IN ILLEGAL DRUG USE (IDMS) C. Wilkins P. Sweetsur B. Smart C. Warne S. Jawalkar

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1 RECENT TRENDS IN ILLEGAL DRUG USE IN NEW ZEALAND, Findings from the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS) C. Wilkins P. Sweetsur B. Smart C. Warne S. Jawalkar Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation School of Public Health Massey University, P O Box 6137, Wellesley St, Auckland, New Zealand July 2012

2 SHORE and Whariki Research Centre ISBN

3 Table of Contents List of Figures... 9 List of Tables Acknowledgements Executive Summary Introduction Aims of IDMS Methodology Survey of frequent drug users Secondary data sources Analysis Weighting of the sample Demographics Introduction Gender Age Ethnicity Employment status Education Sexual orientation Marital status Accommodation Physical health Mental health Summary of demographic characteristics Drug use patterns SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health 3

4 3.1 Introduction Lifetime use of drug types by frequent methamphetamine users Lifetime use of drug types by frequent ecstasy (MDMA) users Lifetime use of drug types by frequent injecting drug users Current drug use of the frequent methamphetamine users Current drug use of the frequent ecstasy (MDMA) users Current drug use of the frequent injecting drug users Summary of drug patterns Emerging drug types Introduction Drug types used for first time in past six months Summary of Emerging drugs Methamphetamine Introduction Knowledge of methamphetamine trends Availability of methamphetamine Price of methamphetamine Price of pseudoephedrine Strength of methamphetamine Perceptions of the number of people using methamphetamine Purchase of methamphetamine Seizures of methamphetamine Methamphetamine laboratories Pseudoephedrine and ephedrine seizures Summary of methamphetamine trends Crystal methamphetamine Introduction Knowledge of crystal methamphetamine trends Availability of crystal methamphetamine Price of crystal methamphetamine Table of Contents

5 6.5 Purity of crystal methamphetamine Perceptions of the number of people using crystal methamphetamine Summary of crystal methamphetamine trends Ecstasy Introduction Knowledge of ecstasy trends Drug types perceived to be in ecstasy Availability of ecstasy Price of ecstasy Strength of ecstasy Perceptions of the number of people using ecstasy Purchase of ecstasy Seizures of ecstasy Summary of ecstasy trends Cannabis Introduction Knowledge of cannabis trends Availability of cannabis Price of cannabis Strength of cannabis Perceptions of the number of people using cannabis Purchase of cannabis Seizures of cannabis plants Summary of cannabis trends LSD Introduction Knowledge of LSD trends Availability of LSD Price of LSD Strength of LSD SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health 5

6 9.6 Perceptions of the number of people using LSD Seizures of LSD Summary of LSD trends Street Morphine Introduction Knowledge of street morphine Availability of street morphine Price of street morphine Purity of street morphine Perceptions of the number of people using street morphine Purchase of street morphine Seizures of opioids Summary of street morphine trends Cocaine Introduction Knowledge of cocaine trends Availability of cocaine Price of cocaine Purity of cocaine Perceptions of the number of people using cocaine Seizures of cocaine Summary of cocaine trends Heroin Introduction Knowledge of heroin trends Availability of heroin Price of heroin Purity of heroin Perceptions of the number of people using heroin Summary of heroin trends Table of Contents

7 13. Homebake morphine/heroin Introduction Knowledge of homebake morphine/ heroin trends Availability of homebake morphine/ heroin Perceptions of the number of people using homebake morphine/ heroin Summary of homebake morphine/heroin trends Street methadone Introduction Knowledge of street methadone trends Availability of street methadone Perceptions of the number of people using street methadone Summary of street methadone trends Street BZP Introduction Knowledge of street BZP trends Availability of street BZP Perceptions of the number of people using street BZP Summary of street BZP trends Health risks and the social harm of drug use Introduction Drug related life impacts Drug type responsible for drug related life impacts Medical and health services Reasons for using drugs Drug Dependency Mental illness Summary of health risks and social harm from drug use Drug and alcohol treatment Introduction SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health 7

