1 CHAPTER 1 The Internet and Its Uses Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions: How is the Internet evolving? How do businesses and individuals use the Internet? What is the importance of standards in the continuing growth of the Internet? What is the role of an Internet service provider (ISP)? How does the hierarchical structure of the Internet allow the efficient movement of information? Key Terms What are a point of presence () and an Internet Exchange Point (IXP)? What types of devices do ISPs use to provide services? What is scalability, and why is it important in the ISP network? What support teams work at an ISP, and what is their purpose? This chapter uses the following key terms. You can find the definitions in the glossary. Internet page 2 electronic commerce (e-commerce) page 2 Request for Comments (RFC) page 3 Internet service provider (ISP) page 4 bandwidth page 4 digital subscriber line (DSL) page 5 Metro Ethernet page 7 point of presence () page 7 Internet Exchange Point (IXP) page 7 Network Access Point (NAP) page 7 Tier 1 ISP page 9 Tier 2 ISP page 9 Tier 3 ISP page 9 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) page 9 transport network page 12 DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM) page 13 cable modem termination system (CMTS) page 13 scalable network page 14
2 2 Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP, CCNA Discovery Learning Guide The globalization of the Internet has occurred faster than anyone could have imagined. The manner in which social, commercial, political, and personal interactions occur is rapidly changing to keep pace with the evolution of the Internet. This expansion has created a wider audience and a larger consumer base for whatever message, product, or service can be delivered. Today millions of individuals are connected to this global network, and the number is growing. This chapter discusses the importance of standards in maintaining this rapid growth and provides an overview of the hierarchical structure of the Internet and the role of the ISP. Part II of this book includes the corresponding labs for this chapter. What Is the Internet? The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of networks. Through interconnected computer networks, the Internet enables individuals and businesses to share information, resources, and services. Because no single individual or group of individuals controls the Internet, it is imperative that certain rules and guidelines are adhered to so that it can function efficiently. The Internet and Standards In the beginning, the Internet was used strictly for scientific, educational, and military research. In 1991, regulations changed to allow businesses and consumers to connect as well. Since that time, the Internet has grown rapidly and now covers the globe. New technologies are continuously being developed that make the Internet easier and more attractive to use. Online applications are available to the Internet user, including , web browsing, streaming music and video, online gaming, and instant messaging. The way people interact, share information, and even do business is changing to keep up with the continuous evolution of this global network. The Internet is creating a wider audience and consumer base for whatever message, product, or service can be delivered. For many businesses, having Internet access has become critical, not only for communication, but also for day-to-day operation. This includes e-commerce, communications, and collaboration and training, as shown in Figure 1-1 and described in the next sections. E-Commerce Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is any business activity that can be conducted over the web. This includes using web space for advertisements, brochures, and catalogs, as well as ordering and distribution services. Companies can sell products and services over the Internet from their own websites, through auction sites, or through affiliated websites. Communications Communications refers to any electronic method of communication, such as the use of , instant messaging, and online chat. In addition, many businesses use internal phone systems that operate over the Internet using IP phones and voice over IP (VoIP) technology to reduce phone costs.
3 Chapter 1: The Internet and Its Uses 3 Figure 1-1 Common Uses for the Internet Internet E-Commerce Communications Employees Collaboration and Training Intranet Customers Business Home Office Collaboration and Training The Internet enables the sharing of documents, presentations, and spreadsheets among users around the world. It allows teams of people to work together virtually from remote locations for business and training purposes. Examples include videoconferencing, virtual meeting places, virtual classrooms, online learning, online bulletin boards, FTP sites, and password-protected databases and applications. With the increasing number of new devices and technologies coming online, it is important that all users and technologies adhere to a set of rules or guidelines. This allows services such as to be reliably delivered to all users. These rules and guidelines are known as Internet standards. A standard is a set of rules for how something must be done. Networking and Internet standards ensure that all devices connecting to the network use the same set of rules. By having standards, different types of devices can send information to each other over the Internet. For example, an message is formatted, forwarded, and received by all devices in a standardized manner. If someone sends an via a PC, someone else can use a mobile phone to receive and read the as long as the mobile phone uses the same standards. An Internet standard is the end result of a comprehensive cycle of discussion, problem solving, and testing. When a new standard is proposed, each stage of the development and approval process is recorded in a numbered Request for Comments (RFC) document so that the evolution of the standard is tracked.
