# 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR400: Low Cost A/D Converter

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 AVR400: Low Cost A/D Converter Features Interrupt Driven : 23 Words Low Use of External Components Resolution: 6 Bits Measurement Range: 0-2 V Runs on Any AVR Device with 8-bit Timer/Counter and Analog Comparator Introduction This application note targets cost and space critical applications that need an ADC. It describes how to make a simple ADC with only two external components, a resistor and a capacitor. The design enables a very compact and inexpensive application. 8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Theory of Operation Nearly all AVR microcontrollers feature an Analog Comparator which makes it easy to implement an ADC. The signal to be measured is connected to the inverted input, and a reference signal is connected to the non-inverting input. The reference signal is generated by charging a capacitor through a resistor. When the capacitor is being charged, the voltage across it will follow an exponential curve. If the voltage range to be measured is limited to 2/5*V CC, the exponential curve is a good approximation to a straight line. The voltage of the applied signal, UIN is found by measuring the time it takes for the voltage across the capacitor to rise above the applied voltage. By using one pin on port B to control the charging and discharging of the capacitor, only three port pins are used. A schematic diagram is found in Figure 1. Figure 1. Circuit Diagram 5V RESET PD0 PD1 XTAL2 XTAL1 PD2(INT0) PD3 PD4(T0) PD5 GND VCC PB7(SCK) PB6(MISOI) PB5(MOSI) PB4 PB3 PB2 PB1(AIN1) PB0(AIN0) PD6 R UIN AT90S1200 C Rev. 1

2 The time constant of the R/C network must be tuned so that the following equation is satisfied: Component values for some typical Oscillator frequencies are shown in Table 1. If the time constant varies from this, it will cause errors in the result. This makes it necessary to use components with high accuracy in the RC-network. The voltage curve for the capacitor is shown together with a straight line in Figure 2. As the supply voltage is used as a reference, it must be stable during the conversion. Figure 2. A/D Converter Linearity = f RCln RC = f Table 1. R/C Network Coomponent s XTAL (MHz) R (kω) C (nf) To ensure proper operation, the capacitor must be discharged for at least 200 µs between conversions. If the capacitor is not properly discharged, it will not be possible to measure low values. If the voltage input is larger than 2/5 V CC, the converter will return the maximum value. This is accomplished by loading an offset value into the Timer/Counter0 Register before conversion starts. The timer will give an Overflow Interrupt after 512 cycles (64*8). This is the time it takes for the voltage across the capacitor to reach 2/5 V CC. If the voltage is within the operating range, an Analog Comparator interrupt will occur. Offset is subtracted from the measured value. Implementation The ADC uses Timer/Counter0 and the Analog Comparator interrupts. This frees the MCU resources during conversion. 2 AVR400

3 AVR400 Subroutine convert_init ADC Initialization This subroutine is called to initialize the ADC. This must be done before the ADC is used. By calling this subroutine, the Comparator and Timer interrupts are enabled, and the control pin is set as output. Then the SEI instruction, which enables global interrupts, should be called to enable the A/D converter. By calling CLI, the A/D converter is disabled. Table 2. convert_init Subroutine Performance Figures Execution Cycles 6 words 10, including the RET instruction Table 3. convert_init Register Usage Register Input Internal Output R16 "result" Scratch Register Figure 3. convert_init Flow Chart SET COMPARATOR AND INTERRUPT ENABLE TIMER INTERRUPT SET CONTROL PIN OUTPUT FINISHED - A/D INITIALIZED AD_convert Subroutine Start an A/D Conversion This routine is used to start an A/D conversion. It pre-loads the Counter with and starts counting up at the frequency XTAL/8. The Conversion Complete Flag (the T- flag in the Status Register) is cleared, and the charging of the capacitor is started. Table 4. AD_convert Subroutine Performance Figures Execution Cycle 7 words 10 (including RET) Status Flags 3

4 Table 5. AD_convert Register usage Register Input Internal Output R16 SREG "result" Scratch Register Figure 4. ADC Conversion Flow Chart LOAD OFFSET INTO COUNTER T-flag This flag is used to indicate that a conversion is in progress. CLEAR CONVERSION COMPLETE FLAG START COUNTER, CLOCK/8 START CHARGING FINISHED - CONVERSION STARTED ANA_COMP Interrupt Handling Routine This routine is executed when a conversion is complete. It loads the Timer/Counter0 value, stops the timer and sets the Conversion Complete Flag (T-flag in SREG). The offset is then subtracted from the timer value. It is necessary to subtract one more than the offset, because the interrupt handling takes a minimum of seven cycles. Table 6. ANA_COMP Subroutine Performance Figures Execution Cycle 7 words 11 (including RETI) Status Flags Interrupt Usage Timer/Counter0 and Analog Comparator Interrupt :2 Table 7. ANA_COMP Register usage Register Input Internal Output R16 "result" Stores the Timer value "result" Contains the result from the A/D conversion R17 SREG "temp" Scratch Register T-Flag This flag is used to indicate that the conversion is finished 4 AVR400

