NEPTUNE Guidance on the Clinical Management of Acute and Chronic Harms of Club Drugs and Novel Psychoactive Substances

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1 Novel Psychoactive Treatment UK Network Guidance on the Clinical Management of Acute and Chronic Harms of Club Drugs and Novel Psychoactive Substances

2 This publication of the Novel Psychoactive Treatment UK Network () is protected by copyright. The reproduction of guidance is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged (Novel Psychoactive Treatment UK Network) 2015 Club Drug Clinic/CAPS Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust (CNWL) 69 Warwick Road Earls Court SW5 9HB The guidance is based on a combination of literature review and expert clinical con sensus and is based on information available up to March We accept no responsi bility or liability for any consequences arising from the use of the information contained in this document. The recommended citation of this document is: Abdulrahim D & Bowden-Jones O, on behalf of the Expert Group. Guidance on the Management of Acute and Chronic Harms of Club Drugs and Novel Psychoactive Substances. Novel Psychoactive Treatment UK Network (). London, is funded by the Health Foundation, an independent charity working to improve the quality of health care in the UK. Editorial production and page design by Ralph Footring Ltd,

3 (Novel Psychoactive Treatment UK Network): Expert Group members Expert Group Dr Owen Bowden-Jones Dr Dima Abdulrahim Dr James Bell Dr Nigel Borley Dr Steve Brinksman Ms Emma Crawshaw Ms Laura Day Ms Annette Dale-Perera Mr Mark Dunn Ms Stacey Hemmings Mr Salvo Larosa David MacKintosh Dr Luke Mitcheson Mr Monty Moncrieff Prof David Nutt Dr John Ramsey Neptune Chair Clinical and programme lead Consultant Psychiatrist and Lead Clinician for Club Drug Clinic, Addictions Directorate, Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust Honorary Senior Lecturer, Imperial College, London Programme/ Manager Secretariat Lead Researcher Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust Consultant Physician South London and Maudsley NHS Trust Consultant Urologist Chelsea and Westminster NHS Trust GP Birmingham Clinical director of Substance Misuse Management in General Practice (SMMGP) Service Delivery Manager Crew 2000, Edinburgh Project worker Crew 2000, Edinburgh Director of Addiction and Offender Care Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust Clinical Nurse Specialist Club Drug Clinic, Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust Assistant Psychologist Club Drug Clinic, Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust Club Drug Clinic, Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust Director London Drug and Alcohol Policy Forum Consultant Clinical Psychologist South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Public Health England Chief Executive London Friend Edmond J Safra Professor of Neuropsychopharmacology Director of the Neuropsychopharmacology Unit in the Division of Brain Sciences. Imperial College London Analytical toxicologist Director TICTAC Communications Ltd St George s, University of London

4 Expert Group members Dr John Roche Prof Fabrizio Schifano Mr David Stuart Dr Ann Sullivan Dr Tim Williams Dr Christopher Whiteley Dr Adam Winstock Dr David Wood Dr Dan Wood Other contributors Dr Marta Boffito Ms Lindsey Hines Mr Josh Hulbert Dr Duccio Papanti Observers Mr Pete Burkinshaw Dr Mark Prunty Mr John McCracken Ms Melanie Roberts Consultant Psychiatrist Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust Chair in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics University of Hertfordshire and Consultant Psychiatrist (Addictions) Substance Use Lead, GUM/HIV 56 Dean Street, Chelsea Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Consultant Physician in HIV and Genito-urinary Medicine Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Consultant Psychiatrist Avon and Wiltshire Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust Trust Deputy Head of Psychology Consultant Clinical Psychologist South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Consultant Psychiatrist and Addiction Medicine Specialist, SLAM NHS Trust Senior Lecturer, Kings College London Director, Global Drug Survey Consultant Physician and Clinical Toxicologist and Service (Clinical) Lead for Medicine, Guy s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust and King s Health Partners, London, UK Senior Lecturer, King s College London, UK Consultant Urologist in Adolescent and Reconstructive Surgery University College Hospitals, London Head of Clinical Trials, St. Stephen s Centre (SSAT) Consultant Physician, Chelsea and Westminster Foundation Trust Imperial College London PhD student Addictions Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience Kings College London Project Administrator & EU Coordinator Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs Psychiatrist Trainee Department of Medical, Surgical, and Health Sciences University of Trieste, Italy Skills and Development Manager Public Health England Senior Medical Officer for Substance Misuse Policy Department of Health Drugs Programme Manager Department of Health Drug Strategy Reducing Demand Team Home Office iv