4 4 Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP, CCNA Discovery Learning Guide Thousands of Internet standards help define the rules for how devices communicate on networks. These different standards are developed, published, and maintained by a variety of organizations. These include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Because these organizations create and maintain standards, millions of individuals can connect to the Internet using a variety of devices, including PCs, cellular phones, handheld personal digital assistants (PDA), MP3 players, and even televisions. ISPs and ISP Services Regardless of the type of device an individual or business uses to connect to the Internet, the device must connect through an Internet service provider (ISP). An ISP is a company or organization through which a subscriber obtains Internet access. A subscriber can be a business, a private consumer, a government body, or even another ISP. Users connect to the ISP through a Point of Presence () using a variety of access technologies. In addition to offering connection to the Internet, an ISP can offer a variety of other services: FTP hosting: The ISP provides the server and application software for a business FTP site. Applications and media hosting: The ISP provides the server and software to allow a business to provide streaming media such as music, video, or applications such as online databases. Technical support: Many businesses do not have the in-house technical expertise to manage large internal networks. Some ISPs provide technical support and consulting services for an additional fee. Voice over IP: A business can save on long-distance telephone charges, especially for internal calls between geographically distant offices, by using VoIP. Equipment co-location: A business may opt to have some or all internal network equipment physically located on the ISP premises. Web hosting: The ISP provides the server and application software for storing web pages and web content for the business website. Interactive Activity 1-1: Which ISP Is Best? (1.1.2) In this activity, you determine the best ISP for a given scenario. Use file d2ia-112 on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this interactive activity. Internet Service Providers Although ISPs offer their clients many different services, their main role is to provide a connection to the Internet. The actual type of connection varies according to the region. Not all connection types are available in all areas. Some connection options provide continuous connection, and others provide connection only when required. Bandwidth, both upstream and downstream, varies between the different options and must match the requirements of the individual or business. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bps), kilobits per second (kbps), megabits per second (Mbps), or gigabits per second (Gbps).
5 Chapter 1: The Internet and Its Uses 5 Delivering Internet Services to End Users ISPs offer various connection options for home and business users. The main connection methods used by home and small business users include dialup, DSL, cable, and satellite connections. These are shown in Figure 1-2. Figure 1-2 Internet Connection Technology for Home and Small Business 56 kbps Dialup Dialup Modem Telephone Line ISP A (Telephone Company) 512 kbps Telephone Line DSL DSL Modem Cable 512 kbps Cable Modem Coaxial Cable ISP B (Cable Service Provider) Satellite Satellite Modem ISP C (Satellite Service Provider) This section describes these connection methods as well as dedicated bandwidth options and the role of a point of presence (). Dialup Access Dialup access is an inexpensive option that uses a phone line and a modem. To connect to the ISP, a user calls the ISP access phone number. With connection speeds of about 56 kbps, dialup is the slowest connection option. At this speed it would take approximately 12 minutes to download a 5-MB file. Dialup is typically used by mobile workers and in areas where higher-speed connection options are not available. DSL Digital subscriber line (DSL) is more expensive than dialup but provides a faster connection. DSL also uses telephone lines, but unlike dialup access, DSL provides a continuous connection to the Internet. This connection option uses a special high-speed modem that separates the DSL signal from the telephone signal and provides an Ethernet connection to a host computer or local-area network (LAN). Speeds of 512 kbps and higher are common with DSL services. At this speed, a 5-MB file would take approximately one minute to download. Upload and download speeds vary based on geography, distance from the ISP, and the type of service offered by the ISP.