8 17.2 Extent needed help to reduce drug use Wanted help to reduce drug use but did not get it Barriers encountered when looking for help to reduce drug use Drug treatment history Type of drug treatment programme Drug type currently in drug treatment programme Calls to the Alcohol and Drug Help line Community Alcohol and Drug Services (CADS) Summary of drug treatment Crime Introduction Property crime Drug dealing Fraud Crime involving violence Means used to pay for drug use Summary of crime Drug enforcement Introduction History of arrest, conviction and imprisonment Drug treatment as part of sentencing Recent arrest and imprisonment Offences arrested for in past 12 months Perceptions of the current level of drug enforcement Perceptions of the impact of drug enforcement Number of friends arrested Summary of drug enforcement References Appendix 1: Lifetime drug use Appendix 2: Current drug use Table of Contents

9 List of Figures Figure 2.1: Proportion of the frequent drug users who were male, Figure 2.2: Mean age of the frequent drug users, Figure 2.3: Proportion of the frequent drug users who were of European ethnicity, Figure 2.4: Proportion of the frequent drug users who were of Maori ethnicity, Figure 2.5: Proportion of the frequent drug users who were unemployed or on a sickness benefit, Figure 2.6: Proportion of the frequent drug users who had no educational qualifications, Figure 2.7: Mean score of perception of physical health by frequent drug user group, Figure 2.8: Mean score of perception of mental health by frequent drug user group, Figure 3.1: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had ever used antidepressants, opium poppies, oxycodone, synthetic cannabis and non BZP party pills, Figure 3.2: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had ever used cocaine, BZP and crystal methamphetamine (Ice), Figure 3.3: Mean age at which the frequent methamphetamine users had first tried GHB and crystal methamphetamine (Ice), Figure 3.4: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had ever used tobacco, Ritalin (methylphenidate), anti depressants, oxycodone and synthetic cannabis, Figure 3.5: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had ever used nitrous oxide, BZP, methamphetamine, GHB and crystal methamphetamine (Ice), Figure 3.6: Mean age at which the frequent ecstasy users had first tried ecstasy, nitrous oxide, and GHB, Figure 3.7: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had ever used methamphetamine, anti depressants, oxycodone and synthetic cannabis, Figure 3.8: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had ever used nitrous oxide and LSD, Figure 3.9: Mean age at which the frequent injecting drug users had first tried Ritalin, methadone and benzodiazepines, Figure 3.10: Mean age at which the frequent injecting drug users had first tried crystal methamphetamine (Ice) and anti depressants, Figure 3.11: Proportion of the frequent methamphetamine users who had used crystal methamphetamine (Ice), anti depressants, homebake heroin/morphine, synthetic cannabis and oxycodone in the previous six months, Figure 3.12: Proportion of the frequent methamphetamine users who had used LSD, BZP and nitrous oxide in the previous six months, Figure 3.13: Mean number of frequent methamphetamine users had used cannabis, methamphetamine and crystal methamphetamine (Ice) in the previous six months (of those who had used these drug types in the previous six months),