5 AVR400 Figure 5. "ANA_COMP" Flowchart LOAD TIMER VALUE STOP TIMER REMOVE OFFSET FROM RESULT SET CONVERSION COMPLETE FLAG FINISHED - CONVERSION COMPLETE Example Program The example program that is included in this application note performs successive conversions, and presents the data as binary values on port B. Table 8. Overall Performance Figures Status Flags Interrupt Usage Peripheral Usage 23 words A/D converter routines only 37 words Complete with test program Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Analog Comparator Interrupt Timer/Counter0 Analog Comparator (port B pin0 and pin1) Port B pin2 Port D (example program only) :2 5

6 Atmel Headquarters Corporate Headquarters 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA TEL 1(408) FAX 1(408) Europe Atmel Sarl Route des Arsenaux 41 Case Postale 80 CH-1705 Fribourg Switzerland TEL (41) FAX (41) Asia Room 1219 Chinachem Golden Plaza 77 Mody Road Tsimhatsui East Kowloon Hong Kong TEL (852) FAX (852) Japan 9F, Tonetsu Shinkawa Bldg Shinkawa Chuo-ku, Tokyo Japan TEL (81) FAX (81) Atmel Operations Memory 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA TEL 1(408) FAX 1(408) Microcontrollers 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA TEL 1(408) FAX 1(408) La Chantrerie BP Nantes Cedex 3, France TEL (33) FAX (33) ASIC/ASSP/Smart Cards Zone Industrielle Rousset Cedex, France TEL (33) FAX (33) East Cheyenne Mtn. Blvd. Colorado Springs, CO TEL 1(719) FAX 1(719) Scottish Enterprise Technology Park Maxwell Building East Kilbride G75 0QR, Scotland TEL (44) FAX (44) RF/Automotive Theresienstrasse 2 Postfach Heilbronn, Germany TEL (49) FAX (49) East Cheyenne Mtn. Blvd. Colorado Springs, CO TEL 1(719) FAX 1(719) Biometrics/Imaging/Hi-Rel MPU/ High Speed Converters/RF Datacom Avenue de Rochepleine BP Saint-Egreve Cedex, France TEL (33) FAX (33) Web Site Atmel Corporation Atmel Corporation makes no warranty for the use of its products, other than those expressly contained in the Company s standard warranty which is detailed in Atmel s Terms and Conditions located on the Company s web site. The Company assumes no responsibility for any errors which may appear in this document, reserves the right to change devices or specifications detailed herein at any time without notice, and does not make any commitment to update the information contained herein. No licenses to patents or other intellectual property of Atmel are granted by the Company in connection with the sale of Atmel products, expressly or by implication. Atmel s products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems. ATMEL and AVR are the registered trademarks of Atmel. Other terms and product names may be the trademarks of others. Printed on recycled paper. 0M

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR222: 8-point Moving Average Filter

AVR222: 8-point Moving Average Filter Features 31-word Subroutine Filters Data Arrays up to 256 Bytes Runable Demo Program Introduction The moving average filter is a simple Low Pass FIR (Finite Impulse

### AVR305: Half Duplex Compact Software UART. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR305: Half Duplex Compact Software UART Features 32 Words of Code, Only Handles Baud Rates of up to 38.4 kbps with a 1 MHz XTAL Runs on Any AVR Device Only Two Port Pins Required Does Not Use Any Timer

### 8-bit RISC Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR182: Zero Cross Detector

AVR182: Zero Cross Detector Features Interrupt Driven Modular C Source Code Size Efficient Code Accurate and Fast Detection A Minimum of External Components Introduction One of the many issues with developing

### AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) using the Asynchronous Timer. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) using the Asynchronous Timer Features Real Time Clock with Very Low Power Consumption (4 μa @ 3.3V) Very Low Cost Solution Adjustable Prescaler to Adjust Precision Counts

### General Porting Considerations. Memory EEPROM XRAM

AVR097: Migration between ATmega128 and ATmega2561 Features General Porting Considerations Memory Clock sources Interrupts Power Management BOD WDT Timers/Counters USART & SPI ADC Analog Comparator ATmega103