6 6 Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP, CCNA Discovery Learning Guide DSL comes in several flavors. Typically, a home user uses an asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), in which the download speed is faster than the upload speed. Because most home users download significantly more than they upload, this type of connection is sufficient. In a business environment, the amount of data uploaded may be equal to or even greater than the amount of data downloaded. For these users, an ADSL line is insufficient; a symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL) service is more appropriate. SDSL offers the same upload and download speeds. Cable Modem A cable modem is a connection option offered by cable television service providers. It offers faster connection speeds than that generally provided by DSL. Cable Internet connections offer speeds of 5 Mbps to 10 Mbps. At these speeds a 5-MB file would take only seconds to download. The Internet signal is carried on the same coaxial cable that delivers cable television to homes and businesses. A special cable modem separates the Internet signal from the other signals carried on the cable and provides an Ethernet connection to a host computer or LAN. Unlike DSL, the distance from the ISP does not affect the performance of the cable connection. Cable is a shared-bandwidth service, so as more customers in an area connect and use the Internet, the speed is negatively affected. Satellite Satellite connection is an option offered by satellite service providers. The user s computer connects through Ethernet to a satellite modem that transmits radio signals to the nearest within the satellite network. Satellite Internet access speeds range from 128 Kbps to 512 Kbps, depending on the subscriber plan. Satellite connection may be the only available technology in many regions of the world. Dedicated Bandwidth Options Business customers often require dedicated, high-bandwidth connections to the Internet. Figure 1-3 shows the three main types of dedicated, high-bandwidth connection options that are used by businesses: T1/E1, T3/E3, and Metro Ethernet. Figure 1-3 High-Speed, Dedicated-Bandwidth Internet Connections Medium-Sized Business T1/E /2.048 Mbps Large Business T3/E / Mbps ISP Large Business with Branch Offices in Same City Metro Ethernet 10 Gbps Branch Office (Main Street) Ethernet Switch Head Office (Downtown) Branch Office (Industrial Park) Branch Office (Suburb)
7 Chapter 1: The Internet and Its Uses 7 T1/E1 Connections T1 connections transmit data at rates of up to Mbps. They are symmetrical, meaning that the upload bandwidth is the same as the download bandwidth. A medium-sized business may need only one T1 connection for all its connectivity requirements. T1 connections are common in North America and some other parts of the world. E1 is a European standard that transmits data at Mbps. T3/E3 Connections T3 connections allow data to be transmitted at rates of up to 45 Mbps. Although T3 is considerably more expensive than a T1 connection, a larger business may need a T3 connection to accommodate all its employees or business volume. Large businesses with multiple locations might use a combination of T1 and T3 lines. Quite often the main office or data center has a T3 line, and each branch office has a T1 connection. E3 is a European standard that transmits data at Mbps. Metro Ethernet Metro Ethernet offers a wide range of high-bandwidth options, including Gbps links. Large companies with many branches in the same city, such as banks, often use Metro Ethernet. Metro Ethernet connects the main office location and all the branches using switched technology. It allows the transfer of large amounts of data faster and less expensively than other high-bandwidth connection options. Point of Presence After the type of connection is established, it is necessary to connect to the ISP to get access to the Internet. Individual computers and business networks connect to the ISP at a point of presence (). s are located at the edge of the ISP s network and serve a particular geographic region. They provide a local point of connection and authentication (password control) for multiple end users. An ISP may have many s, depending on the size of the area it services. Within the ISP network, high-speed routers and switches move data between the various s. Multiple links interconnect the s to provide alternative routes in case one of the links becomes overloaded with traffic or fails. Internet Hierarchy The Internet has a hierarchical structure. At the top of this hierarchy are the ISP organizations. The ISP s connect to an Internet Exchange Point (IXP). In some countries, this is called a Network Access Point (NAP). An IXP or NAP is where multiple ISPs are joined to gain access to each others networks and exchange information, as shown in Figure 1-4. Currently more than 100 major exchange points exist worldwide.
