Identification of new drugs and trends from a European perspective

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1 Identification of new drugs and trends from a European perspective Dr Roumen Sedefov, EMCDDA Annual Conference of the German Federal Drug Commissioner, Berlin, 11 October 2011

2 EMCDDA EMCDDA Reitox network: 27 EU Member States, Croatia, Turkey and Norway 2

3 Council Decision 2005/387/JHA EMCDDA Europol annual report on implementation Information exchange / Early warning European Database on New Drugs (EDND) EWS guidelines Reporting form Reporting forms Progress & final reports Joint Report Questionnaire NFPs ENUs First detection of a new psychoactive substance Continuous monitoring Collection of information EWS EWS Formal notification Europol EMCDDA Joint report Technical report EMCDDA Risk assessment RA guidelines EMCDDA Ext Scientific Com RA report Risk assessment report COM / EU MS Decision-making Council of the EU Council Decision on control measures in all MS 3

4 Early-warning system (EWS): epi intelligence model Indicator-based Event-based & Internet Reitox EWS EPI indicators Market & supply data Evidence base Europol EWS Early-warning new drugs Risk assessment Public-health warnings Adapted from R. Kaiser at al., 2005 New phenomena Description state of the drugs problem in Europe 4

5 Triangulation of information from different sources Internet, media, users Public Research, test purchase, WW analysis Research NFP, ENU Health & care; law enforcement; forensic science 5

6 Wastewater analysis / sewage epidemiology DRUGS -new drugs -cocaine -cannabis -heroin - amphetamines CONSUMER Excretes residues of the drugs with urine after the intake TREATMENT PLANT Residues are transported to the treatment plant with the wastewater Sources of uncertainty Sources of variability DRUG RESIDUES QUANTIFICATION Wastewater is sampled and the residues of the drugs are measured CONSUMPTION ESTIMATE Concentrations are used to calculate residue loads (g/day) Loads can be used to back-calculate drug consumption Mario Negri Institute, presented at the EMCDDA WW meeting 6

7 The German EWS International EMCDDA Europol EMA NLS Hannover JJ Frankfurt/M. BfS Hamburg NFP BKA RKI BfArM Phar-Mon CDR Frankfurt/M. GIZ Regional IRF Freiburg National Provided by the German NFP 7

8 DIMS Drugs Information and Monitoring System, NL 26 test facilities in 23 cities Ministry of Health Drug users Regional partners DIMS bureau Trimbos Trimbos institute Laboratory Police Provided by the Dutch NFP 8

9 SINTES - national substance identification system, France Information sources Provided by the French NFP 9

10 Comprehensive information collection: the reporting forms 10

11 11

12 New drugs: from imitation to innovation Designer drugs Party pills Research chemicals Herbal highs Legal highs Legal highs Phenethylamines Tryptamines Piperazines Cathinones Synthetic CBs 1980s 1990s 2000s The quest for new ecstasy BZP Mephedrone Spice 12

13 Number of new drugs reported through the EWS Number of substances Other substances Synthetic cannabinoids Cathinones Piperazines Tryptamines Phenethylamines Year of notification 13

14 Source of EWS notifications in 2009/2011 By type of sample (as of October 2011) Biological samples; 6 Seizures + test purchases; Collected from users; 1 EU projects; 1 Collected from users; 1 EU projects; 5 EU projects; 1 Test purchases; 2 Seizures; 15 Test purchases; 10 Seizures; 27 Seizures; 28 Biological; 4 Users; 0 EU Project; /11 Germany Seizures; 10 Seizures Test purchases EU projects Collected from users Biological samples Seizures + test purchases 14

15 Source of EWS first notifications 2009/11 By country (as of October 2011) DE FI UK DK HU NO SE IE LV AT BE FR BG LT NL PL 15

16 Geographical spread of NPAS notified in 2010 as of October /3 of the NPAS were identified only once; 10% of NPAS were identified in more than 10 countries Number of countries w here the substance w as identified 4-methylethcathinone 16

17 What has changed? Globalisation and advances in information technology, Internet as: Communication tool Access to information (medicinal chemistry, patents, etc) Global market place Consumers willing to experiment with alternative products Cheaper organic synthesis ( legally sourced often outside Europe) Entrepreneurship & innovative marketing strategies internet and specialised (head/smart) shops Interaction between markets & the role of organised crime Dynamic (stimulants) drug market (interplay use & supply) 17

18 Locating new drugs within the EU drug market Stimulants increasingly important in EU Problem drugs use Recreational scene Poly-drug use norm Dynamic - can be competing products Supply/demanded interconnected Where do new drugs fit in the stimulant market New consumers? Replacement products? Cocaine and amphetamines represented similarly in seizures / GPS Cocaine prevails in seizures / GPS Amphetamine prevails in seizures / GPS % Cocaine treatment requests % Amphetamine treatment requests 18

19 Trends in last 12 months prevalence young adults UK 7,0 Amphetamines Ecstasy Cocaine 6,0 5,0 4,0 % 3,0 2,0 1,0 0, (embargo, to be release 15 July in EMCDDA statistical Bulletin) 19

20 Changing ecstasy market: UK FSS data FSS MDMA, Piperazine and Cathinone Derivative Records : Seizure Date July March MDMA Records Piperazine Records Cathinone Derivative Records Number of Records Quarter UK Forensic Science Service 20