10 Figure 3.14: Mean number of frequent methamphetamine users had used Ritalin (methylphenidate) and ecstasy in the previous six months (of those who had used these drug types in the previous six months), Figure 3.15: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had injected BZP and oxycodone and methamphetamine in the previous six months (of those who had used these drugs in the previous six months), Figure 3.16: Proportion of the frequent ecstasy users who had used methylphenidate (Ritalin ), anti depressants and synthetic cannabis in the previous six months, Figure 3.17: Proportion of the frequent ecstasy users who had used BZP, nitrous oxide, and crystal methamphetamine (Ice) in the previous six months, Figure 3.18: Proportion of the frequent ecstasy users who had used cannabis, LSD and ketamine in the previous six months, Figure 3.19: Mean number of frequent ecstasy users had used methamphetamine, synthetic cannabis, BZP and ecstasy in the previous six months (of those who had used these drug types in the previous six months), Figure 3.20: Proportion of the frequent injecting drug users who had used anti depressants, methamphetamine, oxycodone and synthetic cannabis in the previous six months, Figure 3.21: Proportion of the frequent injecting drug users who had used nitrous oxide, ecstasy, benzodiazepines and BZP in the previous six months, Figure 3.22: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had injected methylphenidate (Ritalin ) methamphetamine, methadone and BZP in the previous six months (of those who had used these drugs in the previous six months), Figure 3.23: Mean number of the frequent injecting drug users had used cannabis, crystal methamphetamine (Ice), anti depressants and BZP in the previous six months (of those who had used these drug types in the previous six months), Figure 4.1: Proportion of frequent drug users who had tried a drug type for the first time, Figure 4.2: Proportion of frequent drug users who had tried a drug type for the first time by frequent drug user group, Figure 4.3: Drug types the frequent ecstasy users had used for the first time (of those who had tried a drug for the first time), Figure 4.4: Drug types the frequent methamphetamine users had used for the first time (of those who had tried a drug for the first time), Figure 4.5: Drug types the frequent injecting drug users had used for the first time (of those who had tried a drug for the first time), Figure 4.6: Proportion of frequent drug users who noticed a new drug type, Figure 5.1: Mean score of the current availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5.2: Mean score of the current availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 5.3: Mean score of the current availability of methamphetamine by location List of figures

11 Figure 5.4: Mean score of the change in the availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5.5: Mean score of the change in the availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 5.6: Mean price of a point of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5.7: Mean price of a gram of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5.8: Mean price of a gram of methamphetamine by location, Figure 5.9: Mean price of a point of methamphetamine by location, Figure 5.10: Mean price of a gram of methamphetamine by location, Figure 5.11: Mean score of the change in the price of methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5.12: Mean score of the change in the price of methamphetamine in the past six months by location, Figure 5.13: Mean score of the current strength of methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5.14: Mean score of the current strength of methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 5.15: Mean score of the change in strength of methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5.16: Mean score of the change in strength of methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 5.17: Perceptions of the number of people using methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5.18: Perceptions of the number of people using methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 5.19: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase methamphetamine in one hour or less, Figure 5.20: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase methamphetamine in one hour or less by location, Figure 6.1: Mean score of the current availability of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 6.2: Mean price of a point of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 6.3: Mean price per gram of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 6.4: Mean score of the change in the price of crystal methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 6.5: Mean score of the current purity of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7.1: Mean score of the current availability of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health 11

12 Figure 7.2: Mean score of the current availability of ecstasy by location, Figure 7.3: Mean score of the change in the availability of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7.4: Mean score of the change in the availability of ecstasy by location, Figure 7.5: Mean price of a pill of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7.6: Mean price of a pill of ecstasy by location, Figure 7.7: Mean price of a pill of ecstasy by location, Figure 7.8: Mean score of the change in the price of ecstasy in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7.9: Mean score of the change in the price of ecstasy in the past six months by location, Figure 7.10: Mean score of the current strength of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7.11: Mean score of the current strength of ecstasy by location, Figure 7.12: Mean score of the change in strength of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7.13: Mean score of the change in strength of ecstasy by location, Figure 7.14: Mean score of perceptions of the number of people using ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7.15: Mean score of perceptions of the number of people using ecstasy by location, Figure 7.16: Proportion of frequent drug users who purchased ecstasy weekly or more often, Figure 7.17: Proportion of frequent drug users who purchased ecstasy weekly or more often by location, Figure 7.18: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase ecstasy in one hour or less, Figure 7.19: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase ecstasy in one hour or less by location, Figure 7.20: Thousands of ecstasy pills seized in New Zealand, Figure 8.1: Current availability of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Figure 8.2: Current availability of cannabis by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 8.3: Change in availability of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Figure 8.4: Change in availability of cannabis by location, Figure 8.5: Price of an ounce of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Figure 8.6: Mean price paid for an ounce of cannabis (NZD) by location, Figure 8.7: Mean price paid for an ounce of cannabis (NZD) by location, Figure 8.8: Perceptions of the number of people using cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Figure 8.9: Perceptions of the number of people using cannabis by location, Figure 8.10: Perceptions of the number of people using cannabis by location, List of figures