8 8 Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP, CCNA Discovery Learning Guide Figure 1-4 Internet Hierarchy IXP Seattle IXP New York IXP IXP Tokyo Hong Kong IXP Internet Backbone IXP ISP 1 ISP 2 I am sending an to Mr. Chu in Hong Kong. Company A Intranet Company B Intranet Hong Kong New York The Internet backbone consists of this group of networks owned by various organizations and interconnected through IXPs and private peering connections. The Internet backbone is like an information superhighway that provides high-speed data links to interconnect the s and IXPs in major metropolitan areas around the world. The primary medium that connects the Internet backbone is fiber-optic cable. This cable typically is installed underground to connect cities within continents. Fiber-optic cables also run under the sea to connect cities between continents. ISPs are classified into different tiers according to how they access the Internet backbone. Three tiers of ISPs are identified.
9 Chapter 1: The Internet and Its Uses 9 Tier 1 ISPs Tier 1 ISPs are at the top of the hierarchy. Tier 1 ISPs are huge organizations that connect directly with each other through private peering, physically joining their individual network backbones to create the global Internet backbone. Within their own networks, the Tier 1 ISPs own the routers, high-speed data links, and other pieces of equipment that join them to other Tier 1 ISP networks. This includes the undersea cables that connect the continents. Tier 2 ISPs Tier 2 ISPs are the next tier in terms of backbone access. Tier 2 ISPs can also be very large, even extending across several countries, but very few have networks that span entire continents or between continents. To provide their customers with global Internet access, some Tier 2 ISPs pay Tier 1 ISPs to carry their traffic to other parts of the world. Some Tier 2 ISPs exchange global traffic with other ISPs less expensively through public peering at IXPs. A large IXP may bring together hundreds of ISPs in a central physical location for access to multiple networks over a shared connection. Tier 3 ISPs Tier 3 ISPs are the farthest from the backbone. Tier 3 ISPs generally are found in major cities and give customers local access to the Internet. Tier 3 ISPs pay Tier 1 and 2 ISPs for access to the global Internet and Internet services. Identifying the Structure of the Internet Network utilities can be used to create a map of the Internet to visualize how ISP networks interconnect. These utilities also illustrate the speed at which each connecting point can be reached. The ping command tests the accessibility of a specific IP address. This command sends an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packet to the destination address and then waits for an echo reply packet to return from that host, as shown in Figure 1-5. It measures the time that elapses between when the request packet is sent and the response packet is received.
10 10 Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP, CCNA Discovery Learning Guide Figure 1-5 ping Utility Is H2 reachable? ICMP Echo Request H ping H H1 ICMP Echo Reply Yes, I am here. H The ping command output indicates whether the reply was received successfully and displays the round-trip time for the transmissions. Example 1-1 shows the syntax and result of a successful ping command from a Windows-based host. Note that either the IP address or the domain name may be used. If the Domain Name System (DNS) is not functioning properly, the IP address should be used. Example 1-1 Sample Output from the ping Command C:\> ping cisco.netacad.net Pinging cisco.netacad.net [ ] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from : bytes=32 time=560ms TTL=115 Reply from : bytes=32 time=636ms TTL=115 Reply from : bytes=32 time=460ms TTL=115 Reply from : bytes=32 time=645ms TTL=115 Ping statistics for :