21 Changing ecstasy market: DIMS data, NL Brunt T, et al

22 Online availability of legal highs Multilingual Internet snapshots 18 EU languages (80% in 2011 used English) Country of origin US, UK, NL, DE, NZ, CZ, PL, CA had more than 20 shops each (US almost 200) Trends and figures : increased availability, diversification of products & decreasing prices Appears to be growing (170 January 2010, 314 shops in January 2011, to 631 in July 2011) Consequences of control measures Mephedrone reduction of online availability, increased price and increased levels of caution 22

23 Designer drugs Clandestine laboratory Legal highs Licit laboratory Illegal market Legal highs market Control 23

24 Epidemiology Europe Eurobarometer (2011): legal highs (15 24, N > 12000, 27 MS) National Poland (2008&10): legal highs (18-19, N 1200) & GPS (15-75, N 1000) UK, British Crime Survey (2011): mephedrone (16-59, N > 27000) Germany (Frankfurt) (2008 & 2009): Spice (15-18, N=1029) Expected: Czech Republic, Spain & Ireland Special population UK Mixmag (2009 & 2010): mephedrone (age?, N 2000) International New Zealand (2006 & 2009): party pills (BZP) (13-45, N 2000) 24

25 Party Pills in New Zealand: last year prevalence of BZP by age, New Zealand, 2006 and % of sample Year 25 25

26 Eurobarometer (2011), European Commission - life time use Age: 15 24, N > 12000, coverage: 27 MS, July % bought them on the Internet, however, 64% used the Internet as source of information lifetime 3.5% (2008) to 11.4% (2010), last-year 2.6% (2008) to 7.2% (2010), last month 1.5% (2008) to 1.1% (2010) Awareness and channel: 90% had heard about LH, 27% visited a smart/head shop (40% made a purchase), only 1% bought them on-line Purchases: 31% bought herbal concoctions, 6% sniffing powders, 3.5% paraphernalia Availability (perceived as easy to obtain): 16% (2008) to 36% (2010) Possible impact on ecstasy use: decrease from 6% (2008) to 4% (2010) and ecstasy mentioned 10 times less in 2010 as compared to 2008 Survey conducted about 1 month after the closure of network of smart/head shops Number of shops: > 40 in large cities (2008) to > 1500 all over the country (2010) 26

27 Poland, use of legal highs among students CBOS Foundation Youth 2008 & 2010 (age: 18/19, N > 1200) 12 11, ,2 Last month use Last year use Lifetime use 4 3,5 2,6 2 1,5 1, Rapid development of the smart / head shops sale network Closure of smart / head shops about 1 month before conducting the survey 27

28 Poland, use of legal highs in GPS CINN KBPN 2009 and 2010, last-year use (N = 1000, age: 15-75) 28

29 Last year Mephedrone use in the UK British Crime Survey 2010/11, age: 16-59, N > 27000, last-year mephedrone use Age 16-24: 4,4% comparable to powder cocaine (the second most used) Age 16-59: 1,4% comparable to ecstasy (the third most used drug) survey (United Kingdom?, N > 2000, mephedrone use) 5 lifetime 41.7% (2010) to 61% (2011), 4,5 last-year % (2010) to 51% (2011), last month 3,5 33.6% (2010) to 25% (2011) 3 Age: ,5 Age: ,5 1 0,5 0 Mephedrone 'Spice' BZP GBL/GHB 29

30 Mephedrone prevalence Mixmag survey (United Kingdom?, N > 2000, mephedrone use) lifetime 41.7% (2009) to 61% (2010), last-year 37.3% (2009) to 51% (2010), last month 33.6% (2009) to 25% (2010) 100,0 90,0 80,0 70,0 60,0 50,0 40,0 Ever used 2009 Used last year 2009 Ever used 2010 Used last year ,0 20,0 10,0 0,0 Ecstasy Cannabis Amphetamine (base) Ketamine Mephedrone Mushrooms BZP GHB 'Spice' GBL 30

31 Mixmag survey UK, 2009/10 and 2010/11 Ways of obtaining mephedrone before the ban after the ban Friend Internet Headshop Dealer 31

32 Mephedrone - European Database on New Drugs (EDND) 32

33 Examples of control of new substances using different laws (ELDD) BZP, Spice, Mephedrone Medicinal products (8) Consumer safety (3) General (1) Doping laws (1) Only drug laws or equivalent: personal possession penalised 33

34 The challenge of control: synthetic cannabinoids 34

35 Can we anticipate the new drugs? More derivatives of known drugs stimulants including synthetic cocaine(s) synthetic cannabinoids opioids, sedatives Designer medicines & metabolites of medicines Mixtures (synthetic cathinones or cannabinoids) 35

36 Lessons learnt form a complex and dynamic phenomenon Coordination Multidirectional information sharing in real time is of critical value Importance a central hub for reference & dissemination Link with epidemiological monitoring Becoming proactive rather than reactive Need more proactive in interrogating market Follow up over time (substances, high impact events & contextual factors) Fast track for high risk substances or clear threats Evidence base weak Even modest investment extremely cost effective Assessment of generic groups substances More complex problem than it appears Intelligent grouping? 36

37 EMCDDA 37

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