### 8-bit RISC Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR236: CRC Check of Program Memory

AVR236: CRC Check of Program Memory Features CRC Generation and Checking of Program Memory Supports all AVR Controllers with LPM Instruction Compact Code Size, 44 Words (CRC Generation and CRC Checking)

### AVR319: Using the USI module for SPI communication. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. Introduction

AVR319: Using the USI module for SPI communication Features C-code driver for SPI master and slave Uses the USI module Supports SPI Mode 0 and 1 Introduction The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) allows

### AVR317: Using the Master SPI Mode of the USART module. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. Introduction

AVR317: Using the Master SPI Mode of the USART module Features Enables Two SPI buses in one device Hardware buffered SPI communication Polled communication example Interrupt-controlled communication example

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR415: RC5 IR Remote Control Transmitter. Features. Introduction. Figure 1.

AVR415: RC5 IR Remote Control Transmitter Features Utilizes ATtiny28 Special HW Modulator and High Current Drive Pin Size Efficient Code, Leaves Room for Large User Code Low Power Consumption through Intensive

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR314: DTMF Generator

AVR314: DTMF Generator Features Generation of Sine Waves Using PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) Combine Different Sine Waves to DTMF Signal Assembler and C High-level Language Code STK500 Top-Module Design

### AVR106: C functions for reading and writing to Flash memory. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. Introduction

AVR106: C functions for reading and writing to Flash memory Features C functions for accessing Flash memory - Byte read - Page read - Byte write - Page write Optional recovery on power failure Functions

### AT89C5131A Starter Kit... Software User Guide

AT89C5131A Starter Kit... Software User Guide Table of Contents Section 1 Introduction... 1-1 1.1 Abbreviations...1-1 Section 2 Getting Started... 2-3 2.1 Hardware Requirements...2-3 2.2 Software Requirements...2-3

### How to Calculate the Capacitor of the Reset Input of a C51 Microcontroller 80C51. Application Note. Microcontrollers. Introduction

How to Calculate the Capacitor of the Reset Input of a C51 Microcontroller This application note explains how the reset of the 80C51 microcontroller works when the RST pin is a pure input pin and when

### Tag Tuning/RFID. Application Note. Tag Tuning. Introduction. Antenna Equivalent Circuit

Tag Tuning Introduction RFID tags extract all of their power to both operate and communicate from the reader s magnetic field. Coupling between the tag and reader is via the mutual inductance of the two

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR105: Power Efficient High Endurance Parameter Storage in Flash Memory

AVR105: Power Efficient High Endurance Parameter Storage in Flash Memory Features Fast Storage of Parameters High Endurance Flash Storage 350K Write Cycles Power Efficient Parameter Storage Arbitrary Size

### Quick Start Guide. CAN Microcontrollers. ATADAPCAN01 - STK501 CAN Extension. Requirements

ATADAPCAN01 - STK501 CAN Extension The ATADAPCAN01 - STK501 CAN add-on is an extension to the STK500 and STK501 development boards from Atmel Corporation, adding support for the AVR AT90CAN128 device in

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application. Note. AVR204: BCD Arithmetics. Features. Introduction. 16-bit Binary to 5-digit BCD Conversion bin2bcd16

AVR204: BCD Arithmetics Features Conversion 16 Bits 5 Digits, 8 Bits 2 Digits 2-digit Addition and Subtraction Superb Speed and Code Density Runable Example Program Introduction This application note lists

### AT91 ARM Thumb Microcontrollers. Application Note. Interfacing a PC Card to an AT91RM9200-DK. Introduction. Hardware Interface

Interfacing a PC Card to an AT91RM9200-DK Introduction This Application Note describes the implementation of a PCMCIA interface on an AT91RM9200 Development Kit (DK) using the External Bus Interface (EBI).

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR201: Using the AVR Hardware Multiplier

AVR201: Using the AVR Hardware Multiplier Features 8- and 16-bit Implementations Signed and Unsigned Routines Fractional Signed and Unsigned Multiply Executable Example Programs Introduction The megaavr

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR134: Real-Time Clock (RTC) using the Asynchronous Timer. Features. Theory of Operation.

AVR134: Real-Time Clock (RTC) using the Asynchronous Timer Features Real-Time Clock with Very Low Power Consumption (4µA @ 3.3V) Very Low Cost Solution Adjustable Prescaler to Adjust Precision Counts Time,

### AVR241: Direct driving of LCD display using general IO. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. Introduction AVR

AVR241: Direct driving of LCD display using general IO Features Software driver for displays with one common line Suitable for parts without on-chip hardware for LCD driving Control up to 15 segments using

C51 General Information about Bootloader and In System Programming Overview This document describes the Atmel Bootloaders for 8051 family processors. Abreviations ISP: In-System Programming API : Applications

### AVR034: Mixing C and Assembly Code with IAR Embedded Workbench for AVR. 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. Features.

