Nurminen, T., Korunen, H., Uusitalo, J.:Alying the activity-based costing to cut-tolength timber harvesting and trucking. Silva Fennica, vol. 43, no. 5, 2009, [20] irttila, T., Hautaniemi,.: Activity-based costing and distribution logistics management. International Journal of roduction Economics, vol. 41, no. 1-3, 1995, , doi: / (94) [21] Satoglu, S. I., Durmusoglu, M. B., Dogan, I.: Evaluation of the conversion from central storage to decentralized storages in cellular manufacturing environments using activitybased costing. International Journal of roduction Economics, vol. 103, no. 2, 2006, , doi: /.ie [22] Schulze, M., Seuring, S., Ewering, h.: Alying activity-based costing in a suly chain environment. International Journal of roduction Economics, vol. 135, no. 2, 2012, , doi: /.ie [23] Tsai, W-H., Kuo, L.: Oerating costs and caacity in the airline industry. Journal of Air Transort Management, vol. 10, no. 4, 2004, , doi: /.airtraman

18 [24] Ye, X.: Logistics cost management based on AB and EVA integrated mode. In: roceedings of IEEE International onference on Automation and Logistics (IAL), hongqing, IEEE, 2011, , doi: /ial [25] Varila, M., Seanen, M., Suomala,.: Detailed cost modelling: a case study in warehouse logistics. International Journal of hysical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 37, no. 3, 2007, , doi: / Resume Accurate costing information is required for several transort management and engineering tasks. Thus it is essential to use adequate cost calculation methods in transort with secial regard to comlex transort systems characterized by a high ratio of indirect costs. Allocating indirect costs in comlex oerational systems requires a transarent and cause-effect based calculation technique like multi-level full cost allocation. This aer aims at adating this method to transort through highlighting the general as well as the secific methodological considerations. The costing model is alied to rail freight transort as a arametric samle calculation. The theoretical and the emirical modeling have showed that the imroved costing mechanism delivers advantages to transort lanning and controlling. At the same time some constraints shall also be taken into account when imlementing the calculation tool in ractice. Key words transort cost calculation, full cost allocation, multi-level allocation, oeration model, rail freight transort Dr. Zoltán Bokor, h.d. Budaest University of Technology and Economics Faculty of Transortation Engineering and Vehicle Engineering Deartment of Transortation Technology and Economics

Service Network Design with Asset Management: Formulations and Comparative Analyzes

Service Network Design with Asset Management: Formulations and Comparative Analyzes Service Network Design with Asset Management: Formulations and Comarative Analyzes Jardar Andersen Teodor Gabriel Crainic Marielle Christiansen October 2007 CIRRELT-2007-40 Service Network Design with

More information

An inventory control system for spare parts at a refinery: An empirical comparison of different reorder point methods

An inventory control system for spare parts at a refinery: An empirical comparison of different reorder point methods An inventory control system for sare arts at a refinery: An emirical comarison of different reorder oint methods Eric Porras a*, Rommert Dekker b a Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Sueriores de Monterrey,

More information

A Simple Model of Pricing, Markups and Market. Power Under Demand Fluctuations

A Simple Model of Pricing, Markups and Market. Power Under Demand Fluctuations A Simle Model of Pricing, Markus and Market Power Under Demand Fluctuations Stanley S. Reynolds Deartment of Economics; University of Arizona; Tucson, AZ 85721 Bart J. Wilson Economic Science Laboratory;

More information

The impact of metadata implementation on webpage visibility in search engine results (Part II) q

The impact of metadata implementation on webpage visibility in search engine results (Part II) q Information Processing and Management 41 (2005) 691 715 www.elsevier.com/locate/inforoman The imact of metadata imlementation on webage visibility in search engine results (Part II) q Jin Zhang *, Alexandra

More information

An important observation in supply chain management, known as the bullwhip effect,

An important observation in supply chain management, known as the bullwhip effect, Quantifying the Bullwhi Effect in a Simle Suly Chain: The Imact of Forecasting, Lead Times, and Information Frank Chen Zvi Drezner Jennifer K. Ryan David Simchi-Levi Decision Sciences Deartment, National

More information

Synopsys RURAL ELECTRICATION PLANNING SOFTWARE (LAPER) Rainer Fronius Marc Gratton Electricité de France Research and Development FRANCE

Synopsys RURAL ELECTRICATION PLANNING SOFTWARE (LAPER) Rainer Fronius Marc Gratton Electricité de France Research and Development FRANCE RURAL ELECTRICATION PLANNING SOFTWARE (LAPER) Rainer Fronius Marc Gratton Electricité de France Research and Develoment FRANCE Synosys There is no doubt left about the benefit of electrication and subsequently

More information

Time-Cost Trade-Offs in Resource-Constraint Project Scheduling Problems with Overlapping Modes

