# AVR223: Digital Filters with AVR. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

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1 AVR223: Digital Filters with AVR Features Implementation of Digital Filters Coefficient and Data scaling Fast Implementation of 4 th Order FIR Filter Fast Implementation of 2 nd Order IIR Filter Methods for Optimization 1 Introduction Applications involving processing of signals from external analog sources/sensors usually require some kind of digital filtering. For extremely high filter performance, Digital Signal Processors (DSP) are usually chosen, but in many cases these are too expensive to use. In these cases, 8- and 16-bit Microcontrollers (MCU) come into the picture. They are inexpensive, efficient, and have all the required I/O features and communication modules that DSP seldom have. The Atmel AVR microcontrollers are excellent for signal processing applications due to their powerful architecture, strong instruction set and built-in multi-channel 1-bit Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The megaavr series further have a hardware multiplier, which is important in signal processing applications. This document focuses on the use of the AVR hardware multiplier, the use of the general purpose registers for accumulator functionality, how to scale coefficients when implementing algorithms on fixed point architectures, and possible ways to optimize a filter implementation. Two example implementations are included. Although digital filter theory is not the focus of this application note, some basics are covered. A list of suggested, more in-depth literature on digital filter theory is enclosed last in this document. 8-bit Microcontrollers Application Note Rev.

2 2 General Digital Filters All digital, linear, time-invariant (LTI) filters can be described by a difference equation on the form shown in Equation 1. The output signal is denoted by y[n] and the input signal by x[n]. Equation 1: General Difference Equation for Digital Filters. M a y N [ n i] = b j x[ n j] i i= j= A filter is uniquely defined by its order and coefficients, a i and b j.. The order of a filter is defined as the largest of M and N, denoting the longest delay used in the calculations. Note that the coefficients are usually scaled so that a equals 1. The output of the filter may then be calculated as shown in Equation 2. Equation 2: Difference Equation for Filter Output. y N [] n = b x[ n j] + ( a ) y[ n i] j= j M i= 1 i If x[n] is an impulse (1 for n = and for n ), the output is called the filter s impulse response: h[n]. A filter may be classified as one of two types from the value of M: Finite Impulse Response (FIR), for M = Infinite Impulse Reponse (IIR), for M The difference between these two types of filters is the feedback: For IIR filters the output samples are calculated recursively, i.e., from previous output in addition to the input samples. The term Finite/Infinite then describes the length of the filter s impulse response (disregarding quantization effects in a real implementation). Note that an IIR filter with N = is a special case of filters, called all-pole. For further information on these two classes of filters, refer to the suggested literature list at the end of this document. Often, digital filters are described in the Z-domain, a complex frequency domain. The Z-transform of Equation 1 is shown in Equation 3. Equation 3: Z-transform of the General Digital Filter. Z M i= Y ( z) a y i M i= [ n i] = b j x[ n j] a z i i N j= = X ( z) N j= b j z = j The transfer function, H(z), for a filter is usually supplied as it tends to give a compact representation and allows for easy frequency analysis. The transfer function is 2 AVR223

3 AVR223 defined as the ratio between output and input of a filter in the Z-domain, as shown in Equation 4. Note that the transfer function is the Z-transform of the filter s impulse response, h[n]. Equation 4: Transfer Function of General Digital Filter. Y ( z) H ( z) = = X ( z) N j= M i= b j a z i z j i N j= = 1+ b M i= 1 j z a z i j i As can be seen, the numerator describes the feed-forward part and the denominator describes the feedback part of the filter function. For more information on the Z- domain, refer to the suggested literature at the end of this document. For the purposes of implementing a filter from a given transfer function, it is sufficient to know that z in the Z-domain represents a delay element, and that the exponent defines the delay length in units of samples. Figure 2-1 illustrates this with a general digital filter in Direct Form 1 representation. 3