AVR034: Mixing C and Assembly Code with IAR Embedded Workbench for AVR Features Passing Variables Between C and Assembly Code Functions Calling Assembly Code Functions from C Calling C Functions from Assembly

### AVR245: Code Lock with 4x4 Keypad and I2C LCD. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR245: Code Lock with 4x4 Keypad and I2C LCD Features Application example for code lock - Ideal for low pin count AVRs Uses I/O pins to read 4x4 keypad Uses Timer/Counter to control piezoelectric buzzer

### AVR442: PC Fan Control using ATtiny13. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR442: PC Fan Control using ATtiny13 Features Variable speed based on: - Temperature sensor (NTC). - External PWM input. Stall detection with alarm output. Implementation in C code to ease modification.

### AVR030: Getting Started with IAR Embedded Workbench for Atmel AVR. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features.

AVR030: Getting Started with IAR Embedded Workbench for Atmel AVR Features How to open a new workspace and project in IAR Embedded Workbench Description and option settings for compiling the c-code Setting

### AVR120: Characterization and Calibration of the ADC on an AVR. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. Introduction

AVR120: Characterization and Calibration of the ADC on an AVR Features Understanding Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) characteristics Measuring parameters describing ADC characteristics Temperature, frequency

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR180: External Brown-out Protection

AVR180: External Brown-out Protection Features Low-voltage Detector Prevent Register and EEPROM Corruption Two Discrete Solutions Integrated IC Solution Extreme Low-cost Solution Extreme Low-power Solution

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR461: Quick Start Guide for the Embedded Internet Toolkit. Introduction. System Requirements

AVR461: Quick Start Guide for the Embedded Internet Toolkit Introduction Congratulations with your AVR Embedded Internet Toolkit. This Quick-start Guide gives an introduction to using the AVR Embedded

### 3-output Laser Driver for HD-DVD/ Blu-ray/DVD/ CD-ROM ATR0885. Preliminary. Summary

Features Three Selectable Outputs All Outputs Can Be Used Either for Standard (5V) or High Voltage (9V) Maximum Output Current at All Outputs Up to 150 ma On-chip Low-EMI RF Oscillator With Spread-spectrum

### AVR32110: Using the AVR32 Timer/Counter. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR32110: Using the AVR32 Timer/Counter Features Three independent 16 bit Timer/Counter Channels Multiple uses: - Waveform generation - Analysis and measurement support: Frequency and interval measurements

### USB Test Environment ATUSBTEST- SS7400. Summary

Features Simple Command-driven Host Model Comprehensive Reports by Monitor Protocol Validation by Monitor Comprehensive Test Suite Fully Compliant with USB Forum Checklist Generates and Monitors Packets

### Application Note. USB Mass Storage Device Implementation. USB Microcontrollers. References. Abbreviations. Supported Controllers

USB Mass Storage Device Implementation References Universal Serial Bus Specification, revision 2.0 Universal Serial Bus Class Definition for Communication Devices, version 1.1 USB Mass Storage Overview,

### 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR410: RC5 IR Remote Control Receiver

AVR410: RC5 IR Remote Control Receiver Features Low-cost Compact Design, Only One External Component Requires Only One Controller Pin, Any AVR Device Can be Used Size-efficient Code Introduction Most audio

### USB 2.0 Full-Speed Host/Function Processor AT43USB370. Summary. Features. Overview

Features USB 2.0 Full Speed Host/Function Processor Real-time Host/Function Switching Capability Internal USB and System Interface Controllers 32-bit Generic System Processor Interface with DMA Separate

### AT91 ARM Thumb Microcontrollers. AT91SAM CAN Bootloader. AT91SAM CAN Bootloader User Notes. 1. Description. 2. Key Features

User Notes 1. Description The CAN bootloader SAM-BA Boot4CAN allows the user to program the different memories and registers of any Atmel AT91SAM product that includes a CAN without removing them from

### AVR32100: Using the AVR32 USART. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR32100: Using the AVR32 USART Features Supports character length from 5 to 9 bits Interrupt Generation Parity, Framing and Overrun Error Detection Programmable Baud Rate Generator Line Break Generation

### Application Note. 8-bit Microcontrollers. AVR091: Replacing AT90S2313 by ATtiny2313. Features. Introduction

AVR091: Replacing AT90S2313 by ATtiny2313 Features AT90S2313 Errata Corrected in ATtiny2313 Changes to Bit and Register Names Changes to Interrupt Vector Oscillators and Selecting Start-up Delays Improvements