13 Figure 8.11: Proportion of frequent drug users who purchased cannabis weekly or more often by location, Figure 8.12: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase cannabis in one hour or less by location, Figure 8.13: Annual number of cannabis plants destroyed in New Zealand, Figure 9.1: Mean score of the change in availability of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Figure 9.2: Mean price of a tab of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Figure 9.3: Mean score of the current strength of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Figure 9.4: Change in the mean score of the strength of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Figure 9.5: Number of tabs of LSD seized in New Zealand, Figure 10.1: Current mean price paid for 100 milligrams of street morphine (NZD), Figure 10.2: Change in the price of street morphine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 10.1: Current mean price paid for 100 milligrams of street morphine (NZD), Figure 10.2: Change in the price of street morphine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11.1: Mean score of the current availability of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11.2: Mean score of the change in availability of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11.3: Mean price of a gram of cocaine (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11.4: Mean score of the change in price of cocaine in the previous six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11.5: Mean score of the current purity of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 12. 1: Current availability of heroin by combined frequent drug users, Figure 12.2: Change in availability of heroin by combined frequent drug users, Figure 13.1: Mean score of the perceptions of the number of people using homebake morphine/heroin by combined frequent drug users, Figure 14.1: Current availability of street methadone by combined frequent drug users, Figure 15.1: Current availability of street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Figure 15.2: Change in the availability of street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Figure 15.3: Perceptions of the number of people using street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Figure 16.1: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had been given a drug without their knowledge and had their drink spiked, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health 13

14 Figure 16.2: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had been arrested, had unprotected sex, sacked/lost business/quit study and had overdosed on drugs, Figure 16.3: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who upset a family relationship and had physically hurt someone due to their drug use, Figure 16.4: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who were physically/verbally threatened, physically assaulted and had their drink spiked, Figure 16.5: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had accessed a General Practitioner, counsellor and social worker in relation to drug use in the past six months, Figure 16.6: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had been admitted to hospital, received First Aid and accessed an ambulance in relation to drug use in the past six months, Figure 16.7: Selected reasons provided by the frequent methamphetamine users for using drugs, Figure 16.8: Selected reasons provided by the frequent injecting drug users for using drugs, Figure 16.9: Proportion of frequent drug user group who were assessed as drug dependent, Figure 16.10: Proportion of frequent drug users who had ever suffered from a mental illness by frequent drug user group, Figure 16.11: Proportion of frequent drug users who had stayed in a psychiatric facility overnight or longer by of frequent drug user group, Figure 16.12: Proportion of frequent drug user group who are currently receiving treatment for a mental illness, Figure 17.1: Proportion of the frequent drug users who felt they needed at least some help to reduce their drug use by frequent drug user group, Figure 17.2: Proportion of the frequent methamphetamine users who reported fear of service or fear of police as barriers to seeking help, Figure 17.3: Proportion of the frequent injecting drug users who reported long waiting lists or couldn t get an appointment at a suitable time as barriers to seeking help, Figure 17.4: Proportion of frequent drug users who had ever been or were currently in drug treatment by frequent drug user group, Figure 17.5: Proportion of callers to the Alcohol and Drug Help line by drug type calling about, Figure 17.6: Proportion of clients screening positive for problematic drug use by drug type, Figure 18.1: Proportion of the frequent drug users who sold drugs, committed property crime, committed fraud and committed violent crime in the previous six months, Figure 18.2: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who sold drugs, committed property crime and committed fraud in the previous month, Figure 18.3: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who sold drugs, committed property crime and committed fraud in the previous month, List of figures