11 Chapter 1: The Internet and Its Uses 11 Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 460ms, Maximum = 645ms, Average = 575ms C:\> ping Pinging with 32 bytes of data: Reply from : bytes=32 time=118ms TTL=115 Reply from : bytes=32 time=376ms TTL=115 Reply from : bytes=32 time=577ms TTL=115 Reply from : bytes=32 time=120ms TTL=115 Ping statistics for : Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 118ms, Maximum = 577ms, Average = 297ms If a packet does not reach the destination, or if delays are encountered along the way, you can use the traceroute utility to display information about where the packet encountered problems. The traceroute utility displays the path that a packet takes from the source to the destination host. Each router that the packet passes through is called a hop. The traceroute utility displays each hop along the way. It also calculates the time between when the packet is sent and when a reply is received from the router at each hop. If a problem occurs, use the output of the traceroute command to help determine where a packet was lost or delayed. The output shows the various ISPs that the packet must pass through during its journey from source to destination. The Windows tracert utility works the same way. Also, a number of visual traceroute programs provide a graphical display of the route a packet takes. Example 1-2 shows an example of tracert command output. Example 1-2 Sample Output from the tracert Command C:\> tracert cisco.netacad.net Tracing route to cisco.netacad.net [ ] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms ms 8 ms 12 ms bas1-toronto46_lo0_symp.net.bell.ca [ ] 3 7 ms 7 ms 7 ms dis7-toronto01_vlan147.net.bell.ca [ ] 4 6 ms 7 ms 6 ms core1-toronto01_ge3-1-2.net.bell.ca [ ] 5 7 ms 7 ms 7 ms core3-toronto12_pos13-1.net.bell.ca [ ] 6 16 ms 17 ms 17 ms core1-chicago23_pos net.bell.ca [ ] 7 17 ms 17 ms 17 ms bx2-chicagodt_so net.bell.ca [ ] 8 18 ms 17 ms 17 ms ex2-p6-1.eqchil.sbcglobal.net [ ] 9 68 ms 68 ms 68 ms ded4-g8-3-0.sntc01.pbi.net [ ] ms 68 ms 68 ms Cisco-Systems cust-rtr.pacbell.net [ ] ms 68 ms 68 ms sjc5-dmzbb-gw1.cisco.com [ ] ms 68 ms 68 ms sjc12-dmzdc-gw1-gig1-1.cisco.com [ ] ms 69 ms 70 ms cna-prod-nv.cisco.com [ ]
12 12 Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP, CCNA Discovery Learning Guide Trace complete. C:\> tracert Tracing route to cna-prod-nv.cisco.com [ ] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 <1 ms <1 ms 1 ms ms 8 ms 7 ms bas1-toronto46_lo0_symp.net.bell.ca [ ] 3 7 ms 7 ms 7 ms dis7-toronto01_vlan147.net.bell.ca [ ] 4 7 ms 6 ms 6 ms core1-toronto01_ge3-1-2.net.bell.ca [ ] 5 7 ms 7 ms 7 ms core3-toronto12_pos13-1.net.bell.ca [ ] 6 17 ms 17 ms 17 ms core1-chicago23_pos net.bell.ca [ ] 7 18 ms 17 ms 17 ms bx2-chicagodt_so net.bell.ca [ ] 8 20 ms 17 ms 26 ms ex2-p6-1.eqchil.sbcglobal.net [ ] 9 68 ms 68 ms 68 ms ded4-g8-3-0.sntc01.pbi.net [ ] ms 67 ms 68 ms Cisco-Systems cust-rtr.pacbell.net [ ] ms 68 ms 68 ms sjc5-dmzbb-gw1.cisco.com [ ] ms 68 ms 68 ms sjc12-dmzdc-gw1-gig1-1.cisco.com [ ] ms 69 ms 70 ms cna-prod-nv.cisco.com [ ] Trace complete. Lab 1-1: Mapping ISP Connectivity Using traceroute (1.2.3) In this lab, you use the traceroute utility to check ISP connectivity through the Internet. Refer to the lab in Part II of this book. You may perform this lab now or wait until the end of the chapter. Packet Tracer Activity Interpreting ping and traceroute Output (1.2.3) In this activity, you interpret successful and unsuccessful ping and traceroute command output. Use file d2-123.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this activity using Packet Tracer. ISP Connectivity ISPs must be able to provide clients with a reliable connection to the Internet. To accomplish this, they require a variety of equipment and controlled power and environmental conditions. In addition, the ISP must be able to provision and install new services for customers as well as support existing services. ISP Requirements An ISP requires a variety of devices to accept input from end users and provide services. To participate in a transport network, the ISP must be able to connect to other ISPs. An ISP must also be able to handle large volumes of traffic.