### ATF15xx Product Family Conversion. Application Note. ATF15xx Product Family Conversion. Introduction

ATF15xx Product Family Conversion Introduction Table 1. Atmel s ATF15xx Family The ATF15xx Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) product family offers high-density and high-performance devices. Atmel

### 8-bit RISC Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR155: Accessing an I 2 C LCD Display using the AVR 2-wire Serial Interface

AVR155: Accessing an I 2 C LCD Display using the AVR 2-wire Serial Interface Features Compatible with Philips' I 2 C protocol 2-wire Serial Interface Master Driver for Easy Transmit and Receive Function

### AVR444: Sensorless control of 3-phase brushless DC motors. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR444: Sensorless control of 3-phase brushless DC motors Features Robust sensorless commutation control. External speed reference. Overcurrent detection/protection. Basic speed controller included. Full

### Step Motor Controller. Application Note. AVR360: Step Motor Controller. Theory of Operation. Features. Introduction

AVR360: Step Motor Controller Features High-Speed Step Motor Controller Interrupt Driven Compact Code (Only 10 Bytes Interrupt Routine) Very High Speed Low Computing Requirement Supports all AVR Devices

### APPLICATION NOTE. Atmel AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) Using the Asynchronous Timer. Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontroller. Introduction.

APPLICATION NOTE Atmel AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) Using the Asynchronous Timer Introduction Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontroller This application note describes how to implement a real time counter (RTC)

### DIP Top View VCC A16 A15 A12 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 I/O0 I/O1 I/O2 GND A17 A14 A13 A8 A9 A11 A10 I/O7 I/O6 I/O5 I/O4 I/O3. PLCC Top View VCC A17

Features Fast Read Access Time 70 ns 5-volt Only Reprogramming Sector Program Operation Single Cycle Reprogram (Erase and Program) 1024 Sectors (256 Bytes/Sector) Internal Address and Data Latches for

### Application Note. Migrating from RS-232 to USB Bridge Specification USB Microcontrollers. Doc Control. References. Abbreviations

Migrating from RS-232 to USB Bridge Specification USB Microcontrollers Doc Control Rev Purpose of Modifications Date 0.0 Creation date 24 Nov 2003 Application Note 1.0 updates 22 Dec 2003 References Universal

### Application Note. 8-bit Microcontrollers. AVR280: USB Host CDC Demonstration. 1. Introduction

AVR280: USB Host CDC Demonstration 1. Introduction The RS232 interface has disappeared from the new generation of PCs replaced by the USB interface. To follow this change, applications based on UART interface

### AVR32138: How to optimize the ADC usage on AT32UC3A0/1, AT32UC3A3 and AT32UC3B0/1 series. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note.

AVR32138: How to optimize the ADC usage on AT32UC3A0/1, AT32UC3A3 and AT32UC3B0/1 series 1 Introduction This application note outlines the steps necessary to optimize analog to digital conversions on AT32UC3A0/1,

### AVR353: Voltage Reference Calibration and Voltage ADC Usage. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR353: Voltage Reference Calibration and Voltage ADC Usage Features Voltage reference calibration. - 1.100V +/-1mV (typical) and < 90ppm/ C drift from 10 C to +70 C. Interrupt controlled voltage ADC sampling.

### AVR1301: Using the XMEGA DAC. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR1301: Using the XMEGA DAC Features 12 bit resolution Up to 1 M conversions per second Continuous drive or sample-and-hold output Built-in offset and gain calibration High drive capabilities Driver source

### Two-wire Automotive Serial EEPROM AT24C01A AT24C02 AT24C04 AT24C08 (1) AT24C16 (2)

Features Medium-voltage and Standard-voltage Operation 5.0 (V CC = 4.5V to 5.5V) 2.7 (V CC = 2.7V to 5.5V) Internally Organized 128 x 8 (1K), 256 x 8 (2K), 512 x 8 (4K), 1024 x 8 (8K) or 2048 x 8 (16K)

### 8-bit RISC Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR335: Digital Sound Recorder with AVR and DataFlash

AVR5: Digital Sound Recorder with AVR and DataFlash Features Digital Voice Recorder 8-bit Sound Recording 8 khz Sampling Rate Sound Frequency up to 4000 Hz Maximum Recording Time 4 /4 Minutes Very Small

### 2-wire Serial EEPROM AT24C1024. Advance Information

Features Low-voltage Operation 2.7(V CC =2.7Vto5.5V) Internally Organized 3,072 x 8 2-wire Serial Interface Schmitt Triggers, Filtered Inputs for Noise Suppression Bi-directional Data Transfer Protocol