5 Acknowledgements was hosted by Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust (CNWL). We would like to acknowledge the generous support of the Health Foundation, which has funded the work. We are very grateful for the independent peer reviews on the draft of this report by Dr Paul Dargan (Consultant Physician, Clinical Toxicologist and Clinical Director at Guy s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust and King s Health Partners, London) and Dr Jonathan Dewhurst (Consultant Addiction Psychiatrist at Greater Manchester West Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust). We would like to thank Dr Christopher Whitely and Dr Luke Mitcheson for writing the Chapter 2, Psychosocial interventions for club drugs and novel psychoactive substances. We would like to thank Dr Sarah Finley (Consultant in Emergency Medicine) and staff at the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital Emergency Department for their support in developing and testing the GHB/GBL care bundles. We would also like to thank Claire Whitelock and Nick Prideaux-Brune for their input.

6 Contents Contents listing is hyperlinked Part I: Introduction, background and overall principles 1 Chapter 1. Introduction This document Novel Psychoactive Treatment UK Network (): project aims and guidance development Objectives of the Project Aims of the clinical guidance Target audience for the guidance Primary audience Other audiences The process of developing the guidance: method for the literature review General inclusions and exclusions in the guidance Substances and drug groups covered by this guidance An overview of club drugs Old drugs, new drugs and legal highs New markets and user communication about drugs Club drug use in the UK Overall drug use Club drug and NPS use Drug-using repertoires and poly-drug use Club drug users and contexts of use Clubbers and night-time economy Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations Psychonauts Overview of the effects and harms of club drugs How drugs work Toxicity and other harms Mortality related to the use of club drugs Response to club drug use Policy response to club drug and NPS use NPS and drug-related presentations to hospitals and treatment Principles underlying the assessment and management in target settings of the harms associated with the use of club drugs and NPS Emergency departments Sexual health services Substance misuse treatment services Overview of the interventions for the screening, identification and management of drug harms in the target settings 24

7 Contents Chapter 2. Psychosocial interventions for club drugs and novel psychoactive substances Stepped care Identification of NPS use and its severity Settings for the delivery of PSIs Settings for lower-intensity PSIs Settings for higher-intensity PSIs Lower-intensity PSIs Higher-intensity PSIs Structured drug treatment Formal psychological treatment Residential psychosocial treatment Mutual aid Models for specific psychosocial approaches Motivational Interviewing Network and environmental therapies CBT-based relapse prevention Contingency management Psychodynamic therapy 45 vii Part II: Central nervous system depressants 48 Chapter 3. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) Street names Legal status Quality of the research evidence Brief summary of pharmacology Clinical and other uses Prevalence and patterns of use Routes of ingestion and frequency of dosing Desired effects of GHB/GBL for recreational use Mortality Acute harms Acute GHB/GBL toxicity The features of acute GHB/GBL toxicity Acute withdrawal Poly-drug use and drug interactions GHB and HIV antiretroviral therapy Clinical management of acute toxicity Identification and assessment Clinical management of overdose and acute toxicity Treatment outcome Acute withdrawal following detoxification Harms associated with chronic use Dependence The GHB/GBL withdrawal syndrome Predictors of withdrawal Rapid onset and duration of withdrawal syndrome Individual variations and unpredictability of the withdrawal syndrome GHB/GBL withdrawal symptoms 64

8 Contents Management of harms from chronic use Clinical management of dependence Identification and assessment of GHB/GBL dependence and withdrawal Psychosocial and pharmacological support Clinical management of withdrawal Medical complications reported during withdrawal Medically assisted elective or planned withdrawal and detoxification Aftercare and supporting recovery Public health and safety Harm reduction Supporting patients undergoing outpatient medically assisted GHB/GBL withdrawal Advice for users S-T-A-Y-I-N-G S-A-F-E on GHB/GBL 69 viii Chapter 4. Ketamine and methoxetamine Dissociative drugs Street names Legal status Quality of the research evidence Brief summary of pharmacology Medical uses of ketamine Prevalence and patterns of use Prevalence of use in the UK Ketamine use and high-risk sexual and injecting behaviours Routes of ingestion, dosing and frequency of dosing Ketamine Methoxetamine Desired effects for recreational use Ketamine Methoxetamine Mortality Acute ketamine toxicity Features of acute ketamine toxicity Acute withdrawal Poly-drug use: complicating factors for acute toxicity Management of ketamine-related acute harms Identification and assessment of acute toxicity Clinical management of acute toxicity Outcome of treatment for acute toxicity Harms associated with chronic ketamine use Ketamine dependence Ketamine withdrawal Other harms of chronic use of ketamine Ketamine-induced damage to the urinary tract Gastrointestinal toxicity Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) Drug interaction in HIV treatment Neurobehavioural, psychiatric and psychological effects Cognitive impairment and memory impairment Depression Neurological effects Social harms 98