13 Chapter 1: The Internet and Its Uses 13 Some of the devices required to provide services are shown in Figure 1-6: Access devices that enable end users to connect to the ISP, such as a DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM) for DSL connections, a cable modem termination system (CMTS) for cable connections, modems for dialup connections, or wireless bridging equipment for wireless access Border gateway routers to enable the ISP to connect and transfer data to other ISPs, IXPs, or large business enterprise customers Servers for such applications as , network address assignment, web space, FTP hosting, and multimedia hosting Figure 1-6 ISP Connection Devices IXP Tier 1 ISP (Global) T1/E1 Link Border Gateway Routers T1/E1 Dialup Modem Bank Servers NOC DSLAM CMTS DSL Cable In addition, the ISPs must be able to provide uninterrupted power to the devices and also remove the large amount of heat generated by the equipment. To accomplish this, ISPs also require the following: Power conditioning equipment with substantial battery backup to maintain continuity if the main power grid fails High-capacity air conditioning units to maintain controlled temperatures Like other businesses, ISPs want to expand so that they can increase their income. The ability to expand their business depends on gaining new subscribers and selling more services. However, as the number of subscribers grows, the traffic on the ISP s network also grows. Eventually, the increased traffic may overload the network, causing router errors, lost packets, and excessive delays. In an overloaded network, subscribers can wait for minutes for a web page to load, or may even lose network connection. These customers may choose to switch to a competing ISP to get better performance. Loss of customers directly translates to loss of income for an ISP. For this reason, it is important that the ISP provide a reliable and scalable network.
14 14 Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP, CCNA Discovery Learning Guide Scalability is the ability to allow for future change and growth. A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impacting the performance of the service being delivered to existing users. The most scalable devices are those that are modular and provide expansion slots for adding modules. Different modules can have different numbers of ports. In the case of a chassis router, some modules also offer different interface options, allowing for different connection options on the same chassis. Packet Tracer Activity Identifying Equipment to Meet Customer Requirements (1.3.1)) In this activity you identify the appropriate equipment to meet the business needs of ISP customers. Use file d2-131.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this activity using Packet Tracer. Roles and Responsibilities Within an ISP ISP organizations consist of many teams and departments. These teams are responsible for ensuring that the network operates smoothly and that the services that the ISP offers are available on a reliable basis. Network support services are involved in all aspects of network management, including planning and provisioning new equipment and circuits, adding new subscribers, network repair and maintenance, and customer service for network connectivity issues. When a new business subscriber orders ISP services, the various network support service teams work together to ensure that the order is processed correctly and that the network is ready to deliver those services as quickly as possible. Each network support service team has its own roles and responsibilities: Customer service receives the order from the customer and ensures that the customer s specified requirements are accurately entered into the order-tracking database. Planning and provisioning determines whether the new customer has existing network hardware and circuits or whether new circuits need to be installed. The onsite installation team is advised of which circuits and equipment to use and then installs them at the customer site. The network operations center (NOC) monitors and tests the new connection and ensures that it is performing properly. The NOC notifies the help desk when the circuit is ready for operation. The help desk contacts the customer to guide the customer through the process of setting up passwords and other necessary account information. Interactive Activity 1-2: ISP Teams and Responsibilities (1.3.2) In this activity, you determine which ISP team is responsible for a particular task. Use file d2ia-132 on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this interactive activity.