### AVR033: Getting Started with the CodeVisionAVR C Compiler. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR033: Getting Started with the CodeVisionAVR C Compiler Features Installing and Configuring CodeVisionAVR to Work with the Atmel STK 500 Starter Kit and AVR Studio Debugger Creating a New Project Using

### tinyavr Microcontrollers White Paper is the registered trademark of Atmel Corporation, 2325 Orchard Parkway, San Jose, CA 95131 Rev.

tinyavr Microcontrollers White Paper is the registered trademark of Atmel Corporation, 2325 Orchard Parkway, San Jose, CA 95131 R Rev. Table of Contents Introduction to Microcontrollers... 1 Microcontroller

### 2-Wire Serial EEPROM AT24C32 AT24C64. 2-Wire, 32K Serial E 2 PROM. Features. Description. Pin Configurations. 32K (4096 x 8) 64K (8192 x 8)

Features Low-Voltage and Standard-Voltage Operation 2.7 (V CC = 2.7V to 5.5V) 1.8 (V CC = 1.8V to 5.5V) Low-Power Devices (I SB = 2 µa at 5.5V) Available Internally Organized 4096 x 8, 8192 x 8 2-Wire

### Application Note. 8-bit Microcontrollers. AVR307: Half Duplex UART Using the USI Module

AVR307: Half Duplex UART Using the USI Module Features Half Duplex UART Communication Communication Speed Up To 230.4 kbps at 14.75MHz Interrupt Controlled Communication Eight Bit Data, One Stop-bit, No

### 256K (32K x 8) OTP EPROM AT27C256R 256K EPROM. Features. Description. Pin Configurations

Features Fast Read Access Time - 45 ns Low-Power CMOS Operation 100 µa max. Standby 20 ma max. Active at 5 MHz JEDEC Standard Packages 28-Lead 600-mil PDIP 32-Lead PLCC 28-Lead TSOP and SOIC 5V ± 10% Supply

### AVR055: Using a 32kHz XTAL for run-time calibration of the internal RC. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features.

AVR055: Using a 32kHz XTAL for run-time calibration of the internal RC Features Calibration using a 32 khz external crystal Adjustable RC frequency with maximum +/-2% accuracy Tune RC oscillator at any

### AVR1600: Using the XMEGA Quadrature Decoder. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction. Sensors

AVR1600: Using the XMEGA Quadrature Decoder Features Quadrature Decoders 16-bit angular resolution Rotation speed and acceleration 1 Introduction Quadrature encoders are used to determine the position

### AVR32701: AVR32AP7 USB Performance. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR32701: AVR32AP7 USB Performance Features Linux USB bulk transfer performance ATSTK1000 (32-bit SDRAM bus width) ATNGW100 (16-bit SDRAM bus width) GadgetFS driver and gadgetfs-test application USB performance

### 8-bit RISC Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR910: In-System Programming

AVR910: In-System Programming Features Complete In-System Programming Solution for AVR Microcontrollers Covers All AVR Microcontrollers with In-System Programming Support Reprogram Both Data Flash and

### AT86RF230 (2450 MHz band) Radio Transceiver... User Guide

ATAVRRZ200 Demonstration Kit AT86RF230 (2450 MHz band) Radio Transceiver... User Guide Section 1 1.1 Organization...1-1 1.2 General Description...1-1 1.3 Demonstration kit features...1-2 1.4 Included

### AVR318: Dallas 1-Wire master. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. Introduction

AVR318: Dallas 1-Wire master Features Supports standard speed Dallas 1-Wire protocol. Compatible with all AVRs. Polled or interrupt-driven implementation. Polled implementation requires no external hardware.

### AVR1309: Using the XMEGA SPI. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction SCK MOSI MISO SS

AVR1309: Using the XMEGA SPI Features Introduction to SPI and the XMEGA SPI module Setup and use of the XMEGA SPI module Implementation of module drivers Polled master Interrupt controlled master Polled

### Two-wire Serial EEPROM AT24C1024 (1)

Features Low-voltage Operation 2.7 (V CC = 2.7V to 5.5V) Internally Organized 131,072 x 8 Two-wire Serial Interface Schmitt Triggers, Filtered Inputs for Noise Suppression Bidirectional Data Transfer Protocol

### AVR040: EMC Design Considerations. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note PRELIMINARY. Scope. 1 Introduction

AVR040: EMC Design Considerations Scope This application note covers the most common EMC problems designers encounter when using microcontrollers. It will briefly discuss the various phenomena. The reference

