Performance Enhancing Substances in Sport

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1 Performance Enhancing Substances in Sport Program Support Notes by: Jo Basnett Bachelor Education (Human Movement and Health) Produced by: VEA Pty Ltd Commissioning Editor: Sandra Frerichs B.Ed, M.Ed. You may download and print one copy of these support notes from our website for your reference. Further copying or printing must be reported to CAL as per the Copyright Act Executive Producers: Edwina Baden-Powell B.A, CVP. Sandra Frerichs B.Ed, M.Ed. Video Education America

2 For Teachers Introduction When the desire to enhance performance becomes a motivating factor, sometimes ethical issues come to the forefront. Performance enhancing substances are a growing concern, particularly among elite athletes where the line between success and failure, fame and anonymity can be all too slim. Performance enhancing substances can improve an athlete's performance in a particular sport or activity. However, drug use in sport, or doping carries serious health risks and can endanger an individual athlete's future in their chosen sport. Timeline 00:00:00 Legal ergogenics aids 00:05:04 Illegal drug use in sports 00:10:57 Drug testing 00:14:39 Consequences of doping 00:18:13 Olympics and drugs 00:20:48 Credits 00:21:28 End program Related Titles Sports Psychology: Mental Preparation Sports Psychology: Motivation, Anxiety and Arousal Nutrition and Hydration in Sports Recommended Resources

3 Student Worksheet Initiate Prior Learning 1. List any performance enhancing substances that you have heard of. 2. In which sports are these drugs primarily used? 3. Name any athletes you know who have been caught using performance enhancing drugs. What were the consequences of these actions? 4. Suggest reasons athletes continue to take drugs they know are banned? 5. What are the penalties for testing positive to a banned substance in your country? 3

4 Active Viewing Guide Legal ergogenic aids 1. Explain the term ergogenic aid. Give three examples. 2. Fill in the following table on the various supplements used by athletes. Suggest a sport where the effects of each substance might be useful. Substance Definition/Effect Sport Protein Supplements Ribose Supplements Creatine B-Vitamins Supplements 3. Who establishes the substances and doping methods banned from the Olympics? Illegal drug use in sport 4. Give three reasons why an athlete might chose to take a banned substance. 4

5 5. Fill in the following table on the various illegal performance enhancing substances. Suggest a sport where the effects of each substance might be useful. Substance Definition/Effect Sport Anabolic Steroids Growth Hormones Beta Blockers Diuretics Blood Doping EPO Drug testing 6. What are some of the limitations to drug testing? 7. How often is the WADA s list of prohibited substances updated? Why are these updates important? 5

6 Consequences of doping 8. How is drug taking considered a negative for a sport? 9. What is the argument for legalizing performance enhancing substances? Olympics and sport 10. How long are the blood samples and data taken from athletes at the Olympics kept? Why? 11. How many urine tests will be undertaken over the Olympic period? 6

7 Extension Activities 1. As a class choose one of the following topics for a class discussion and debate. a) Athletes are taking banned drugs because of pressure created by the media and the unrealistic expectations of the public b) Athletes who test positive to banned drugs should be banned for life. c) The illegal use of drugs in sport is merely an extension of drug abuse in general society. 2. Investigate an athlete who has tested positive for drug use. Investigate what they used, when it occurred, the penalties and what reasons they provided for taking the illegal substance. Present your findings to the class as a PowerPoint or other multimedia presentation. 3. In groups, discuss the benefits and limitations of anti-doping (drug testing) and draw mind maps to summarize the group s views. 4. Explain in one page why doping is the biggest threat to the value of sport in the twenty-first century. 7