15 Chapter 1: The Internet and Its Uses 15 Summary Businesses continue to adapt to an evolving Internet. They use the Internet for such activities as e-commerce, communications, collaboration, and training. Many businesses rely on the Internet for their very existence. Standards provide a mechanism to ensure that all devices that connect to the Internet, or that use the services offered on the Internet, follow the same set of rules. This allows different devices to communicate over the Internet. Businesses connect to the Internet through the services of an ISP. ISPs not only provide connection services but also offer a range of support services: Equipment co-location Web hosting FTP hosting Application and media hosting VoIP Technical support A number of connection options are available for home and business users. Home and small businesses typically connect using dialup, DSL, cable, or satellite technology. Larger businesses often require more bandwidth than home users and small businesses and therefore use connections such as T1/E1, T3/E3, and Metro Ethernet. An ISP can be classified as Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier 3, depending on how it accesses the Internet backbone. Tier 1 ISPs are at the top of the hierarchy and provide connectivity services to other ISPs. The Internet backbone is made up of a group of networks owned by various organizations and interconnected through Internet Exchange Points (IXP) and private peering connections. To provide reliable services to its customers, an ISP requires a number of devices to accept input from end users and to provide the subscribed-to services. These devices include Access devices Border gateway routers Server Air conditioning units Power conditioning devices The ISP s network must be reliable and scalable. A scalable network can quickly expand to support new users and services without impacting current performance. To be able to handle client requests for new services and to efficiently support existing services, ISPs are made up of many teams or departments, each with specific roles and responsibilities. ISP teams can include Customer service Network operations center Planning and provisioning Onsite installation Help desk
16 16 Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP, CCNA Discovery Learning Guide Activities and Labs This summary outlines the activities and labs you can perform to help reinforce important concepts described in this chapter. You can find the activity and Packet Tracer files on the CD-ROM accompanying this book. The complete hands-on labs appear in Part II. Interactive Activities on the CD: Interactive Activity 1-1: Which ISP Is Best? (1.1.2) Interactive Activity 1-2: ISP Teams and Responsibilities (1.3.2) Packet Tracer Activity Packet Tracer Activity on the CD: Interpreting ping and traceroute Output (1.2.3) Identifying Equipment to Meet Customer Requirements (1.3.1) Hands-on Lab in Part II of this book: Lab 1-1: Mapping ISP Connectivity Using traceroute (1.2.3) Check Your Understanding Complete the review questions to check your understanding of the topics and concepts in this chapter. Answers are listed in Appendix A, Check Your Understanding and Challenge Questions Answer Key. 1. For what purposes do businesses use the Internet? (Select all that apply.) A. E-commerce B. Communication C. Collaboration D. Training 2. Which of the following are services that an ISP might offer? (Select all that apply.) A. Equipment co-location B. Web hosting C. FTP hosting D. Application hosting E. VoIP F. Technical support
17 Chapter 1: The Internet and Its Uses Which type of Internet connection might be the only choice for an individual in a remote community? A. Dialup B. DSL C. Cable D. T1/E1 E. Satellite 4. Which type of high-bandwidth connection is often used by organizations with multiple branches in a single city? A. DSL B. Cable C. T1/E1 D. T3/E3 E. Metro Ethernet 5. Which tier of ISP normally has links between continents? A. Tier 1 B. Tier 2 C. Tier 3 6. Where do multiple service providers join to gain access to each others networks and exchange information? A. DSL B. ISP C. IXP D. IPX 7. Which ISP team is responsible for determining whether a customer has sufficient existing equipment or whether new equipment must be installed to support the new service? A. Customer service B. Planning and provisioning C. Onsite installation D. Network operations center E. Help desk 8. Which ISP team is responsible for working with the customer to guide the customer through the final setup of a new service? A. Customer service B. Planning and provisioning C. Onsite installation D. Network operations center E. Help desk
18 18 Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP, CCNA Discovery Learning Guide 9. Which ISP team is responsible for testing a new service or circuit and ensuring that it is functioning properly? A. Customer service B. Planning and provisioning C. Onsite installation D. Network operations center E. Help desk 10. Why might a medium-sized business decide to install a T1 connection in its offices rather than a cable Internet connection? 11. Why is it important that an ISP network be scalable? Challenge Questions and Activities These questions require a deeper application of the concepts covered in this chapter. You can find the answers in Appendix A. 1. For what tasks do you use the Internet? What services do you use on a regular basis? 2. Outline the process that a typical ISP follows when a client calls and asks to have a new T1 connection installed in one of its branch offices.
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Internet Public Network Bandwidth Data rate measured in bits (not bytes) per seconds Kbps (Kilobits per seconds) 125 chars/sec Mbps (Megabits per seconds) 1,250 chars/sec Gbps (Gigabits per seconds) 12,500
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