15 Figure 18.4: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who sold drugs, committed property crime and committed fraud in the previous month, Figure 18.5: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who committed a violent crime in their lifetime, in the previous six months, and in the previous month, Figure 18.6: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who used social welfare benefits, credit from dealers, borrowed money and property crime to pay for drug use, Figure 18.7: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who made drugs themselves, used someone else s prescription, used their own prescription and doctor shopped to pay for drug use, Figure 18.8: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who used drug dealing and money from parents to pay for drug use, Figure 18.9: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who made drugs themselves and used someone else s prescription to pay for drug use, Figure 18.10: Proportion of frequent injecting users who used a prescription (own name), someone else s prescription and doctor shopping to pay for drug use, Figure 19.1: Proportion of frequent drug users who had ever been arrested, convicted and imprisoned, Figure 19.2: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had ever been arrested, convicted and imprisoned, Figure 19.3: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had ever been arrested, convicted and imprisoned, Figure 19.4: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had ever been arrested, convicted and imprisoned, Figure 19.5: Proportion of convicted frequent drug users who received alcohol and drug treatment as part of sentence, Figure 19.6: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had been arrested and imprisoned in the previous 12 months, Figure 19.7: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had been arrested and imprisoned in the previous 12 months, Figure 19.8: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had been arrested and imprisoned in the previous 12 months, Figure 19.9: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had been arrested for a violent crime, property crime and driving over the alcohol limit in the previous 12 months, Figure 19.10: Proportion of frequent drug users who noticed police activity toward drug users in the past six months, Figure 19.11: Mean score of change in police activity toward drug users in the past six months for frequent methamphetamine users and frequent ecstasy users, Figure 19.12: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users and frequent ecstasy users who thought police activity had made it more difficult for them to obtain drugs in the past six months, Figure 19.13: Proportion of frequent drug users who had a friend arrested in the past six months, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health 15

16 List of Tables Table 1.1: Distribution of IDMS respondents by site for the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and Table 1.2: Distribution of IDMS respondents by module for the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and Table 1.3: Weighted distribution of respondents by site for the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and Table 1.4: Weighted distribution of respondents by module for the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and Table 2.1: Ethnicity of the frequent drug users, Table 2.2: Employment status of the frequent drug users, Table 2.3: Highest educational achievement of the frequent drug users, Table 2.4: Frequent drug users sexual orientation, Table 2.5: Frequent drug users by marital status, Table 2.6: Frequent drug users by current accommodation type, Table 2.7: Frequent drug users self assessment of current physical health, Table 2.8: Frequent drug users self assessment of current mental health, Table 4.1: Drug types used for the first time in the past six months by frequent drug user group (of those who reported using a drug for the first time in previous six months), Table 4.2: New drug types heard about in previous six months, Table 4.3: New types of people reported using drugs, Table 5.1: Current availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5.2: Current availability of methamphetamine by location, Table 5.3: Change in availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5.4: Current price of methamphetamine (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 5.5: Current median (mean) price for a point and gram of methamphetamine (NZD) by location, Table 5.6: Change in the price of methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 5.7: Change in the price of methamphetamine in the past six months by location, Table 5.8: Current median (mean) price of pseudoephedrine (NZD), Table 5.9: Change in the price of pseudoephedrine in the past six months, Table 5.10: Current strength of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5.11: Change in strength of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, List of tables

17 Table 5.12: Perceptions of the number of people using methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5.13: Perceptions of the number of people using methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users by location, Table 5.14: Frequency of purchase of methamphetamine (of those who purchased any) in past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 5.15: Median (mean) dollar amount spent on methamphetamine (NZD) on a typical occasion by combined frequent drug users, Table 5.16: Median (mean) dollar amount spent on methamphetamine (NZD) on a typical occasion by combined frequent drug users by location, Table 5.17: Time taken to purchase methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5.18: Location from which methamphetamine purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 5.19: People from whom methamphetamine purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 6.1: Current availability of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 6.2: Mean score of the current availability of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 6.3: Current median (mean) price for crystal methamphetamine (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 6.4: Change in the price of crystal methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 6.5: Current purity of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 6.6: Change in purity of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 6.7: Perceptions of the number of people using crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.1: Drug types perceived to be in ecstasy (of the people who thought they knew), Table 7.2: Current availability of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.3: Current availability of ecstasy by location, Table 7.4: Change in availability of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.5: Current price of ecstasy (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.6: Current median (mean) price for ecstasy (NZD) by location, Table 7.7: Change in the price of ecstasy in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.8: Change in price of ecstasy in the past six months by location, Table 7.9 Current strength of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.10: Change in strength of ecstasy (MDMA) by combined frequent drug users, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health 17