4 Figure 2-1: Direct Form I Representation of a General Digital Filter. 3 Filter Implementation Considerations When implementing a filter on a given MCU architecture, several issues must be considered. For example: The resolution (number of bits) of input and output will affect the maximum allowable filter gain and throughput. The resolution of filter coefficients will affect the frequency response and throughput. The filter order will affect the throughput. Fractional filter coefficients require some thought when used with an integer multiplier. These and other implementation issues are discussed in this section. In addition, a quick description of the AVR hardware multiplier and virtual accumulator is in order, since knowledge about these is important for understanding the filtering code. 4 AVR223

5 AVR The AVR Hardware Multiplier 3.2 The AVR Virtual Accumulator Since the AVR is an 8-bit architecture, the hardware multiplier is an 8-bit by 8-bit = 16-bit multiplier. The multiplier is in this application note invoked using three different instructions: MUL, MULS and MULSU. These instructions are unsigned, signed and signed-times-unsigned multiplications, respectively. The filter algorithm is a sum of products. The first product is calculated using a simple multiplication (MUL) between two N-bit values, providing a 2N-bit result. The multiplication is performed with one byte from each of the multiplicands at a time, and the result is stored in the 2N-bit accumulator. The next products are calculated and added to the accumulator, a so-called multiply-and-accumulate operation (MAC). The example filters in this application note make use of two different multiplication operations: muls16x16_24 mac16x16_24 These are signed 16-bit by 16-bit operations with a 24-bit result. (The result is less than 32-bit because the input samples and coefficients in the example implementations do not use the entire 16-bit range.) Note that the AVR also have instructions for fractional multiplications, but these are not used in this application note. For more information about these and other multiplication instructions, refer to the application note AVR21: Using the AVR Hardware Multiplier. The AVR does not have a dedicated accumulator instead, the AVR allows any number of the 32 8-bit General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) registers to form a virtual accumulator. Throughout this document the virtual accumulator will simply be referred to as accumulator, although it is more flexible than ordinary accumulators used in other architectures. As an example, if a 24-bit accumulator is required by the AVR to MUL two 12-bit values, three 8-bit GP Registers are combined into a 24-bit accumulator. If a MAC requires a 4-bit accumulator, five 8-bit registers are combined to form the accumulator. Using this flexibility of the accumulator ensures that no parts of the result or sub-result need to be moved back and forth during the MAC operating, which would have been required if the accumulator size was fixed to 32-bit or less. The flexibility of the AVR accumulator is an important tool for avoiding overflow in Fixed Point (FP) algorithms, which is discussed next. 3.3 Overflow of Fixed Point Values Overflow may occur at two places in the filter algorithm; in the sub-results of the algorithm and in the output of the filter Avoiding Overflow in Sub-Results The reasons that overflow may occur in the sub-results of the filtering algorithm are: Multiplication of two values with resolution N 1 and N 2 can produce a (N 1 +N 2 )-bit result. 5

6 Addition of two values can produce a sum that has 1 bit more than the operand with the highest resolution. Consider a fourth order FIR filter described by Equation 5. Equation 5: Difference Equation for a 4th Order FIR Filter. y 4 [] n = b x[] n j= j The output is a sum of five products. Assuming that the input samples and coefficients both are 16-bit and signed, the algorithm will at most require a 34-bit accumulator, as calculated in Equation 6. Equation 6: Required Accumulator Resolution for 4th Order FIR Filter. N 2 K + log ( M ) + 1 = log (5) N = Avoiding Overflow in Output N is the number of bits needed, K is the bit resolution (excluding sign bit) of the input samples and coefficients, and M is the number of additions. The single bit that is added is the sign bit. The accumulator would in this case require five GPIO registers (4 bits) to hold the largest absolute value that may occur due to these operations. Keep in mind that in IIR filters, the output samples are used in the filtering algorithm. If the output has a higher resolution than the input, the accumulator needs to be scaled according to the output s resolution. To avoid overflow in the output stage, the filter gain must be limited so that it is possible to represent the result with the resolution available in the output stage. The limit on the gain will, of course, depend on the spectrum and resolution (relative to output) of the input signal. The most conservative criterion for avoiding overflow in the output states that the absolute sum of the filter s impulse response multiplied with the maximum absolute value of the input cannot exceed the maximum absolute value of the output. Equation 7 shows this criterion. Equation 7: Conservative Criteria for Avoiding Overflows in Filter Output. X n= MAX h [] n n= h Y X [] n MAX MAX Y MAX 6 AVR223 If the impulse response does not fulfill this criterion, it simply needs to be multiplied with a factor that reduces the absolute sum sufficiently.

