# 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR222: 8-point Moving Average Filter

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1 AVR222: 8-point Moving Average Filter Features 31-word Subroutine Filters Data Arrays up to 256 Bytes Runable Demo Program Introduction The moving average filter is a simple Low Pass FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter commonly used for smoothening an array of sampled data. This application implements an 8-point filter to simplify the average calculation. The application note gives an excellent demonstration of how the powerful addressing modes in the AVR architecture can be utilized. 8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Theory The moving average filter can be imagined as a window of a certain size (in this case eight) moving along the array, one element at a time. The middle element of the window (in this case element #4) is replaced with the average of all elements in the window. See Figure 1. However, it is important to remember the value of new elements and not make the replacement until the window has passed. This must be done since all averages shall be based on the original data in the array. Figure 1. The 8-point Averaging Window CURRENT WINDOW NEW VALUE = ( ) / 8 = 20 When the ends of the array is filtered and parts of the window is outside the array, the averaging must be done on less elements than when the entire window is inside the array. This implementation leaves the ends of the array unfiltered to save code. For an 8-point filter, this means that when n elements are filtered, elements 1, 2, 3, and n-3, n-2, n-1, n remain unchanged when filtering is complete. For many applications, this is no problem. Rev. 1

2 Implementation Usage Algorithm Description The application defines an 8-byte ring buffer (R0 - R7) which always holds the data in the current averaging window. The filter routine calculates the sum of the window and computes the average, which is stored back in the array. The AVR s three pointers are assigned the following functions: Z points to the array element to be replaced. Y points inside the ring buffer when the sum of the buffer contents is calculated in a program loop. X is the ring pointer which holds the position of new values to the buffer. To filter an array in SRAM, use the following procedure: 1. Load ZH with the high address of the first element in the array. 2. Load ZL with the low address of the first element in the array. 3. Load the register variable t_size with the number of elements in the table. 4. Call mav8. The following procedure describes how the sorter is implemented on the AVR: Initialization 1. Clear the X and Y pointers (point to R0). Fill Ring Buffer Initially: 1. Get the SRAM contents at Z and increment Z. 2. Store in register at Y and increment Y. 3. If Y not eight, goto Step 2. Find Average 1. Clear the 16-bit register variable AH:AL (Average Value). 2. Clear YL (point to R0). 3. Get the register contents at Y. 4. Add to AH:AL. 5. If Y not eight, goto Step Divide AH:AL by 8. Write Back Average and Get Next Value to Buffer 1. Get SRAM contents at Z+5 (Next value to buffer). 2. Store to register at X and increment X. 3. Clear the highest five bits of XL to make it point to the start of the buffer if the end is passed. 4. Store AL at Z and increment Z. 5. Decrement t_size. 6. If t_size is not zero (end of array is reached) goto Step 5. 2 AVR222

3 AVR222 Figure 2. mav8 Flow Chart MAV8 CLEAR X AND Y Z Z + 1 CALCULATE AVERAGE FILL RING MAV_TMP Y Y + 1 YL = 8? Y CLEAR AH:AL, YL Y Y + 1 AH:AL AH:AL +MAV_TMP YL = 8? N Y AH:AL AH:AL / 8 WRITE BACK AVERAGE AND GET NEXT VALUE TO RING BUFFER MAV_TMP, X X + AL, Z Z + 1 T_SIZE = CLEAR X BITS 7,6,5,4,3 T_SIZE T_SIZE - 1 Y Return 3

4 Performance Table 1. mav8 Register Usage Register Input Internal Output R0-R7 Ring Buffer R8 mav_tmp Temporary Storage R9 AL Average Low Byte R10 AH Average High Byte R16 t_size Number of Elements t_size Loop Counter R26 XL R27 XH R28 YL R29 YH R30 Z Address of First Element ZL R31 Z Address of First Element ZH Table 2. mav8 Performance Figures (1) Parameter Code Size (Words) Execution Time (Cycles) Value 30 + return x (SIZE - 7) + return Register Usage Low Registers High Registers Pointers Interrupts Usage Peripherals Usage None None :11 :1 :X, Y, Z Note: 1. SIZE = Number of bytes to filter Test/Example Program avr222.asm contains a test program which copies 60 bytes of random data from the Program memory to SRAM and calls mav8 to filter the data. The test program is well suited for running under the AVR Studio. 4 AVR222

5 AVR222 5

6 Atmel Headquarters Corporate Headquarters 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA TEL 1(408) FAX 1(408) Europe Atmel Sarl Route des Arsenaux 41 Case Postale 80 CH-1705 Fribourg Switzerland TEL (41) FAX (41) Asia Room 1219 Chinachem Golden Plaza 77 Mody Road Tsimhatsui East Kowloon Hong Kong TEL (852) FAX (852) Japan 9F, Tonetsu Shinkawa Bldg Shinkawa Chuo-ku, Tokyo Japan TEL (81) FAX (81) Atmel Operations Memory 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA TEL 1(408) FAX 1(408) Microcontrollers 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA TEL 1(408) FAX 1(408) La Chantrerie BP Nantes Cedex 3, France TEL (33) FAX (33) ASIC/ASSP/Smart Cards Zone Industrielle Rousset Cedex, France TEL (33) FAX (33) East Cheyenne Mtn. Blvd. Colorado Springs, CO TEL 1(719) FAX 1(719) Scottish Enterprise Technology Park Maxwell Building East Kilbride G75 0QR, Scotland TEL (44) FAX (44) RF/Automotive Theresienstrasse 2 Postfach Heilbronn, Germany TEL (49) FAX (49) East Cheyenne Mtn. Blvd. Colorado Springs, CO TEL 1(719) FAX 1(719) Biometrics/Imaging/Hi-Rel MPU/ High Speed Converters/RF Datacom Avenue de Rochepleine BP Saint-Egreve Cedex, France TEL (33) FAX (33) Web Site Atmel Corporation Atmel Corporation makes no warranty for the use of its products, other than those expressly contained in the Company s standard warranty which is detailed in Atmel s Terms and Conditions located on the Company s web site. The Company assumes no responsibility for any errors which may appear in this document, reserves the right to change devices or specifications detailed herein at any time without notice, and does not make any commitment to update the information contained herein. No licenses to patents or other intellectual property of Atmel are granted by the Company in connection with the sale of Atmel products, expressly or by implication. Atmel s products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems. ATMEL, AVR, and AVR Studio are the registered trademarks of Atmel. Other terms and product names may be the trademarks of others. Printed on recycled paper. 0M

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### AVR1600: Using the XMEGA Quadrature Decoder. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction. Sensors

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AVR922: Add a Serial Number to your USB Device Features 20 characters Serial Number Unique ID for your device Enabled/Disabled by software 1 Introduction Adding to the VID (Vendor ID) and the PID (Product

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### AVR353: Voltage Reference Calibration and Voltage ADC Usage. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

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### Two-wire Serial EEPROM with Permanent Software Write Protect AT34C02

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### 2-wire Serial EEPROM AT24C512

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AVR1301: Using the XMEGA DAC Features 12 bit resolution Up to 1 M conversions per second Continuous drive or sample-and-hold output Built-in offset and gain calibration High drive capabilities Driver source