18 Table 7.11: Perceptions of the number of people using ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.12: Frequency of purchase of ecstasy in past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.13: Median (mean) dollar amount spent on ecstasy (NZD) on a typical occasion by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.14: Time taken to purchase ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.15: Location from which ecstasy purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 7.16: People from whom ecstasy purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.1: Current availability of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.2: Change in availability of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.3: Current price of cannabis (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.4: Current median (mean) price for cannabis (NZD) by location, Table 8.5: Change in the price of cannabis in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.6: Current strength of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.7: Change in strength of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.8: Perceptions of the number of people using cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.9: Perceptions of the number of people using cannabis by location, Table 8.10: Frequency of purchase of cannabis in past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.11: Median (mean) dollar amount spent on cannabis (NZD) on typical occasion by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.12: Time taken to purchase cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.13: Location from which cannabis purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 8.14: People from whom cannabis purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 9.1: Current availability of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Table 9.2: Change in availability of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Table 9.3: Current median (mean) price for LSD (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 9.4: Change in the price of LSD in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 9.5: Current strength of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Table 9.6: Change in strength of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Table 9.7: Perceptions of the number of people using LSD by combined frequent drug users, Table 11.1: Current availability of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Table 11.2: Change in availability of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, List of tables

19 Table 11.3: Current price of cocaine (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 11.4: Change in the price of cocaine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 11.5: Current purity of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Table 11.6: Change in purity of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Table 11.7: Perceptions of the number of people using cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Table 12.1: Current availability of heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 12.2: Change in availability of heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 12.3: Current median (mean) price of heroin (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 12.4: Change in the price of heroin in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 12.5: Current purity of heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 12.6: Change in purity of heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 12.7: Perceptions of the number of people using heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 13.1: Current availability of homebake morphine/heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 13.2: Change in availability of homebake morphine/heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 13.3: Perceptions of the number of people using homebake morphine/ heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 14.1: Current availability of street methadone by combined frequent drug users, Table 14.2: Change in availability of street methadone by combined frequent drug users, Table 14.3: Perceptions of the number of people using street methadone by combined frequent drug users, Table 15.1: Current availability of street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Table 15.2: Change in availability of street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Table 15.3: Perceptions of the number of people using street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Table 16.1: Drug related incidents by frequent drug user group, Table 16.2: Drug types mainly responsible for drug related incidents by frequent drug user group, Table 16.3: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had accessed medical and health services in relation to drug use in the past six months, Table 16.4: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had accessed medical and health services in relation to drug use in the past six months, Table 16.5: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had accessed medical and health services in relation to drug use in the past six months, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health 19