7 AVR223 Keep in mind that for signed integers, the maximum value of the positive range is 1 smaller than the absolute maximum value of the negative range. Assuming the input is M-bit and the output is N-bit, Equation 8 shows the criterion for the worst-case scenario. Equation 8: "Worst-Case" Conservative Criterion for Signed Integers. h [] n 2 2 N 1 M 1 1 Although fulfillment of this criterion guarantees that no overflow will ever occur, the drawback is a substantial reduction of the filter gain. The characteristics of the input signal may be so that this criterion is overly pessimistic. Another common criterion, which is better for narrowband signals (such as a sine), states that the absolute maximum gain of the filter multiplied with the absolute maximum value of the input cannot exceed the absolute maximum value of the output. Equation 9 shows this criterion. Equation 9: Criterion for Avoiding Overflow with Narrowband Signals. max X H ( ) Y H ( ω ) H ( ω ) MAX max H ( ω) Y X ω MAX MAX MAX 3.4 Scaling of Coefficients This is the criterion used for the filter implementations in this application note: With the same resolution in input and output, the filters should not exceed unity ( db) gain. Note that the limit on the gain depends on the characteristics of the input signal, so some experimentation may be necessary to find an optimal limit. Another important issue is the representation of the filter coefficients on Fixed Point (FP) architectures. FP representation does not necessarily mean that the values must be integers: As mentioned, fractional FP multiplication is also available. However, in this application note only integer multiplications are used, and thus the focus is on integer representations. Naturally, to most accurately represent a number, one should use as many bits as possible. For the purpose of using fractional filter coefficients in integer multiplications, this issue boils down to scaling all the coefficients by the largest common factor that does not cause any overflows in their representation. This scaling also applies to the a coefficient, so a downscaling of the output is necessary to get the correct value (especially for IIR filters). Division is not implemented in hardware, so the scaling factor should be on the form 2 k since division and multiplication by factors of 2 may easily be done with bitshifts. The principle of coefficient scaling and subsequent downscaling of the result is shown in Equation 1. 7

8 Equation 1: Scaling of Filter Coefficients and Downscaling of Result. 2 y k M i= a i N y k [ n i] = 2 b j x[ n j] k k [] n = ( 2 b j ) x[ n j] + ( 2 ai ) y[ n i] >> k j= N j= M i= 1 Note that the sign bit must be preserved when downscaling. This is easily done with the ASR instruction (arithmetic shift right). As an example, consider the filter coefficients b j = {.91, -.65,.3}. If 16-bit signed integer representation is to be used, the scaled coefficients must have values in the range [ ] = [ ]. Naturally, the coefficient with the largest absolute value will be the one limiting the maximum scaling factor. In this case, the largest possible scaling factor without any overflow is Rounding of the scaled coefficients results in the values {29494, , 983} and the approximate (downscaled) absolute rounding errors { , , }. Optimization of the downscaling is possible if the factor k is above a multiple of 8. If this is the case, the program may simply ignore bytes of the result. An example is illustrated in Figure 3-1, where a 32-bit result should be downscaled by This is accomplished by bit shifting the 16 Most Significant Bits (MSB) two times. Figure 3-1: Optimized Downscaling (Grey Blocks are Unused Bits). 8 bits 8 bits 16-bit 6 bits 1 bits Filter input x bit 4 bits ACC >> 2 28 bits Accumulator 16-bit 6 bits 1 bits Filter output Effect of Downscaling 8 AVR223 One may wonder why one adds bits to avoid overflow in the sub-results, then basically throws them away to fit the result into a specified resolution. The explanation is that the bits are needed for precision during calculations, the filter has unity gain, and the output should be interpreted as an integer. For filters with unity gain, the coefficients will be fractional, i.e., less than one, and thus the multiplications will add bits that actually represent fractional values. The summations will, however, add bits that represent higher significance. But due to the unity gain of the filter, these bits will never be used in the result: The output of the filter will not get an absolute value higher than that of the input, thus allowing the output to be represented with the same integer range as the input.

