UNODC activities in the drug field

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1 UNODC activities in the drug field Research (World Drug Report, special studies, etc) Assistance in Supply Reduction * Law enforcement * Alternative Development * Forensic laboratories Assistance in Demand Reduction Prevention Treatment Action against Money Laundering Legal advisory services (e.g. treaties) Normative Work Research/ Analytical 3 Pillars of Focus Technical Cooperation

2

3 Synthetic Drugs: Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS) (i) amphetamines-group substances include predominately amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone in various forms used different ways Tableted methamphetamine (Yaba) Crystalline Methamphetamine Amphetamine (Captagon) (ii) Ecstasy-group substances include MDMA (and its analogues) and substances containing or thought to contain MDMA in various forms used different ways Ecstasy (MDMA) Ecstasy-like (BZP, ketamine, methamphetamine)

4 Amphetamine- more users than opiate and cocaine combined 60 Lower/ Upper Prevalence Range (in millions of user) Meth/ amphetamine Ecstasy-Group Opiates Cocaine As a percentage of the population aged 15-64: Cannabis % Meth/ amphetamine-group % Ecstasy-group % Opiates % Cocaine % Source: UNODC, World Drug Report 2009

5 ATS Users More than Cocaine and Heroin, Combined Source: 2010 Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Vienna Note, the boundaries on this map do not imply official endorsement by UNODC.

6 ATS use increasing in developing countries Latin America and Asia lead the increase

7 ATS Drug Treatment Demand Grows Globally Asia Oceania North America Europe South America Africa 2% 3% 5% 5% 8% 12% 13% 11% 12% 16% 20% 22% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 1997/98 (WDR 2000) 2008 *Unweighted per cent of total treatment, Annual Reports Questionnaires

8 Increasing trends in more potent forms Source: 2009 Patterns and Trends of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants and Other Drugs in East and South-East Asia, Global SMART Programme Note, the boundaries on this map do not imply official endorsement by UNODC.

9 ATS The Health Impacts Can Quickly Emerge

10 Saudi Arabia- Increasing Captagon problem use & seizures

11 ATS seizures at record high through 2008 Source: UNODC, World Drug Report 2009

12 Manufacture reported by more than 65 Member States New reports (since WDR08) Source: UNODC, World Drug Report 2009

13 ATS manufacture increasing in size and sophistication Kulim, Sabah, Malaysia Malaysia July Source: UNODC Amphetamines and Ecstasy, 2008 Global ATS Assessment. (September, 2008)

14 Europe: Ecstasy manufacture now closer to consumers Ecstasy-group laboratories seized (#) East and So uth-east A sia Oceania West & C entral Euro pe N o rth A merica C entral & So uth A merica

15 Ecstasy manufacture relocating globally Brazil - First Laboratory reported July Ecstasy First Methamphetamine laboratory reported January 2009 Second Ecstasy laboratory - August 2009

16 Ecstasy manufacture relocating globally West Africa emerges as ecstasy manufacturer July 2009 Multiple chemical sites in Guinea Conakry inspected jointly INTERPOL/ UNODC Reaction vessels and other custom equipment 5,390 lt of sassafras oil 80 lt 3,4-MDP-2-P Source of precursors? Destination of product? Groups involved? Photos: UNODC

17 Europe: MDMA pills down, piperazines up Cases other psychoactive substances in tablets sold as ecstasy (%) 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Ecstasy (MDMA) tablets seized 1999 (1805) 25,000,000 20,000,000 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000, (2462) (2359) 2002 (2130) 2003 (2177) Europe 2004 (1985) 2005 (2134) United Kingdom 2006 (2523) 2007 (2319) 2008 (2183) Source: Vogels N, Brunt TM, Rigter S, van Dijk P, Vervaeke H, Niesink RJ (2009). Content of ecstasy in the Netherlands: Addiction 104(12):

18 New synthetic drugs emerge quickly In 2008, EMCDDA reported 85% of all new drugs were synthetic substances- 2009, 100% Some new synthetics linked to deaths and organized crime Health impacts unknown Not under international control Cheap/ easy to get on the internet Source: Europol EMCDDA Joint Report on a new psychoactive substance: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), June 2010 Source: Google (February 2010)

19 New synthetic drugs emerge quickly Spice - synthetic cannabinoids Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Fluoro-amphetamine Fluoro-methcathinone

20 Some Early Warning Mechanisms Exist 1. EMCDDA- EUROPOL Early Warning System: New psychoactive substances 2. USA Department of Justice s SENTRY System: Synthetic Drug Early Warning and Response System 3. INTERPOL/ ICPO Alerts 4. World Customs Organization/ RILO Alerts 5. Government and/ or forensic alerts 6. Open source (e.g. Journals, Media, User forums, etc.)

21 Global SMART Synthetics Monitoring: Analyses Reporting and Trends (SMART)

22 Information limited in many vulnerable regions

23 SMART targets capacity building where needed Flexible capacity building based on Member State needs Evidence-based established for strategic interventions and programmes Sustainable programme design Strengthened partnerships with governments, technical agencies and regional organizations (e.g. OAS) Improved information and reduced information gaps Systems designed to support the monitoring of illicit synthetic drugs Reporting of the situation from priority regions Integrating and reporting of the situation at the global level

24 Conclusions 1. ATS big problem: less attention even though user base is larger 2. ATS emerges quickly: Unique to ATS - the rapid spread particularly in developing countries (i.e. the new markets) 3. ATS big unknowns: size and scope and unknowns of ATS use 4. Invest in targeted/ sustainable information development and sharing 5. Provide for global earlier warning mechanisms for the spread of existing substances and the identification of emerging substances 6. Improve evidence-base for identifying and understanding new substances (forensics) and their harms 7. Invest in proven evidence-based treatment and prevention approaches 8. Control necessary precursor chemicals regionally/ globally

25 Questions? Coming June

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