Time-Cost Trade-Offs in Resource-Constraint Project Scheduling Problems with Overlapping Modes Time-Cost Trade-Offs in Resource-Constraint Proect Scheduling Problems with Overlaing Modes François Berthaut Robert Pellerin Nathalie Perrier Adnène Hai February 2011 CIRRELT-2011-10 Bureaux de Montréal

More information

Title: Stochastic models of resource allocation for services

Title: Stochastic models of resource allocation for services Title: Stochastic models of resource allocation for services Author: Ralh Badinelli,Professor, Virginia Tech, Deartment of BIT (235), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA 2461, USA, ralhb@vt.edu Phone : (54) 231-7688,

More information

DAY-AHEAD ELECTRICITY PRICE FORECASTING BASED ON TIME SERIES MODELS: A COMPARISON

DAY-AHEAD ELECTRICITY PRICE FORECASTING BASED ON TIME SERIES MODELS: A COMPARISON DAY-AHEAD ELECTRICITY PRICE FORECASTING BASED ON TIME SERIES MODELS: A COMPARISON Rosario Esínola, Javier Contreras, Francisco J. Nogales and Antonio J. Conejo E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad

More information

CRITICAL AVIATION INFRASTRUCTURES VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT TO TERRORIST THREATS

CRITICAL AVIATION INFRASTRUCTURES VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT TO TERRORIST THREATS Review of the Air Force Academy No (23) 203 CRITICAL AVIATION INFRASTRUCTURES VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT TO TERRORIST THREATS Cătălin CIOACĂ Henri Coandă Air Force Academy, Braşov, Romania Abstract: The

More information

A MOST PROBABLE POINT-BASED METHOD FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OPTIMIZATION

A MOST PROBABLE POINT-BASED METHOD FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OPTIMIZATION 9 th ASCE Secialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability PMC2004 Abstract A MOST PROBABLE POINT-BASED METHOD FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OPTIMIZATION

More information

Comparing Dissimilarity Measures for Symbolic Data Analysis

Comparing Dissimilarity Measures for Symbolic Data Analysis Comaring Dissimilarity Measures for Symbolic Data Analysis Donato MALERBA, Floriana ESPOSITO, Vincenzo GIOVIALE and Valentina TAMMA Diartimento di Informatica, University of Bari Via Orabona 4 76 Bari,

More information

Service Network Design with Asset Management: Formulations and Comparative Analyzes

Service Network Design with Asset Management: Formulations and Comparative Analyzes Service Network Design with Asset Management: Formulations and Comarative Analyzes Jardar Andersen Teodor Gabriel Crainic Marielle Christiansen October 2007 CIRRELT-2007-40 Service Network Design with

More information

The risk of using the Q heterogeneity estimator for software engineering experiments

The risk of using the Q heterogeneity estimator for software engineering experiments Dieste, O., Fernández, E., García-Martínez, R., Juristo, N. 11. The risk of using the Q heterogeneity estimator for software engineering exeriments. The risk of using the Q heterogeneity estimator for

More information

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND THEIR EFFICIENCY EVALUATION SYSTEM IN THE YOTH AND SPORT OFFICES IN NORTH WEST OF IRAN

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND THEIR EFFICIENCY EVALUATION SYSTEM IN THE YOTH AND SPORT OFFICES IN NORTH WEST OF IRAN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND THEIR EFFICIENCY EVALUATION SYSTEM IN THE YOTH AND SPORT OFFICES IN NORTH WEST OF IRAN *Akbar Abdolhosenzadeh 1, Laya Mokhtari 2, Amineh Sahranavard Gargari

More information

Project Management and. Scheduling CHAPTER CONTENTS

Project Management and. Scheduling CHAPTER CONTENTS 6 Proect Management and Scheduling HAPTER ONTENTS 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Planning the Proect 6.3 Executing the Proect 6.7.1 Monitor 6.7.2 ontrol 6.7.3 losing 6.4 Proect Scheduling 6.5 ritical Path Method

More information

Two-resource stochastic capacity planning employing a Bayesian methodology

Two-resource stochastic capacity planning employing a Bayesian methodology Journal of the Oerational Research Society (23) 54, 1198 128 r 23 Oerational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved. 16-5682/3 $25. www.algrave-journals.com/jors Two-resource stochastic caacity lanning

More information

Operational Amplifiers Rail to Rail Input Stages Using Complementary Differential Pairs

Operational Amplifiers Rail to Rail Input Stages Using Complementary Differential Pairs Oerational Amlifiers Rail to Rail Inut Stages Using Comlementary Differential Pairs Submitted to: Dr. Khoman Phang Submitted by: Ahmed Gharbiya Date: November 15, 2002 Abstract A rail to rail inut common

More information

Branch-and-Price for Service Network Design with Asset Management Constraints

Branch-and-Price for Service Network Design with Asset Management Constraints Branch-and-Price for Servicee Network Design with Asset Management Constraints Jardar Andersen Roar Grønhaug Mariellee Christiansen Teodor Gabriel Crainic December 2007 CIRRELT-2007-55 Branch-and-Price