9 3.4.2 Reduced Resolution for Increased Throughput AVR223 The downscaling simply removes the fractional part of the result, leaving just the integer part in the wanted resolution. Clearly, this also means that the precision is reduced. This is of consequence to IIR filters, since they have feedback. If the effect of this precision loss is a problem, it may be reduced in two ways: Maximize filter gain, so the output uses the entire, available range. Increase both the resolution of the output and the filter gain. Of the two, only the latter can affect code size and throughput since a larger accumulator may be required. To speed up the filtering algorithm, it may be desirable to reduce the resolution of the coefficients and/or input samples so that the size of the accumulator can be reduced. A smaller accumulator means that the algorithm requires fewer operations per multiplication of filter coefficient and sample. However, two issues need to be taken into consideration before doing this: Reduction of input sample resolution means that noise is introduced in the system, which is generally undesirable. Reduction of filter coefficient resolution means that the desired filter response may become harder to achieve. For other ways to increase throughput, see Optimization of Filter Implementations on page Filter Implementations The example filters in this application note were developed and compiled using the IAR EWAVR compiler version 5.3A. The filter coefficients were calculated using software made for this purpose. There is a plethora of software that can do this, ranging from costly mathematical programs such as Matlab, to freely available Java applets on the web. A list of web sites that deal with the topic of calculating filter coefficients are provided in the literature list enclosed last in this application note. An alternative is to calculate the coefficients the hard way: By hand. Methods for calculating the filter coefficients (and investigating stability of these filters) are described in [1] and [2]. Two filters are implemented; A fourth order High Pass (HP) FIR filter, and a second order Band Pass (BP) IIR filter. For both implementations, 1-bit signed input samples are used. The FIR filter uses 13-bit signed coefficients, while the IIR filter uses 12-bit signed coefficients. This is ensures that a maximum accumulator size of 24 bits is needed. The filters are implemented in assembly for efficiency reasons. The implementations are made in such a way that the filter function can be called from C. Prior to calling the filter functions, it is required that the filter nodes (memory of the delay elements) are initialized otherwise the startup conditions of the filters are unknown. For both filters, a C code example that initializes and calls the filter function is provided. All parameters required for filtering are passed at run time, so the filter function may be reused to implement more than one filter without the need for additional code space. This may be utilized for cascade coupling of filters: Often, multiple second order filters are used to form higher order filters by feeding the output of one filter into the input of the next filter in the cascade. However, since the output from each filter in 9

10 4.1 Fourth Order FIR Filter the cascade is downscaled before being fed into the next filter, the final output might not be as expected. This is because precision is lost in between filters. Naturally, the effect of this becomes more pronounced with increased cascade lengths. The implementations focus on fast execution of the filters, since a high throughput in the filters is of great importance. See Optimization of Filter on page 16 for suggestions on ways to reduce code size, increase throughput further, and reduce memory usage. For the purpose of demonstrating the cascading technique, this filter is implemented by using two second order HP filters. Both filters were made with the windowing technique, described in [1], using a Hamming window. The filter parameters are shown in Table 4-1. Figure 4-1 shows the magnitude response of both filters separately, and in cascade. Table 4-1: Second Order FIR Filter Parameters. Scaled Coefficients Filter Order Cutoff Coefficients (b, b 1, b 2 ) Scaling (b, b 1, b 2 ) No ,.9253, , 379, -153 No ,.892, , 3653, -222 Figure 4-1: Magnitude Response of FIR Filters. 1 AVR223 The filter routines are implemented in assembly to make them efficient. However, the filter parameters and the filter nodes need to be initialized prior to calling the filtering function. The initialization is done in C. A struct containing the filter coefficients and the filter nodes are defined for each of the filters. The structs are defined as follows:

11 AVR223 struct FIR_filter{ int filternodes [FILTER_ORDER]; //Filter nodes memory //Filter coefficients memory int filtercoefficients[filter_order+1]; } filter4 = {,, B1, B11, B12}, //Init filter No. 1 filter6 = {,, B2, B21, B22}; //Init filter No. 2 The filternodes array is used as a FIFO buffer, holding previous input samples. The filtercoefficients array is used for the feedforward coefficients of the filter. Once the filter is initialized the filter function can be called. The filter function is defined as follows: int FIR2(struct FIR_filter *myfilter, int newsample); First, the function copies the pointer to the filter struct into the Z-register, since this may be used for indirect addressing of data, i.e., for pointer operations. Then the core of the algorithm is ready to be run. The samples (nodes) are loaded and multiplied (MUL) with the corresponding coefficients. The products are added in the 24-bit wide accumulator. When all samples and coefficients are multiplied-and-accumulated (MAC), the result is downscaled and returned. This can be seen from the flow chart in Figure 4-2, which is a general description of the flow in a FIR filter algorithm. Note that although the flow chart in Figure 4-2 shows the algorithm as if it was implemented using loops, the algorithm is actually implemented as straight-line code. The loop is used simply to improve readability. 11

12 Figure 4-2: Generic FIR Filter Algorithm. k = N YES k == N? NO Load node x[n-k]. Load node x[n-k]. Load coefficient b k. Load coefficient b k. NO MUL. Store node x[n-k] in x[n-k-1] MAC. k = k - 1 k <? YES Downscale result. Return output. As mentioned, the two filters are used in cascade. In the C file, this is simply done by first passing filter No. 1 and the input sample as arguments to the filtering function, 12 AVR223

13 4.1.1 Filter Algorithm Performance AVR223 then passing filter No. 2 and the output of the first filter as arguments to the same function. Table 4-2 shows the performance of a single second order FIR filter. The count for filtering is for the core of the filtering algorithm (MUL and MAC operations, updating nodes), and the count for overhead is for the rest of the filtering function (including downscaling). Function call and corresponding return are not included. Table 4-2: Second Order FIR Filter Performance. Instructions (filtering + overhead) Execution cycles (filtering + overhead) Filter efficiency (filtering cycles per order) 4.2 Second Order IIR Filter Note that a change in filter order may necessitate a change in accumulator size, which in turn will change the number of filtering instructions/cycles per order. For this implementation, a band pass (BP) Butterworth filter was designed. The filter parameters are shown in Table 4-3, and the magnitude response in Figure 4-3. Table 4-3: Second Order IIR Filter Parameters. Coefficients Order Cutoff (b, b 1, b 2 ; a, a 1, a 2 ) Scaling Scaled Coefficients (b, b 1, b 2 ; a, a 1, a 2 ).1367,., ; 28,, -28; 1.,., ,, 1488 Since the a coefficient is the factor by which the filter output must be downscaled it is not defined in the C code, but is implicitly defined in the assembly code for the downscaling. 13

14 Figure 4-3: Magnitude Response of Fourth Order IIR Filter. A struct containing the filter coefficients and the filter nodes are defined for the filter. The filter should be initialized before the filter function is called. The struct is defined as follows: struct IIR_filter{ int filternodesx[filter_order]; //filter nodes, stores x(n-k) int filternodesy[filter_order]; //filter nodes, stores y(n-k) //filter feedforward coefficients int filtercoefficientsb[filter_order+1]; //filter feedback coefficients int filtercoefficientsa[filter_order]; } filter4_6 = {,,,, B, B1, B2, A1, A2}; //Init filter The filternodesx and filternodesy arrays are used as FIFO buffers, holding previous input and output samples respectively. The filtercoefficientsb and filtercoefficientsa arrays are used for the feed-forward and feedback coefficients of the filter respectively. Once the filter is initialized the filter function can be called. The filter function is defined as follows: int IIR2(struct IIR_filter *myfilter, int newsample); The function first copies the pointer to the filter struct into the Z-register, since this can be used for indirect addressing of data, i.e., for pointer operations. Then the core of the algorithm is ready to be run. The samples (data) are loaded and multiplied with the matching coefficients. The products are added in the 24-bit wide accumulator. 14 AVR223