20 Table 16.6: Self reported reasons for using drugs by frequent methamphetamine users, Table 16.7: Self reported reasons for using drugs by frequent injecting drug users, Table 16.8: Self reported reasons for using drugs by frequent ecstasy users, Table 17.1: Extent to which the frequent drug users felt they needed help to reduce their drug use by frequent drug user group, Table 17.2: Proportion of frequent drug users who had wanted help to reduce their drug use in the previous six months but had not got it, Table 17.3: Barriers experienced by the frequent methamphetamine users when trying to find help to reduce drug use (of those who were unable to find help), Table 17.4: Barriers experienced by the frequent injecting drug users when trying to find help to reduce drug use (of those who were unable to find help), Table 17.5: Barriers experienced by frequent ecstasy users when trying to find help to reduce drug use (of those who were unable to find help), 2010 & Table 17.6: Type of drug treatment programme currently enrolled in by frequent drug user group, 2010 & Table 17.7: Drug Type(s) currently in treatment for by frequent drug user group, 2010 & Table 18.1: Proportion of the frequent drug users who committed property crime, Table 18.2: Proportion of the frequent drug users who sold illegal drugs, Table 18.3: Proportion of the frequent drug users who committed fraud, Table 18.4: Proportion of the frequent drug users who committed violent crime, Table 18.5: Different means used by the frequent methamphetamine users to pay for drugs in the past six months, Table 18.6: Different means used by frequent ecstasy users to pay for drugs in the past six months, Table 18.7: Different means used by frequent injecting drug users to pay for drugs in the past six months, Table 19.1: Proportion of frequent drug users who were arrested for different criminal offences in the past 12 months by frequent drug user group, Table 19.2: Frequent methamphetamine users perceptions of the change in police activity in relation to drug users in the past six months (of those who noticed any change in police activity), Table 19.3: Frequent ecstasy users perceptions of the change in police activity in relation to drug users in the past six months (of those who noticed any change in police activity), Table 19.4: Frequent injecting drug users perceptions of the change in police activity in relation to drug users in the past six months (of those who noticed any change in police activity), Table 19.5: Proportion of frequent drug users who thought police activity had made it more difficult for them to obtain drugs in the past six months, Table 19.6: Change in the number of friends arrested in the past six months by frequent drug user group (of those who had a friend arrested), List of tables

21 Acknowledgements The Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS) is conducted as part of the National Drug Policy. We gratefully acknowledge the support of a number of New Zealand government agencies including Police, Ministry of Health, Customs Service, Ministry of Justice, Department of Corrections, Ministry of Pacific Island Affairs and Te Puni Kōkiri. The design of the IDMS drew on the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) and Ecstasy and other drug Reporting System (EDRS) which are conducted by the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) in Australia. We acknowledge the New Zealand Needle Exchange who assist us with the recruitment of frequent drug users for the study. We would like to thank the following agencies and organisations who provided secondary data sources on drug use and drug related harm in New Zealand for this study: New Zealand Police National Drug Intelligence Bureau (NDIB) New Zealand Ministry of Health New Zealand Customs Service Alcohol Drug Association New Zealand (ADANZ) Community Alcohol and Drug Services (CADS) We would like to thank all the interviewers who worked with us on the study and the frequent drug users who agreed to be interviewed. The views expressed in this report are entirely our own. They do not necessarily reflect those of any government agency or other organisation. Correspondence Dr Chris Wilkins, Senior Researcher, Drugs Team Leader, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE), Massey University, PO Box 6137, Wellesley Street, Auckland, New Zealand, tel , SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health 21

22 Executive Summary Introduction The Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS) is conducted annually to provide a snapshot of trends in drug use and drug markets in New Zealand. The 2011 IDMS interviewed a total of 372 frequent illegal drug users (i.e. 161 frequent ecstasy users, 113 frequent methamphetamine users, and 98 frequent injecting drug users) from Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch from August to December Emerging Drugs A growing number of new synthetic drug types have emerged in New Zealand in recent and this mirrors similar trends reported in Europe and the United States. The proportion of the frequent drug users who had noticed a new drug type in the previous six months increased from 9% in 2008, to 13% in 2009, to 24% in 2010 and 34% in The proportion of the frequent drug users who had tried a drug for the first time in the previous six months increased from 24% in 2009, to 33% in 2010 to 40% in The drug types the frequent drug users most commonly reported using for the first time in 2011 were synthetic cannabis (e.g. Kronic, Spice), ecstasy, oxycodone, anti depressants, methylphenidate (Ritalin ), codeine, mephedrone (methylmethcathinone), salvia divinorum and one of the 2C drugs (e.g. 2CB, 2CI). The use of many of these new substances remains at a fairly low level at present, but it is important to continue to monitor them closely given the speed at which new drug epidemics can develop (e.g. methamphetamine in the early 2000s) and, in the case of new compounds, the potential for unpredictable health risks. Increasing drug use There was a sharp increase in the use of synthetic cannabis in For example, the percentage of frequent methamphetamine users who had used synthetic cannabis in the previous six months increased from 10% in 2010 to 41% in There was also a steady increase in the use of pharmaceutical drugs. The percentage of frequent injecting drug users who had used oxycodone in the past six months increased from 9% in 2008 to 21% in Similarly, the percentage of frequent ecstasy users who had recently used methylphenidate (Ritalin ) increased from 13% in 2006 to 25% in The appropriate control of pharmaceutical drugs is a complex issue which requires a delicate balance 22 Executive summary