More information

A Virtual Machine Dynamic Migration Scheduling Model Based on MBFD Algorithm

A Virtual Machine Dynamic Migration Scheduling Model Based on MBFD Algorithm International Journal of Comuter Theory and Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2015 A Virtual Machine Dynamic Migration Scheduling Model Based on MBFD Algorithm Xin Lu and Zhuanzhuan Zhang Abstract This

More information

Machine Learning with Operational Costs

Machine Learning with Operational Costs Journal of Machine Learning Research 14 (2013) 1989-2028 Submitted 12/11; Revised 8/12; Published 7/13 Machine Learning with Oerational Costs Theja Tulabandhula Deartment of Electrical Engineering and

More information

Concurrent Program Synthesis Based on Supervisory Control

Concurrent Program Synthesis Based on Supervisory Control 010 American Control Conference Marriott Waterfront, Baltimore, MD, USA June 30-July 0, 010 ThB07.5 Concurrent Program Synthesis Based on Suervisory Control Marian V. Iordache and Panos J. Antsaklis Abstract

More information

Participation in Farm Markets in Rural Northwest Pakistan: A Regression Analysis

Participation in Farm Markets in Rural Northwest Pakistan: A Regression Analysis Pak. J. Commer. Soc. Sci. 2012 Vol. 6 (2), 348-356 Particiation in Farm Markets in Rural Northwest Pakistan: A Regression Analysis Inayatullah Jan Assistant Professor of Rural Develoment, Institute of

More information

Design of A Knowledge Based Trouble Call System with Colored Petri Net Models

Design of A Knowledge Based Trouble Call System with Colored Petri Net Models 2005 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference & Exhibition: Asia and Pacific Dalian, China Design of A Knowledge Based Trouble Call System with Colored Petri Net Models Hui-Jen Chuang, Chia-Hung

More information

Sage HRMS I Planning Guide. The HR Software Buyer s Guide and Checklist

Sage HRMS I Planning Guide. The HR Software Buyer s Guide and Checklist I Planning Guide The HR Software Buyer s Guide and Checklist Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Recent Trends in HR Technology... 1 Return on Emloyee Investment Paerless HR Workflows Business Intelligence

More information

Drinking water systems are vulnerable to

Drinking water systems are vulnerable to 34 UNIVERSITIES COUNCIL ON WATER RESOURCES ISSUE 129 PAGES 34-4 OCTOBER 24 Use of Systems Analysis to Assess and Minimize Water Security Risks James Uber Regan Murray and Robert Janke U. S. Environmental

More information

Web Application Scalability: A Model-Based Approach

Web Application Scalability: A Model-Based Approach Coyright 24, Software Engineering Research and Performance Engineering Services. All rights reserved. Web Alication Scalability: A Model-Based Aroach Lloyd G. Williams, Ph.D. Software Engineering Research

More information

Risk in Revenue Management and Dynamic Pricing

Risk in Revenue Management and Dynamic Pricing OPERATIONS RESEARCH Vol. 56, No. 2, March Aril 2008,. 326 343 issn 0030-364X eissn 1526-5463 08 5602 0326 informs doi 10.1287/ore.1070.0438 2008 INFORMS Risk in Revenue Management and Dynamic Pricing Yuri

More information

Business Development Services and Small Business Growth in Bangladesh

Business Development Services and Small Business Growth in Bangladesh Universal Journal of Industrial and Business Management 1(2): 54-61, 2013 DOI: 10.13189/ujibm.2013.010206 htt://www.hrub.org Business Develoment Services and Small Business Growth in Bangladesh Md. Serazul

More information

CABRS CELLULAR AUTOMATON BASED MRI BRAIN SEGMENTATION

CABRS CELLULAR AUTOMATON BASED MRI BRAIN SEGMENTATION XI Conference "Medical Informatics & Technologies" - 2006 Rafał Henryk KARTASZYŃSKI *, Paweł MIKOŁAJCZAK ** MRI brain segmentation, CT tissue segmentation, Cellular Automaton, image rocessing, medical

More information

Storage Basics Architecting the Storage Supplemental Handout

Storage Basics Architecting the Storage Supplemental Handout Storage Basics Architecting the Storage Sulemental Handout INTRODUCTION With digital data growing at an exonential rate it has become a requirement for the modern business to store data and analyze it

More information

Evaluating a Web-Based Information System for Managing Master of Science Summer Projects

Evaluating a Web-Based Information System for Managing Master of Science Summer Projects Evaluating a Web-Based Information System for Managing Master of Science Summer Projects Till Rebenich University of Southamton tr08r@ecs.soton.ac.uk Andrew M. Gravell University of Southamton amg@ecs.soton.ac.uk