### AVR1318: Using the XMEGA built-in AES accelerator. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR1318: Using the XMEGA built-in AES accelerator Features Full compliance with AES (FIPS Publication 197, 2002) - Both encryption and decryption procedures 128-bit Key and State memory XOR load option

### Using CryptoMemory in Full I 2 C Compliant Mode. Using CryptoMemory in Full I 2 C Compliant Mode AT88SC0104CA AT88SC0204CA AT88SC0404CA AT88SC0808CA

Using CryptoMemory in Full I 2 C Compliant Mode 1. Introduction This application note describes how to communicate with CryptoMemory devices in full I 2 C compliant mode. Full I 2 C compliance permits

### Application Note. 8-bit Microcontrollers. AVR270: USB Mouse Demonstration

AVR270: USB Mouse Demonstration Features Runs with AT90USB Microcontrollers at 8MHz USB Low Power Bus Powered Device (less then 100mA) Supported by any PC running Windows (98SE or later), Linux or Mac

### STK 500, AVRISP, AVRISP

AVR053: Calibration of the internal RC oscillator Features Calibration using STK 500, AVRISP, AVRISP mkii, JTAGICE or JTAGICE mkii Calibration using 3 rd party programmers Adjustable RC frequency with

### AVR1900: Getting started with ATxmega128A1 on STK600. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. 1 Introduction

AVR1900: Getting started with ATxmega128A1 on STK600 1 Introduction This document contains information about how to get started with the ATxmega128A1 on STK 600. The first three sections contain information

### AT91 ARM Thumb Microcontrollers. Application Note. GNU-Based Software Development on AT91SAM Microcontrollers. 1. Introduction. 2.

GNU-Based Software Development on AT91SAM Microcontrollers 1. Introduction Most development solutions used today in the ARM world are commercial packages, such as IAR EWARM or ARM RealView. Indeed, they

### AVR068: STK500 Communication Protocol. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR068: STK500 Communication Protocol Features Interfaces both STK500 and AVRISP Supports STK500 FW 2.XX 1 Introduction This document describes the 2.0 version of the communication protocol between the

### 3-output Laser Driver for HD-DVD/ Blu-ray/DVD/ CD-ROM ATR0885. Preliminary. Summary. Features. Applications. 1. Description

Features Three Selectable Outputs All Outputs Can Be Used Either for Standard (5V) or High Voltage (9V) Maximum Output Current at All Outputs Up to 150 ma On-chip Low-EMI RF Oscillator With Spread-spectrum

### AVR1321: Using the Atmel AVR XMEGA 32-bit Real Time Counter and Battery Backup System. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note.

AVR1321: Using the Atmel AVR XMEGA 32-bit Real Time Counter and Battery Backup System Features 32-bit Real Time Counter (RTC) - 32-bit counter - Selectable clock source 1.024kHz 1Hz - Long overflow time

### AVR064: A Temperature Monitoring System with LCD Output. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR064: A Temperature Monitoring System with LCD Output Features Presenting data on an LCD-display Temperature measurement Real Time Clock (RTC) UART communication with a PC PWM implementation 8-bit Microcontrollers

### 8-bit. Application Note. Microcontrollers. AVR282: USB Firmware Upgrade for AT90USB

AVR282: USB Firmware Upgrade for AT90USB Features Supported by Atmel FLIP program on all Microsoft O/S from Windows 98SE and later FLIP 3.2.1 or greater supports Linux Default on chip USB bootloader In-System

### All-band AM/FM Receiver and Audio Amplifier IC U2510B

Features Superior Strong Signal Behavior by Using an RF AGC Soft Mute and HCC for Decreasing Interstation Noise in Mode Level Indicator (LED Drive) for and DC Mode Control:, and Tape Wide Supply-voltage

### AVR1922: Xplain Board Controller Firmware. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR1922: Xplain Board Controller Firmware Features USB interface - Mass-storage to on-board DataFlash memory Atmel AVR XMEGA TM reset control 1 Introduction The Xplain board controller, an AT90USB1287,

### AVR2006: Design and characterization of the Radio Controller Board's 2.4GHz PCB Antenna. Application Note. Features.

AVR26: Design and characterization of the Radio Controller Board's 2.4GHz PCB Antenna Features Radiation pattern Impedance measurements WIPL design files NEC model Application Note 1 Introduction This

### AVR115: Data Logging with Atmel File System on ATmega32U4. Microcontrollers. Application Note. 1 Introduction. Atmel

AVR115: Data Logging with Atmel File System on ATmega32U4 Microcontrollers 01101010 11010101 01010111 10010101 Application Note 1 Introduction Atmel provides a File System management for AT90USBx and ATmegaxxUx

### ATF1500AS Device Family. Application Note. In-System Programming of Atmel ATF1500AS Devices on the HP3070. Introduction.