9 Contents Management of harms related to chronic ketamine use Numbers in specialist drug treatment for ketamine-related harms and dependence Identification and assessment Psychosocial and pharmacological support Psychological support Pharmacological interventions for dependence and withdrawal Aftercare and support Management of urinary tract problems Public health and public safety Viral and bacterial infections Accidents and assaults Harm reduction 101 ix Chapter 5. Nitrous oxide Street names Legal status Quality of the research evidence Brief summary of pharmacology Clinical and other legitimate uses of nitrous oxide Prevalence and patterns of use Routes of ingestion and frequency of dosing Desired effects of nitrous oxide for recreational use Mortality Acute harms Acute toxicity Acute withdrawal Poly-drug use and drug interactions Clinical management of acute toxicity Identification and assessment of acute toxicity Clinical management of acute toxicity Harms associated with chronic use and dependence Dependence Withdrawal Other harms vitamin B12 deficiency Management of harms related to chronic use Psychosocial and pharmacological support Harm reduction and public health 117 Part III: Stimulants 120 Chapter 6. Cocaine, synthetic cocaine derivatives and piperazines Cocaine: an overview Legal status and pharmacology Prevalence, patterns of use, desired and unwanted effects and routes of ingestion Mortality Acute harms Acute toxicity Cardiovascular disorders Cerebrovascular disorders Cocaine-induced psychosis 128

10 Contents 6.6. Management of cocaine-related acute harms Hospital presentation with acute cocaine intoxication Management of cocaine-induced cardiovascular disorders Management of cocaine-induced psychosis Discharge and onward referral Chronic use and dependence and their clinical management Cocaine dependence and its management Access to cocaine-dependence treatment in the UK Synthetic cocaine derivatives Piperazines 133 x Chapter 7. Amphetamine-type substances (ATS): an overview Pharmacology Medical and other legitimate uses of amphetamines Prevalence and patterns of use Routes of ingestion and dosing Desired and unwanted subjective effects of ATS Mortality Acute harms Features of acute toxicity Serotonin syndrome Management of the acute harms associated with use of ATS Identification and assessment of acute toxicity Management of serotonin syndrome Harms associated with chronic use of ATS Dependence and withdrawal Physical and psychiatric/psychological harms from chronic use Management of harms associated with chronic use Identification and assessment of ATS use and dependence Stepped care for ATS users Psychosocial and pharmacological support for the management of dependence Psychosocial interventions Pharmacological interventions Management of amphetamine psychosis Aftercare and support Public health and safety and harm reduction 158 Chapter 8. Methamphetamine Street names Legal status Quality of the research evidence Brief overview of pharmacology Clinical and other legitimate uses of methamphetamine Prevalence and patterns of use Routes of ingestion and dosing Desired effects for recreational use and unwanted effects Mortality 169

11 Contents Acute harms Acute toxicity Cardiovascular and respiratory harms Hyperthermia Rhabdomyolysis Urological Methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviours Injecting risks Acute harms of poly-drug use and drug interactions Acute withdrawal Emergency hospital admissions Management of acute harms Harms of chronic use and dependence Dependence Withdrawal Physiological, psychological and psychiatric effects of long-term use and dependence Cardiovascular effects Neurological effects Pulmonary and respiratory harms Blood-borne infections, and haematological, gastrointestinal and urological effects Oral/dental health Dermatological Pott puffy tumour Ophthalmological harms Psychological and psychiatric effects Cognitive effects Co-morbidities of methamphetamine use disorders and HIV Management of harms of chronic and dependent use of methamphetamine Identification and assessment of dependence Psychosocial interventions for dependence Implementation of CM Pharmacological interventions for methamphetamine dependence and withdrawal Treatment effectiveness, impact, retention and completion Access to treatment Aftercare and support Harm reduction 188 xi Chapter 9. Mephedrone and other synthetic cathinones Street names Legal status Quality of the research evidence Brief summary of pharmacology Clinical uses of mephedrone and synthetic cathinones Prevalence and patterns of use Routes of ingestion, dosing and frequency of dosing Desired and undesired effects for recreational use Mortality Acute harms Acute toxicity Harms from high-risk injecting and sexual behaviour Acute withdrawal Poly-drug use and drug interaction 214