More information

Effect Sizes Based on Means

Effect Sizes Based on Means CHAPTER 4 Effect Sizes Based on Means Introduction Raw (unstardized) mean difference D Stardized mean difference, d g Resonse ratios INTRODUCTION When the studies reort means stard deviations, the referred

More information

Vertically Integrated Systems in Stand-Alone Multistory Buildings

Vertically Integrated Systems in Stand-Alone Multistory Buildings 2005, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae. org). Rerinted by ermission from ASHRAE Journal, (Vol. 47, No. 6, June 2005). This article may not be

More information

F inding the optimal, or value-maximizing, capital

F inding the optimal, or value-maximizing, capital Estimating Risk-Adjusted Costs of Financial Distress by Heitor Almeida, University of Illinois at Urbana-Chamaign, and Thomas Philion, New York University 1 F inding the otimal, or value-maximizing, caital

More information

Rejuvenating the Supply Chain by Benchmarking using Fuzzy Cross-Boundary Performance Evaluation Approach

Rejuvenating the Supply Chain by Benchmarking using Fuzzy Cross-Boundary Performance Evaluation Approach ICSI International Journal of Engineering and echnology, Vol.2, o.6, December 2 ISS: 793-8236 Rejuvenating the Suly Chain by Benchmarking using uzzy Cross-Boundary erformance Evaluation roach RU SUIL BIDU,

More information

Managing specific risk in property portfolios

Managing specific risk in property portfolios Managing secific risk in roerty ortfolios Andrew Baum, PhD University of Reading, UK Peter Struemell OPC, London, UK Contact author: Andrew Baum Deartment of Real Estate and Planning University of Reading

More information

A Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Stock Trends. Abstract

A Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Stock Trends. Abstract A Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Stock Trends Aril Kerby Alma College Alma, MI James Lawrence Miami University Oxford, OH Abstract Is there a method to redict the stock market? What factors determine

More information

Web Inv. Web Invoicing & Electronic Payments. What s Inside. Strategic Impact of AP Automation. Inefficiencies in Current State

Web Inv. Web Invoicing & Electronic Payments. What s Inside. Strategic Impact of AP Automation. Inefficiencies in Current State Pay tream A D V I S O R S WHITE PAPER Web Inv Web Invoicing Strategic Imact of AP Automation What s Inside Inefficiencies in Current State Key Drivers for Automation Web Invoicing Comonents New Automation

More information

Stochastic Derivation of an Integral Equation for Probability Generating Functions

Stochastic Derivation of an Integral Equation for Probability Generating Functions Journal of Informatics and Mathematical Sciences Volume 5 (2013), Number 3,. 157 163 RGN Publications htt://www.rgnublications.com Stochastic Derivation of an Integral Equation for Probability Generating

More information

Re-Dispatch Approach for Congestion Relief in Deregulated Power Systems

Re-Dispatch Approach for Congestion Relief in Deregulated Power Systems Re-Disatch Aroach for Congestion Relief in Deregulated ower Systems Ch. Naga Raja Kumari #1, M. Anitha 2 #1, 2 Assistant rofessor, Det. of Electrical Engineering RVR & JC College of Engineering, Guntur-522019,

More information

http://www.ualberta.ca/~mlipsett/engm541/engm541.htm

http://www.ualberta.ca/~mlipsett/engm541/engm541.htm ENGM 670 & MECE 758 Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems (Advanced Toics) Winter 011 Lecture 9: Extra Material M.G. Lisett University of Alberta htt://www.ualberta.ca/~mlisett/engm541/engm541.htm

More information

IEEM 101: Inventory control

IEEM 101: Inventory control IEEM 101: Inventory control Outline of this series of lectures: 1. Definition of inventory. Examles of where inventory can imrove things in a system 3. Deterministic Inventory Models 3.1. Continuous review:

More information

High Quality Offset Printing An Evolutionary Approach

High Quality Offset Printing An Evolutionary Approach High Quality Offset Printing An Evolutionary Aroach Ralf Joost Institute of Alied Microelectronics and omuter Engineering University of Rostock Rostock, 18051, Germany +49 381 498 7272 ralf.joost@uni-rostock.de

More information

Large-Scale IP Traceback in High-Speed Internet: Practical Techniques and Theoretical Foundation

Large-Scale IP Traceback in High-Speed Internet: Practical Techniques and Theoretical Foundation Large-Scale IP Traceback in High-Seed Internet: Practical Techniques and Theoretical Foundation Jun Li Minho Sung Jun (Jim) Xu College of Comuting Georgia Institute of Technology {junli,mhsung,jx}@cc.gatech.edu

More information

Electronic Commerce Research and Applications

Electronic Commerce Research and Applications Electronic Commerce Research and Alications 12 (2013) 246 259 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Electronic Commerce Research and Alications journal homeage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ecra

More information

Memory management. Chapter 4: Memory Management. Memory hierarchy. In an ideal world. Basic memory management. Fixed partitions: multiple programs