15 AVR223 When all data and coefficients are Multiplied-and-Accumulated (MAC) and the filter node FIFO buffers are updated, the result is finally scaled down and returned. Note that the result in the accumulator is downscaled before it is stored in the y[n-1] FIFO buffer element. A data flow chart is shown in Figure 4-4. Figure 4-4: Generic IIR Filter Algorithm. k = N k = N YES k == N? NO Load node x[n-k]. Load node x[n-k]. Load node y[n-k]. Load coefficient b k. Load coefficient b k. Load coefficient a k. NO MUL. Store node x[n-k] in x[n-k-1] YES MAC. Store node y[n-k] in y[n-k-1]. MAC. k = k - 1 NO k = k - 1 k < 1? YES k <? Downscale result. Store node y[n] in y[n-1]. Return output. 15

17 AVR223 6 References [1] Discrete-Time signal processing, A. V. Oppenheimer & R. W. Schafer. Prentice- Hall International Inc ISBN [2] Introduction to Signal Processing, S. J. Orfanidis, Prentice Hall International Inc., ISBN X [3] FIR filter design, [4] FIR filter design, [5] FIR filter design, [6] IIR filter design, [7] IIR filter design, [8] FIR and IIR filter design, [9] FIR and IIR filter design, 17

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AVR287: USB Host HID and Mass Storage Demonstration Features Based on AVR USB OTG Reduced Host Runs on AT90USB647/1287 Support bootable/non-bootable standard USB mouse Support USB Hub feature (Mass Storage

### AVR32788: AVR 32 How to use the SSC in I2S mode. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR32788: AVR 32 How to use the SSC in I2S mode Features I²S protocol overview I²S on the AVR32 I²S sample rate configurations Example of use with AT32UC3A on EVK1105 board 32-bit Microcontrollers Application

### AVR32111: Using the AVR32 PIO Controller. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

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### AVR106: C functions for reading and writing to Flash memory. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. Introduction

AVR106: C functions for reading and writing to Flash memory Features C functions for accessing Flash memory - Byte read - Page read - Byte write - Page write Optional recovery on power failure Functions

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### AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) using the Asynchronous Timer. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) using the Asynchronous Timer Features Real Time Clock with Very Low Power Consumption (4 μa @ 3.3V) Very Low Cost Solution Adjustable Prescaler to Adjust Precision Counts

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR222: 8-point Moving Average Filter

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Atmel AVR4920: ASF - USB Device Stack - Compliance and Performance Figures Features Compliance to USB 2.0 - Chapters 8 and 9 - Classes: HID, MSC, CDC, PHDC Interoperability: OS, classes, self- and bus-powered

### AVR221: Discrete PID Controller on tinyavr and megaavr devices. Introduction. AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

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### Application Note. Atmel CryptoAuthentication Product Uses. Atmel ATSHA204. Abstract. Overview

Application Note Atmel CryptoAuthentication Product Uses Atmel Abstract Companies are continuously searching for ways to protect property using various security implementations; however, the cost of security

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### Atmel AVR4027: Tips and Tricks to Optimize Your C Code for 8-bit AVR Microcontrollers. 8-bit Atmel Microcontrollers. Application Note.