12 Contents Management of acute harms Identification and assessment of mephedrone toxicity Management of acute toxicity Treatment outcome Management of acute withdrawal Harms associated with chronic use Dependence Withdrawal Other harms: risk of systemic and viral infections Management of harms related to chronic use and dependence Clinical management of chronic use and dependence Management of withdrawal Presentation to specialist drug treatment services Aftercare and support Public health and harm reduction Public safety: driving 219 xii Chapter 10. Ecstasy (MDMA, 3,4-methylene dioxymethamphetamine) and drugs with similar effects Street names Tablets, pills and capsules Crystals and powders Legal status Quality of research evidence Brief summary of pharmacology Clinical uses Prevalence and patterns of use Forms, routes of ingestions and frequency of dosing Desired effects for recreational use Unwanted effects Mortality Acute harms Features of acute ecstasy toxicity Hyperpyrexia/hyperthermia and consequences Serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity Dilutional hyponatraemia and hyponatraemic encephalopathy Acute psychiatric presentations Suicidal ideation and suicide Acute and subacute cardiac events Pulmonary harms: pneumothorax, pneumomediastenum Intracranial haemorrhage Liver failure Diabetic ketoacidosis Poly-drug use and drug interactions Clinical management of acute toxicity Hyperpyrexia and hyperthermia Acute psychiatric presentations Harms associated with chronic use Neurotoxicity Cognitive deficits Psychiatric symptoms and harms 250

13 Contents Dependence and withdrawal Sleep problems Vascular problems Heart disease Management of chronic harms Treatments for harmful use and dependence Treatment of depression in the context of MDMA use Public health and harm reduction Benzofurans Pharmacology Patterns of use, modes of ingestion Desired effects Clinical uses Mortality Acute harms Management of acute harms Harm reduction 260 xiii Chapter 11. Pipradrols and pipradrol derivatives Brief summary of pharmacology Patterns of use and routes of ingestion Desired effects Mortality Acute harms Chronic use Management of acute harms Harm reduction 277 Part IV: Halluginogens 279 Chapter 12. Hallucinogenic drugs Street names Legal status Quality of research evidence Brief summary of pharmacology Clinical uses Prevalence and patterns of use Routes of ingestion and frequency of dosing Potency Onset of effects and duration Modes of ingestion Frequency of use Poly-drug use Desired effects of recreational use Unwanted effects Mortality 292

14 Contents Acute harms Features of toxicity Psychological and psychiatric effects Psychosis Excited delirium Trauma and self-injury Physiological adverse effects Clinical management of acute toxicity Management of adverse psychological effects, agitation and drug-induced psychosis Harms associated with chronic use Dependence Hallucinogen persisting perceptual disorder (HPPD) Treatment of HPPD 301 xiv Part V: Synthetic cannabinoids 309 Chapter 13. Synthetic cannabinoids Street names Legal status Quality of the research evidence Brief summary of pharmacology What are synthetic cannabinoid products? Clinical and other legitimate uses of synthetic cannabinoids Prevalence and patterns of use Routes of ingestion and frequency of dosing Desired and undesired effects for recreational SC use Mortality Acute harms Acute toxicity Features of acute intoxication Cognitive, psychological and psychiatric effects Physiological effects Cardiovascular Neurological Renal and gastrointestinal Other Presentations for treatment for acute intoxication Acute withdrawal Management of acute harms Identification and assessment Clinical management of acute toxicity Harms associated with chronic use Dependence Other harms of chronic use Management of harms related to chronic use Clinical management of dependence and chronic use Psychosocial interventions Pharmacological interventions Aftercare and support Harm reduction and public safety 327 Appendix. Interactions of club drugs with HIV medication 335