Memory management. Chapter 4: Memory Management. Memory hierarchy. In an ideal world. Basic memory management. Fixed partitions: multiple programs Memory management Chater : Memory Management Part : Mechanisms for Managing Memory asic management Swaing Virtual Page relacement algorithms Modeling age relacement algorithms Design issues for aging systems

More information

C-Bus Voltage Calculation

C-Bus Voltage Calculation D E S I G N E R N O T E S C-Bus Voltage Calculation Designer note number: 3-12-1256 Designer: Darren Snodgrass Contact Person: Darren Snodgrass Aroved: Date: Synosis: The guidelines used by installers

More information

Merchandise Trade of U.S. Affiliates of Foreign Companies

Merchandise Trade of U.S. Affiliates of Foreign Companies 52 SURVEY OF CURRENT BUSINESS October 1993 Merchandise Trade of U.S. Affiliates of Foreign Comanies By William J. Zeile U. S. AFFILIATES of foreign comanies account for a large share of total U.S. merchandise

More information

Failure Behavior Analysis for Reliable Distributed Embedded Systems

Failure Behavior Analysis for Reliable Distributed Embedded Systems Failure Behavior Analysis for Reliable Distributed Embedded Systems Mario Tra, Bernd Schürmann, Torsten Tetteroo {tra schuerma tetteroo}@informatik.uni-kl.de Deartment of Comuter Science, University of

More information

Corporate Compliance Policy

Corporate Compliance Policy Cororate Comliance Policy English Edition FOREWORD Dear Emloyees, The global nature of Bayer s oerations means that our activities are subject to a wide variety of statutory regulations and standards

More information

ENFORCING SAFETY PROPERTIES IN WEB APPLICATIONS USING PETRI NETS

ENFORCING SAFETY PROPERTIES IN WEB APPLICATIONS USING PETRI NETS ENFORCING SAFETY PROPERTIES IN WEB APPLICATIONS USING PETRI NETS Liviu Grigore Comuter Science Deartment University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, IL, 60607 lgrigore@cs.uic.edu Ugo Buy Comuter Science

More information

Monitoring Frequency of Change By Li Qin

Monitoring Frequency of Change By Li Qin Monitoring Frequency of Change By Li Qin Abstract Control charts are widely used in rocess monitoring roblems. This aer gives a brief review of control charts for monitoring a roortion and some initial

More information

On the predictive content of the PPI on CPI inflation: the case of Mexico

On the predictive content of the PPI on CPI inflation: the case of Mexico On the redictive content of the PPI on inflation: the case of Mexico José Sidaoui, Carlos Caistrán, Daniel Chiquiar and Manuel Ramos-Francia 1 1. Introduction It would be natural to exect that shocks to

More information

Integrating Logistics Cost Calculation into Production Costing

Integrating Logistics Cost Calculation into Production Costing Integrating Logistics Cost Calculation into Production Costing Zoltán Bokor Department of Transport Economics Budapest University of Technology and Economics Műegyetem rkp. 3, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary

More information

A Brief Overview of Intermodal Transportation

A Brief Overview of Intermodal Transportation A Brief Overview of Intermodal Transortation Tolga Bektas Teodor Gabriel Crainic January 2007 CIRRELT-2007-03 Tolga Bektas 1, Teodor Gabriel Crainic 1,* 1 Interuniversity Research Centre on Enterrise Networks,

More information

Risk and Return. Sample chapter. e r t u i o p a s d f CHAPTER CONTENTS LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Chapter 7

Risk and Return. Sample chapter. e r t u i o p a s d f CHAPTER CONTENTS LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Chapter 7 Chater 7 Risk and Return LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chater you should be able to: e r t u i o a s d f understand how return and risk are defined and measured understand the concet of risk

More information

Compensating Fund Managers for Risk-Adjusted Performance

Compensating Fund Managers for Risk-Adjusted Performance Comensating Fund Managers for Risk-Adjusted Performance Thomas S. Coleman Æquilibrium Investments, Ltd. Laurence B. Siegel The Ford Foundation Journal of Alternative Investments Winter 1999 In contrast

More information

A Certification Authority for Elliptic Curve X.509v3 Certificates

A Certification Authority for Elliptic Curve X.509v3 Certificates A Certification Authority for Ellitic Curve X509v3 Certificates Maria-Dolores Cano, Ruben Toledo-Valera, Fernando Cerdan Det of Information Technologies & Communications Technical University of Cartagena

More information

One-Chip Linear Control IPS, F5106H

One-Chip Linear Control IPS, F5106H One-Chi Linear Control IPS, F5106H NAKAGAWA Sho OE Takatoshi IWAMOTO Motomitsu ABSTRACT In the fi eld of vehicle electrical comonents, the increasing demands for miniaturization, reliability imrovement

More information

Sang Hoo Bae Department of Economics Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester, MA 01610-1477 508.793.7101 sbae@clarku.edu