Atmel AVR4027: Tips and Tricks to Optimize Your C Code for 8-bit AVR Microcontrollers Features Atmel AVR core and Atmel AVR GCC introduction Tips and tricks to reduce code size Tips and tricks to reduce

### AVR120: Characterization and Calibration of the ADC on an AVR. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

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AVR134: Real-Time Clock (RTC) using the Asynchronous Timer Features Real-Time Clock with Very Low Power Consumption (4µA @ 3.3V) Very Low Cost Solution Adjustable Prescaler to Adjust Precision Counts Time,

### Application Note. 8-bit Microcontrollers. AVR293: USB Composite Device

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AVR030: Getting Started with IAR Embedded Workbench for Atmel AVR Features How to open a new workspace and project in IAR Embedded Workbench Description and option settings for compiling the c-code Setting

### APPLICATION NOTE. Atmel AT04389: Connecting SAMD20E to the AT86RF233 Transceiver. Atmel SAMD20. Description. Features

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### AVR1321: Using the Atmel AVR XMEGA 32-bit Real Time Counter and Battery Backup System. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note.

AVR1321: Using the Atmel AVR XMEGA 32-bit Real Time Counter and Battery Backup System Features 32-bit Real Time Counter (RTC) - 32-bit counter - Selectable clock source 1.024kHz 1Hz - Long overflow time

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AVR245: Code Lock with 4x4 Keypad and I2C LCD Features Application example for code lock - Ideal for low pin count AVRs Uses I/O pins to read 4x4 keypad Uses Timer/Counter to control piezoelectric buzzer

### 8-bit RISC Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR182: Zero Cross Detector

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AVR125: ADC of tinyavr in Single Ended Mode Features Up to 10bit resolution Up to 15kSPS Auto triggered and single conversion mode Optional left adjustment for ADC result readout Driver source code included

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AVR415: RC5 IR Remote Control Transmitter Features Utilizes ATtiny28 Special HW Modulator and High Current Drive Pin Size Efficient Code, Leaves Room for Large User Code Low Power Consumption through Intensive

### APPLICATION NOTE. Atmel AVR443: Sensor-based Control of Three Phase Brushless DC Motor. Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers. Features.

APPLICATION NOTE Features Atmel AVR443: Sensor-based Control of Three Phase Brushless DC Motor Less than 5µs response time on Hall sensor output change Theoretical maximum of 1600k RPM Over-current sensing

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### AVR034: Mixing C and Assembly Code with IAR Embedded Workbench for AVR. 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. Features.

AVR034: Mixing C and Assembly Code with IAR Embedded Workbench for AVR Features Passing Variables Between C and Assembly Code Functions Calling Assembly Code Functions from C Calling C Functions from Assembly

### AT89C5131A Starter Kit... Software User Guide

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### APPLICATION NOTE. Secure Personalization with Transport Key Authentication. ATSHA204A, ATECC108A, and ATECC508A. Introduction.

APPLICATION NOTE Secure Personalization with Transport Key Authentication ATSHA204A, ATECC108A, and ATECC508A Introduction The Atmel CryptoAuthentication ATSHA204A, ATECC108A, and ATECC508A devices (crypto

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AVR204: BCD Arithmetics Features Conversion 16 Bits 5 Digits, 8 Bits 2 Digits 2-digit Addition and Subtraction Superb Speed and Code Density Runable Example Program Introduction This application note lists

### AVR32110: Using the AVR32 Timer/Counter. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

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### Application Note. 8-bit Microcontrollers. AVR271: USB Keyboard Demonstration

AVR271: USB Keyboard Demonstration Features Supported by Windows 98 or later, Linux and MAC OS No driver installation Display a simple text message Does not support keyboard LEDs management 1. Introduction

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Atmel AVR1017: XMEGA - USB Hardware Design Recommendations Features USB 2.0 compliance - Signal integrity - Power consumption - Back driver voltage - Inrush current EMC/EMI considerations Layout considerations

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AVR910: In-System Programming Features Complete In-System Programming Solution for AVR Microcontrollers Covers All AVR Microcontrollers with In-System Programming Support Reprogram Both Data Flash and

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### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR286: LIN Firmware Base for LIN/UART Controller. LIN Features. 1. Atmel LIN/UART Controller

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### AVR442: PC Fan Control using ATtiny13. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

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### APPLICATION NOTE. AT09567: ISM Band PCB Antenna Reference Design. Atmel Wireless. Features. Description

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