15 Part I: Introduction, background and overall principles

16 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1. This document For the purposes of this document, club drugs is a short-hand term used for convenience to refer to a group of psychoactive substances typically used in dance venues, house parties, music festivals and sometimes in a sexual context. The term therefore describes a diverse group of substances with different actions. They include substances with primarily stimulant effects, those with primarily hallucinogenic effects, as well as some central nervous system depressants and synthetic cannabinoids. Club drugs include substances well established in the UK such as MDMA (ecstasy), as well as the rapidly expanding range of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) such as synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones and a range of other amphetaminetype stimulants. Some club drugs are sold on the illicit market, whilst others are sold as so-called legal highs. This document provides guidance on the clinical management of harms resulting from acute intoxication and from the harmful and dependent use of club drugs and NPS. It categorises club drugs broadly according to their clinical effects: depressant; stimulant; hallucinogenic. In addition, the synthetic cannabinoids are treated as a separate category, largely for reasons relating to their clinical management but also because they do not fit neatly into that threefold categorisation. The guidance is based on available evidence and clinical consensus. It is a response to the current gap in knowledge and experience in the management of these drugs across the UK and beyond. Guidance is aimed in particular at clinicians in a range of settings, specifically: specialist drug treatment services hospital emergency departments (EDs) general practice/ primary care sexual health clinics This document provides guidance, not guidelines. Together with the recommendations of its reviews, technical appraisals and standards, national guidelines produced by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) determine the wider

17 Introduction 3 principles within which treatment and care should be provided within drug services, EDs, primary care, sexual health and mental health services. However, these guidelines do not relate specifically to NPS. guidance must be used within the wider principles of these national guidelines. This guidance does not aim to replace the role and resources of the National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) and its online toxicology database and telephone enquiry service TOXBASE for advice on the clinical assessment and management of acute toxicity within hospital EDs, primary care and other healthcare facilities (Box 1.1). Clinicians should consult TOXBASE, and where necessary call the NPIS for up-to-date information. It is highly recommended that clinicians and departments be registered to be able to use these facilities. Readers should also consult TOXBASE for information provided by the UK Teratology Information Service (UKTIS) on all aspects of the toxicity of drugs and chemicals in pregnancy. Box 1.1. TOXBASE For up-to-date guidance on the management of acute toxicity, it is recommended that information be sought from the National Poisons Information Service (NPIS), specifically the NPIS 24-hour telephone service and the poisons information database TOXBASE. The database (http://www.toxbase.org) contains information on approximately 17,000 products, together with generic advice on the management of poisoning. It is available free of charge to registered NHS users and it is highly recommended that clinicians and departments be registered to be able to use these facilities. By using TOXBASE, clinical staff can obtain key clinical information rapidly, including advice on potentially hazardous doses and appropriate management. The NPIS 24-hour telephone helpline (in the UK and Ireland NPIC (01) ) is available for discussion of more complex cases. When appropriate, senior medical staff can discuss their cases directly with an NPIS consultant clinical toxicologist. Non-UK readers should consult their local or national guidelines. Non-UK readers of this document should contact their local, regional or national poisons information service for up to-date advice and guidance on the management of acute club drug intoxication and withdrawal. guidance is time-limited (provisionally to end 2017), not least because new compounds continue to emerge and the evidence is continuing to grow.

18 Introduction Novel Psychoactive Treatment UK Network (): project aims and guidance development Objectives of the Project This guidance has been developed by (Novel Psychoactive Treatment UK Network), a project funded by the Health Foundation s * Shine Innovation Programme 2012 and led by Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust. The objectives of the project were as follows: Convene a multidisciplinary group of UK experts in the treatment of harms resulting from the use of club drugs, including experts by experience (patients). Review the national and international evidence on club drugs, and most particularly the evidence on the harms and the management of harms linked to acute intoxication and acute poisoning, as well as those associated with long-term harmful use and/or dependence. Develop treatment guidance based on the best available research evidence. Where this is lacking, the guidance is based on the expert group s clinical consensus and patient experience. Develop guidance specifically for the following clinical settings: (1) drug treatment services; (2) emergency departments; (3) general practice; (4) sexual health clinics. The group convened comprises UK experts in the management of acute and chronic problems associated with club drugs. It is a collaboration between individuals from a number of different NHS and voluntary organisations, with observers from relevant government departments (for the full list see pp. ii iii). The expert group includes psychiatrists, psycho-pharmacologists, psychologists, clinical and analytical toxicologists, emergency physicians, genitourinary medicine (GUM) physicians and HIV physicians, general practitioners, urologists, nurses, senior managers and experts in club drugs among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) populations Aims of the clinical guidance The aim of the guidance is to improve confidence and competence, and increase the skills of clinicians in the detection, assessment and management of the harms * The Health Foundation is an independent charity working to improve the quality of health care in the UK. Henceforth referred to as expert group.