Sang Hoo Bae Department of Economics Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester, MA 01610-1477 508.793.7101 sbae@clarku.edu Outsourcing with Quality Cometition: Insights from a Three Stage Game Theoretic Model Sang Hoo ae Deartment of Economics Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester, M 01610-1477 508.793.7101 sbae@clarku.edu

More information

An Efficient Method for Improving Backfill Job Scheduling Algorithm in Cluster Computing Systems

An Efficient Method for Improving Backfill Job Scheduling Algorithm in Cluster Computing Systems The International ournal of Soft Comuting and Software Engineering [SCSE], Vol., No., Secial Issue: The Proceeding of International Conference on Soft Comuting and Software Engineering 0 [SCSE ], San Francisco

More information

Fundamental Concepts for Workflow Automation in Practice

Fundamental Concepts for Workflow Automation in Practice Fundamental Concets for Workflow Automation in Practice Stef Joosten and Sjaak Brinkkemer Centre for Telematics and Information Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands March 12, 1995 This aer

More information

Optimal Routing and Scheduling in Transportation: Using Genetic Algorithm to Solve Difficult Optimization Problems

Optimal Routing and Scheduling in Transportation: Using Genetic Algorithm to Solve Difficult Optimization Problems By Partha Chakroborty Brics "The roblem of designing a good or efficient route set (or route network) for a transit system is a difficult otimization roblem which does not lend itself readily to mathematical

More information

CONNECTED VEHICLE INFRASTRUCTURE DEPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Lessons Learned from Safety Pilot and Other Connected Vehicle Test Programs

CONNECTED VEHICLE INFRASTRUCTURE DEPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Lessons Learned from Safety Pilot and Other Connected Vehicle Test Programs CONNECTED VEHICLE INFRASTRUCTURE DEPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Lessons Learned from Safety Pilot and Other Connected Vehicle Test Programs May 30, 2014 [this age intentionally left blank] ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

More information

Where you are Where you need to be How you get there Market Intelligence Competitive Insights Winning Strategies

Where you are Where you need to be How you get there Market Intelligence Competitive Insights Winning Strategies Where you are Where you need to be How you get there Market Intelligence Cometitive Insights Winning Strategies The industrial and B2B market research and strategy firm Dominate Your Markets Whether you

More information

An Associative Memory Readout in ESN for Neural Action Potential Detection

An Associative Memory Readout in ESN for Neural Action Potential Detection g An Associative Memory Readout in ESN for Neural Action Potential Detection Nicolas J. Dedual, Mustafa C. Ozturk, Justin C. Sanchez and José C. Princie Abstract This aer describes how Echo State Networks

More information

Static and Dynamic Properties of Small-world Connection Topologies Based on Transit-stub Networks

Static and Dynamic Properties of Small-world Connection Topologies Based on Transit-stub Networks Static and Dynamic Proerties of Small-world Connection Toologies Based on Transit-stub Networks Carlos Aguirre Fernando Corbacho Ramón Huerta Comuter Engineering Deartment, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,

More information

TOWARDS REAL-TIME METADATA FOR SENSOR-BASED NETWORKS AND GEOGRAPHIC DATABASES

TOWARDS REAL-TIME METADATA FOR SENSOR-BASED NETWORKS AND GEOGRAPHIC DATABASES TOWARDS REAL-TIME METADATA FOR SENSOR-BASED NETWORKS AND GEOGRAPHIC DATABASES C. Gutiérrez, S. Servigne, R. Laurini LIRIS, INSA Lyon, Bât. Blaise Pascal, 20 av. Albert Einstein 69621 Villeurbanne, France

More information

What Makes an Effective Coalition?

What Makes an Effective Coalition? MARCH 2011 What Makes an Effective Coalition? Evidence-Based Indicators of Success Funded by and reared for: TCC Grou Team and Acknowledgements This aer was reared by Jared Raynor with extensive research

More information

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES HOW MUCH OF CHINESE EXPORTS IS REALLY MADE IN CHINA? ASSESSING DOMESTIC VALUE-ADDED WHEN PROCESSING TRADE IS PERVASIVE

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES HOW MUCH OF CHINESE EXPORTS IS REALLY MADE IN CHINA? ASSESSING DOMESTIC VALUE-ADDED WHEN PROCESSING TRADE IS PERVASIVE NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES HOW MUCH OF CHINESE EXPORTS IS REALLY MADE IN CHINA? ASSESSING DOMESTIC VALUE-ADDED WHEN PROCESSING TRADE IS PERVASIVE Robert Kooman Zhi Wang Shang-Jin Wei Working Paer 14109

More information

A Modified Measure of Covert Network Performance

A Modified Measure of Covert Network Performance A Modified Measure of Covert Network Performance LYNNE L DOTY Marist College Deartment of Mathematics Poughkeesie, NY UNITED STATES lynnedoty@maristedu Abstract: In a covert network the need for secrecy