23 between reducing the extra medical use of pharmaceuticals and not denying access to pharmaceuticals to those with medical or therapeutic needs. Methamphetamine ( P ) The price of methamphetamine continues to increase and there was evidence of some disruption in other aspects of the methamphetamine market. The price of a gram of methamphetamine increased steadily from $610 per gram in 2006 to $815 per gram in The strength of methamphetamine has declined slightly over the past six. The availability of methamphetamine has also declined slightly in recent, and this trend is strongest in Christchurch. There is also evidence of some decline in methamphetamine use. The percentage of frequent methamphetamine users who had used crystal methamphetamine in the past six months declined from 64% in 2006 to 37% in The number of the frequent methamphetamine users had used methamphetamine in the previous six months declined from 57 in 2006 to 40 in 2011, and the number of they had used crystal methamphetamine declined from 55 in 2006 to 30 in Crystal methamphetamine ( Ice ) It is not entirely clear how separate the methamphetamine ( P ) and crystal methamphetamine ( Ice ) markets are in New Zealand, but some frequent drug users make a distinction between the two. There was evidence of a decline in the availability of Ice and a rise in price. The price of a gram of Ice increased from $691 in 2007 to $914 in 2011, with a steep rise from $763 in 2010 to $914 in Ecstasy The ecstasy market has been expanding in New Zealand over the past six. This general picture is complicated by a global shortage in MDMA in recent which has resulted in lower strength ecstasy and ecstasy containing other substitute compounds. Furthermore, during the time of interviewing for the 2011 IDMS the New Zealand Police successfully dismantled a major Auckland ecstasy supplier and this may have impacted the ecstasy market in Auckland and other places. The availability of ecstasy declined in 2011, with a sharp decline reported in Auckland. The price of ecstasy has been declining since 2006 (i.e. the price of a pill of ecstasy declined from $59 in 2006 to $47 in 2010), but the price was reported to have increased in Auckland in The strength of ecstasy has been low since There SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health 23

24 was evidence of some recovery in the strength of ecstasy in Auckland in 2010, but potency is yet to recover to the pre 2008 levels. Cannabis The cannabis market is generally fairly stable, but we found some small localised trends. There was a slight decline in the availability of cannabis in Christchurch and Wellington, and a slight decline in potency in Auckland and Christchurch. The price of an ounce of cannabis increased from 2006 to 2011 in Auckland (up from $295 to $332) and Christchurch (up from $308 to $335). There was a decline in the proportion of frequent drug users who purchased cannabis from a tinny house from 2010 to 2011, and this may reflect greater enforcement focus on these selling locations in recent. Cocaine Only a fairly small number of the frequent drugs users had any knowledge of cocaine. The availability of cocaine was low, and availability was reported to have declined from 2010 to The price of a gram of cocaine increased steeply from $357 in 2010 to $585 in 2011 (although only small numbers gave reports of cocaine prices). The frequent drug users thought less people were using cocaine in 2011 compared to Overall there was not much evidence to suggest the cocaine market is expanding in New Zealand. Street BZP The prohibition of BZP in 2008 greatly reduced its availability and increased its price. There has been some recovery in availability following the initial impact of the prohibition, but not to the preprohibition legal level. The use of BZP has also declined substantially since the prohibition. For example, the percentage of frequent methamphetamine users who had used BZP in the previous six months declined from 32% in 2006 to 6% in Interestingly, a similar decline was found for another former legal high, nitrous oxide. The proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had recently used nitrous oxide declined from 47% in 2006 to 5% in Executive summary

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