19 Introduction 5 associated with the use of club drugs, across all target settings. Specific areas addressed include: Detection/identification. Recognising the significant psychological, physical and social risks which can be associated with club drugs, and equipping professionals to be able to recognise problematic use, associated harms and dependence, and to be able to use screening tools where indicated. Assessment. Assessment of the problems related to the use of club drugs, including the assessment of both direct and indirect harms. Management. Clinical management of acute and chronic harms related to the use of club drugs- in the target clinical settings, based on the best available evidence, or on clinical consensus where evidence is lacking. Harm reduction. Interventions aimed at preventing morbidity and mortality among individuals presenting to clinical settings, including measures to reduce the harms of club drugs for individuals and communities and to help patients achieve and sustain recovery and well-being. The underlying principles of good clinical practice in relation to the users of club drugs are applicable to all problematic psychoactive drug use and form the basis of national UK guidelines aimed at the drug treatment and recovery field. However, good assessment and management of the harms of club drugs (including NPS) must also take into account the particular challenges posed by these drugs and address them directly. These include challenges posed by: new drugs (rapidly changing profile and ever increasing numbers of substances, with poorly understood harms); new populations in treatment (including new patterns of drug use and contexts of harm); new harms (some club drugs are associated with harms not previously linked to illicit drug use, for example ketamine-related ulcerative cystitis). therefore aims to improve clinicians knowledge of the specific issues relating to club drugs and to support evidence-based practice at local levels. It also aims to help improve clinicians confidence in working with patients who use club drugs, by providing the following: technical knowledge (what the drugs are and how they work). cultural knowledge (who is using them, and how). clinical knowledge (how to clinical manage both acute and chronic presentations).

20 Introduction Target audience for the guidance Primary audience This guidance is aimed primarily at a clinical audience. The target clinical settings have been chosen because they offer specialist treatment for acute or chronic problems (EDs and specialist drug services) or because they provide an untapped access to populations at risk of drug-related harms (sexual health clinics and general practice, which are potentially clinical areas with a high prevalence of patients using club drugs). The stepped care approach used in this guidance document, as well as the phased and layer framework of drug treatment (see Chapter 2), takes into account the different roles and competencies of clinicians in each of the target settings in delivering interventions aimed at those who use club drugs Other audiences The guidance is also a resource for commissioners and policy-makers in developing local and national services. It also provides patients and carers with information on what interventions should be available The process of developing the guidance: method for the literature review A comprehensive review of the English language literature on the harms and the clinical management of a range of club drugs was carried out, using systematic methods. Studies, including case reports, were identified using electronic searches of Medline, Medline Plus, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Current Content, Embase, PUBMED, PsychINFO, Google Scholar and the Science Citation Index. In addition, bibliographies of articles were screened for additional relevant studies. Box 1.2. Search terms included in combination with drug names Addiction; Adverse effects; Subjective effects; Craving; Chronic; Clinical features; Cognitive; Detoxification; Dependence; Harms; Ingestion; Intoxication; Pharmacology; Poisoning; Psychological interventions; Psychological treatment; Brief interventions; Drug management; Clinical features; Harms; Toxicity; Motivational; Chronic use; Withdrawal; Craving; Cue exposure; Detoxification; Dependence; Addiction; Managed care; Pharmacotherapy; Intoxication; Prevention; Health outcomes; Clinical outcomes; Recreational use; Toxicology; Prescribing; Relapse prevention; Relapse management; Motivational interviewing; CBT; Behavioural therapies; Cue exposure treatment; Community reinforcement approach; Motivational enhancement therapy; Relapse prevention; Relapse management; Psycho-sexual counselling; Care plan; Gay men; Men who have sex with men; LGBT; Clubbers; Party circuit; Drug use in clubs; Drug-facilitated sex; Injecting; Insufflation; Clinical; Guidelines; A&E; Substance misuse treatment; General practice; Sexual health; Urology; Dentistry; Ophthalmology; Pregnancy; HIV; Hepatitis C.

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