More information

The fast Fourier transform method for the valuation of European style options in-the-money (ITM), at-the-money (ATM) and out-of-the-money (OTM)

The fast Fourier transform method for the valuation of European style options in-the-money (ITM), at-the-money (ATM) and out-of-the-money (OTM) Comutational and Alied Mathematics Journal 15; 1(1: 1-6 Published online January, 15 (htt://www.aascit.org/ournal/cam he fast Fourier transform method for the valuation of Euroean style otions in-the-money

More information

Asymmetric Information, Transaction Cost, and. Externalities in Competitive Insurance Markets *

Asymmetric Information, Transaction Cost, and. Externalities in Competitive Insurance Markets * Asymmetric Information, Transaction Cost, and Externalities in Cometitive Insurance Markets * Jerry W. iu Deartment of Finance, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5646 wliu@nd.edu Mark J. Browne

More information

An Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Credit Rating on Trade Credit

An Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Credit Rating on Trade Credit 011 International Conference on Financial Management and Economics IPED vol.11 (011) (011) ICSIT Press, Singaore n Emirical nalysis of the Effect of Credit ating on Trade Credit Jian-Hsin Chou¹ Mei-Ching

More information

Secure synthesis and activation of protocol translation agents

Secure synthesis and activation of protocol translation agents Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience Secure synthesis and activation of rotocol translation agents This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see

More information

Automatic Search for Correlated Alarms

Automatic Search for Correlated Alarms Automatic Search for Correlated Alarms Klaus-Dieter Tuchs, Peter Tondl, Markus Radimirsch, Klaus Jobmann Institut für Allgemeine Nachrichtentechnik, Universität Hannover Aelstraße 9a, 0167 Hanover, Germany

More information

Migration to Object Oriented Platforms: A State Transformation Approach

Migration to Object Oriented Platforms: A State Transformation Approach Migration to Object Oriented Platforms: A State Transformation Aroach Ying Zou, Kostas Kontogiannis Det. of Electrical & Comuter Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada {yzou,

More information

Sage Timberline Office

Sage Timberline Office Sage Timberline Office Get Started Document Management 9.8 NOTICE This document and the Sage Timberline Office software may be used only in accordance with the accomanying Sage Timberline Office End User

More information

Improved Algorithms for Data Visualization in Forensic DNA Analysis

Improved Algorithms for Data Visualization in Forensic DNA Analysis Imroved Algorithms for Data Visualization in Forensic DNA Analysis Noor Maizura Mohamad Noor, Senior Member IACSIT, Mohd Iqbal akim arun, and Ahmad Faiz Ghazali Abstract DNA rofiles from forensic evidence

More information

On Software Piracy when Piracy is Costly

On Software Piracy when Piracy is Costly Deartment of Economics Working aer No. 0309 htt://nt.fas.nus.edu.sg/ecs/ub/w/w0309.df n Software iracy when iracy is Costly Sougata oddar August 003 Abstract: The ervasiveness of the illegal coying of

More information

Bravo Software Group e.commerce enablers... 2 RemoteDesk... 4

Bravo Software Group e.commerce enablers... 2 RemoteDesk... 4 Table of Contents Bravo Software Grou e.commerce enablers... 2 RemoteDesk... 4 A suite of roducts for entering orders or invoices remotely, for direct osting to your central accounting system. RemoteDesk

More information

CFRI 3,4. Zhengwei Wang PBC School of Finance, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and SEBA, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

CFRI 3,4. Zhengwei Wang PBC School of Finance, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and SEBA, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/2044-1398.htm CFRI 3,4 322 constraints and cororate caital structure: a model Wuxiang Zhu School of Economics

More information

4 Perceptron Learning Rule

4 Perceptron Learning Rule Percetron Learning Rule Objectives Objectives - Theory and Examles - Learning Rules - Percetron Architecture -3 Single-Neuron Percetron -5 Multile-Neuron Percetron -8 Percetron Learning Rule -8 Test Problem

More information

Joint Production and Financing Decisions: Modeling and Analysis

Joint Production and Financing Decisions: Modeling and Analysis Joint Production and Financing Decisions: Modeling and Analysis Xiaodong Xu John R. Birge Deartment of Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208,

More information

On the (in)effectiveness of Probabilistic Marking for IP Traceback under DDoS Attacks

On the (in)effectiveness of Probabilistic Marking for IP Traceback under DDoS Attacks On the (in)effectiveness of Probabilistic Maring for IP Tracebac under DDoS Attacs Vamsi Paruchuri, Aran Durresi 2, and Ra Jain 3 University of Central Aransas, 2 Louisiana State University, 3 Washington

More information

STILL LOST IN TRANSLATION. City Agencies Compliance with Local Law 73 and Executive Order 120: Examining Progress and Work Still to be Done

STILL LOST IN TRANSLATION. City Agencies Compliance with Local Law 73 and Executive Order 120: Examining Progress and Work Still to be Done STILL LOST IN TRANSLATION City Agencies Comliance with Local Law 73 and Executive Order 12: Examining Progress and Work Still to be Done Reort by: Make the Road New York & the New York Immigration Coalition