8 Suggested Student Responses Active Viewing Guide Legal ergogenic aids 1. Explain the term ergogenic aid. Give three examples. Ergogenic aid is an external influence that can enhance performance. Examples will vary but may include: vitamin supplements, illegal drugs, high-tech swimsuits. 2. Fill in the following table on the various supplements used by athletes. Suggest a sport where the effects of each substance might be useful. Substance Definition/Effect Sport Protein Supplements Protein; an essential nutrient that supports muscle growth, increases muscle strength and mass, and improves the body s recovery process. Long distance Ribose Supplements Creatine Ribose is vital in the manufacturing of adenosine triphosphate or ATP, the main energy source for cells in the human body. Ribose may enhance performance by increasing ATP retention and boosting muscle energy. Creatine provides ATP to the muscles in periods of high-demand. Athletes take creatine supplements in the hope of increasing energy provision during highintensity activities. Studies have shown creatine does improve recovery rate in the resynthesis of ATP, but doesn t prolong high-intensity sporting performance. Sports that use ATP as the main fuel High intensity sports B-Vitamins Supplements Protein; an essential nutrient that supports muscle growth, increases muscle strength and mass, and improves the body s recovery process. Long distance 3. Who establishes the substances and doping methods banned from the Olympics? WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) Illegal drug use in sport 4. Give three reasons why an athlete might chose to take a banned substance. Answer will vary but may include: gaining a competitive advantage, winning money, external pressure to win. 8

9 5. Fill in the following table on the various illegal performance enhancing substances. Suggest a sport where the effects of each substance might be useful. Substance Definition/Effect Sport Anabolic Steroids Growth Hormones Beta Blockers Diuretics Blood Doping B-Vitamins convert proteins and carbohydrates into energy, aid cell production and repair. Vitamin B deficiency can reduce performance and recovery. Anabolic steroids are a synthetic version of testosterone and have an anabolic or muscle building effect and androgenic effect which promotes changes in sexual characteristics. It is usually used in strength and power events. Side effects may include: liver damage, excessive hair growth, shrinking of testes in men, menstrual dysfunction in women, increased acne, heart problems, infertility and cancer. When growth hormones are taken to increase muscle and strength, health risks include joint and muscle problems that hamper training and competing, diabetes, and Acromegaly, a condition where hands, feet and face become enlarged. Beta-blockers slow down the heart rate and are used in sports that require a steady hand such as shooting and archery. They are often found in asthma medications. Side effects include decreased heart rate, decreased blood pressure and drowsiness. Diuretics are used to mask other drugs, such as anabolic steroids by increasing the amount of fluid released from the body. Health effects include dehydration, electrolyte loss and kidney damage. Prohibited methods include: oxygen transfer enhancement, more commonly known as blood doping. Blood is drawn, stored and infused just prior to competition or someone else s blood is used. Additional blood enables greater oxygen uptake and is commonly used in endurance events. Side effects include blood infection, blood clot, air embolism and blood incompatibilities. It increases your oxygen storing capacity so you can get more oxygen to your muscles so particularly for endurance sports where you might get tired. You re breathing heavily, you want more oxygen. So it does increase performance particularly for endurance. It also has negative side effects obviously because your blood gets thicker. If your blood becomes thick enough you start to have high blood pressure and if it gets too thick, then you might start having heart issues. 9 Endurance sports Strength and power sports Strength and power sports Sports that include fine motor skills Various sports Endurance sports

10 Drug testing 6. What are some of the limitations to drug testing? Answers will vary but may include: getting to the athlete to take a sample, making sure the sample is from the right athlete and isn t tampered with, new drugs coming on to the market. 7. How often is the WADA s list of prohibited substances updated? Why are these updates important? Every year; to keep the list up to date and make sure it keeps up with new drugs and new testing methods. Consequences of doping 8. How is drug taking considered a negative for a sport? When the reputation of an individual or sport is tarnished, millions of dollars in funding and sponsorship is often withdrawn. This makes it difficult for the sport to grow and the other honest athletes may lose their income. 9. What is the argument for legalizing performance enhancing substances? The risks to the athlete s health could be lessened through better medical supervision and regulation. It would also level the playing field for all competitors. Olympics and sport 10. How long are the blood samples and data taken from athletes at the Olympics kept? Why? 8 years for blood samples (longer for the data). So if a new drug emerges, they can either go back and look at the data or re-test all the samples and see if people were taking it. 11. How many urine tests will be undertaken over the Olympic period? Six thousand 10

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