In-System Programming of Atmel ATF1500AS Devices on the HP3070 Introduction In-System Programming (ISP) support of Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) is becoming a requirement for customers using Automated

### 32-bit AVR UC3 Microcontrollers. 32-bit AtmelAVR Application Note. AVR32769: How to Compile the standalone AVR32 Software Framework in AVR32 Studio V2

AVR32769: How to Compile the standalone AVR32 Software Framework in AVR32 Studio V2 1. Introduction The purpose of this application note is to show how to compile any of the application and driver examples

### AVR32788: AVR 32 How to use the SSC in I2S mode. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR32788: AVR 32 How to use the SSC in I2S mode Features I²S protocol overview I²S on the AVR32 I²S sample rate configurations Example of use with AT32UC3A on EVK1105 board 32-bit Microcontrollers Application

### AVR1510: Xplain training - XMEGA USART. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Prerequisites. 1 Introduction

AVR1510: Xplain training - XMEGA USART Prerequisites Required knowledge AVR1500: Xplain training XMEGA Basics AVR1502: Xplain training XMEGA Direct Memory Access Controller Software prerequisites Atmel

### AVR441: Intelligent BLDC Fan Controller with Temperature Sensor and Serial Interface. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note.

AVR441: Intelligent BLDC Fan Controller with Temperature Sensor and Serial Interface Features Application Example for Controlling Brushless DC Motors - Ideal for Use as an Integrated Fan Controller Automatically

### AVR125: ADC of tinyavr in Single Ended Mode. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR125: ADC of tinyavr in Single Ended Mode Features Up to 10bit resolution Up to 15kSPS Auto triggered and single conversion mode Optional left adjustment for ADC result readout Driver source code included

### AVR447: Sinusoidal driving of three-phase permanent magnet motor using ATmega48/88/168. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note.

AVR447: Sinusoidal driving of three-phase permanent magnet motor using ATmega48/88/168 Features Three-phase sine waves - 192 steps per electrical revolution - 8-bit amplitude resolution Software dead-time

### 2-wire Serial EEPROM AT24C512

Features Low-voltage and Standard-voltage Operation 5.0 (V CC = 4.5V to 5.5V). (V CC =.V to 5.5V). (V CC =.V to.v) Internally Organized 5,5 x -wire Serial Interface Schmitt Triggers, Filtered Inputs for

### Application Note. 8051 Microcontrollers. Guidelines to Keep ADC Resolution within Specification. Introduction. ADC Resolution

Guidelines to Keep ADC Resolution within Specification Introduction This application note describes how to optimize the ADC hardware environment in order not to alter the intrinsic ADC resolution and to

### AVR131: Using the AVR s High-speed PWM. Introduction. Features. AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers AVR131: Using the AVR s High-speed PWM APPLICATION NOTE Introduction This application note is an introduction to the use of the high-speed Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) available

### AVR2004: LC-Balun for AT86RF230. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR2004: LC-Balun for AT86RF230 Features Balun for AT86RF230 with lumped elements Simulation results S-Parameter file 1 Introduction In some cases the used balun on the ATAVR RZ502 Radio Boards must be

### AN974 APPLICATION NOTE

AN974 APPLICATION NOTE Real time clock with ST7 Timer Output Compare By MCD Application Team 1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this note is to present how to use the ST7 Timer output compare function. As an

### Application Note. 8-bit Microcontrollers. AVR435: BLDC/BLAC Motor Control Using a Sinus Modulated PWM Algorithm. 1. Features. 2.

AVR45: BLDC/BLAC Motor Control Using a Sinus Modulated PWM Algorithm 1. Features Cost-effective and energy efficient BLDC/BLAC motor drive Implemented on an AT9PWM AVR low cost microcontroller Low memory

### Atmel AVR4921: ASF - USB Device Stack Differences between ASF V1 and V2. 8-bit Atmel Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features.

Atmel AVR4921: ASF - USB Device Stack Differences between ASF V1 and V2 Features Advantages Implementation differences Integration Migration from stack V1 to stack V2 8-bit Atmel Microcontrollers Application

### APPLICATION NOTE Atmel AT02509: In House Unit with Bluetooth Low Energy Module Hardware User Guide 8-bit Atmel Microcontroller Features Description

APPLICATION NOTE Atmel AT259: In House Unit with Bluetooth Low Energy Module Hardware User Guide Features 8-bit Atmel Microcontroller Low power consumption Interface with BLE with UART Bi-direction wake