More information

STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RAILROAD SATELLITE CHANNEL AT KU-BAND

STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RAILROAD SATELLITE CHANNEL AT KU-BAND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RAILROAD SATELLITE CHANNEL AT KU-BAND Giorgio Sciascia *, Sandro Scalise *, Harald Ernst * and Rodolfo Mura + * DLR (German Aerosace Centre) Institute for Communications

More information

Rummage Web Server Tuning Evaluation through Benchmark

Rummage Web Server Tuning Evaluation through Benchmark IJCSNS International Journal of Comuter Science and Network Security, VOL.7 No.9, Setember 27 13 Rummage Web Server Tuning Evaluation through Benchmark (Case study: CLICK, and TIME Parameter) Hiyam S.

More information

Softmax Model as Generalization upon Logistic Discrimination Suffers from Overfitting

Softmax Model as Generalization upon Logistic Discrimination Suffers from Overfitting Journal of Data Science 12(2014),563-574 Softmax Model as Generalization uon Logistic Discrimination Suffers from Overfitting F. Mohammadi Basatini 1 and Rahim Chiniardaz 2 1 Deartment of Statistics, Shoushtar

More information

Multiperiod Portfolio Optimization with General Transaction Costs

Multiperiod Portfolio Optimization with General Transaction Costs Multieriod Portfolio Otimization with General Transaction Costs Victor DeMiguel Deartment of Management Science and Oerations, London Business School, London NW1 4SA, UK, avmiguel@london.edu Xiaoling Mei

More information

Implementation of Statistic Process Control in a Painting Sector of a Automotive Manufacturer

Implementation of Statistic Process Control in a Painting Sector of a Automotive Manufacturer 4 th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management IV Congreso de Ingeniería de Organización Donostia- an ebastián, etember 8 th - th Imlementation of tatistic Process Control

More information

An Introduction to Risk Parity Hossein Kazemi

An Introduction to Risk Parity Hossein Kazemi An Introduction to Risk Parity Hossein Kazemi In the aftermath of the financial crisis, investors and asset allocators have started the usual ritual of rethinking the way they aroached asset allocation

More information

Load Balancing Mechanism in Agent-based Grid

Load Balancing Mechanism in Agent-based Grid Communications on Advanced Comutational Science with Alications 2016 No. 1 (2016) 57-62 Available online at www.isacs.com/cacsa Volume 2016, Issue 1, Year 2016 Article ID cacsa-00042, 6 Pages doi:10.5899/2016/cacsa-00042

More information

FIArch Workshop. Towards Future Internet Architecture. Brussels 22 nd February 2012

FIArch Workshop. Towards Future Internet Architecture. Brussels 22 nd February 2012 FIrch Worksho Brussels 22 nd February 2012 Towards Future Internet rchitecture lex Galis University College London a.galis@ee.ucl.ac.uk www.ee.ucl.ac.uk/~agalis FIrch Worksho Brussels 22 nd February 2012

More information

Piracy and Network Externality An Analysis for the Monopolized Software Industry

Piracy and Network Externality An Analysis for the Monopolized Software Industry Piracy and Network Externality An Analysis for the Monoolized Software Industry Ming Chung Chang Deartment of Economics and Graduate Institute of Industrial Economics mcchang@mgt.ncu.edu.tw Chiu Fen Lin

More information

SMALL BUSINESS GRANTS PROGRAM GUIDELINES

SMALL BUSINESS GRANTS PROGRAM GUIDELINES SMALL BUSINESS GRANTS PROGRAM GUIDELINES S GARTON STREET Small Business Grants Program Suorting our community The City of Melbourne offers a wide range of grants and sonsorshi oortunities to suort the

More information

The Competitiveness Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies

The Competitiveness Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies The Cometitiveness Imacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies Joseh E. Aldy William A. Pizer 2011 RPP-2011-08 Regulatory Policy Program Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government Harvard Kennedy

More information

Industrial Management & Data Systems Emerald Article: Gaining customer knowledge through analytical CRM Mark Xu, John Walton

Industrial Management & Data Systems Emerald Article: Gaining customer knowledge through analytical CRM Mark Xu, John Walton Industrial Management & Data Systems Emerald Article: Gaining customer knowledge through analytical CRM Mark Xu, John Walton Article information: To cite this document: Mark Xu, John Walton, (2005),"Gaining

More information

Buffer Capacity Allocation: A method to QoS support on MPLS networks**

Buffer Capacity Allocation: A method to QoS support on MPLS networks** Buffer Caacity Allocation: A method to QoS suort on MPLS networks** M. K. Huerta * J. J. Padilla X. Hesselbach ϒ R. Fabregat O. Ravelo Abstract This aer describes an otimized model to suort QoS by mean

More information