PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Dr. Lana Zinger, QCC CUNY. 12a. FOCUS ON Your Risk for Diabetes. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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1 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Dr. Lana Zinger, QCC CUNY 12a FOCUS ON Your Risk for Diabetes

2 Your Risk for Diabetes! Since 1980,Diabetes has increased by 50 %. Diabetes has increased by 70 percent in age percent of the population has some form of diabetes. 225,000+ people die each year from diabetes-related complications.

3 Percentage of Adults with Diagnosed Diabetes

4 What Is Diabetes?! Diabetes Mellitus Disease characterized by a persistently high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood Pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body fails to use insulin effectively Hyperglycemia high blood glucose levels seen in diabetes

5 What Is Diabetes?! In Healthy People, Glucose Is Taken Up Efficiently by Body Cells Carbohydrates from the foods are broken down into a monosaccharide called glucose. Liver and muscle cells store glucose as glycogen, then use it as needed to fuel metabolism, movement, and other activities Pancreas an organ located just beneath the stomach that secretes a hormone called insulin Insulin hormone secreted by the pancreas and required by body cells for the uptake and storage of glucose

6 Diabetes: What It Is and How It Develops

7 What Is Diabetes?! Type 1 Diabetes Is an Immune Disorder Autoimmune disease- formally called juvenile diabetes Without insulin, cells cannot take up glucose, and blood glucose levels become permanently elevated. Symptoms include persistent hunger, weight loss, excessive thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue Require daily insulin injections or infusions and careful monitoring of diet and exercise levels

8 ! Type 1 Diabetes

9 What Is Diabetes?! Type 2 Diabetes Is a Metabolic Disorder Accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases Either the pancreas does not make sufficient insulin or body cells are resistant to its effects (insulin resistance). Development of the Disease The overabundance of free fatty acids contributes to insulin resistance. As the progression to type 2 diabetes continues, pancreatic insulin-producing cells become exhausted from overwork and damage occurs.

10 What Is Diabetes?! Type 2 Diabetes Non modifiable risk factors Increased age Certain ethnicities (Native Americans and African Americans) Genetic factors

11 What Is Diabetes?! Type 2 Diabetes Modifiable risk factors Body weight Eating habits Drinking habits

12 What Is Diabetes?! Gestational Diabetes Develops during Pregnancy A state of high blood glucose during pregnancy Women with gestational diabetes have a significantly increased risk of progressing to type 2 diabetes 5 to 10 years after giving birth. Increased risk of birth-related complications, damage to the fetus, and possible fetal death

13 What Is Diabetes?! Pre-Diabetes Can Lead to Type 2 Diabetes A condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes Range is Over 126 FBS= Diabetes WEIGHT is the key If pre-diabetes is not managed...

14

15 What Is Diabetes and What Causes It?! Pre-Diabetes Plays a Role in Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome (MetS) Cluster of six conditions linked to overweight and obesity Pre-diabetes and central adiposity appear to be the dominant factors for development of MetS. A person with MetS is 5 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than a person without the syndrome. Abdominal girth waist measurement Men > 40 inches Women > 35 inches Triglycerides > 150 HDL s under 40 in men and 50 in women High blood pressure 130/85 or greater FBS > 100 High level C-reactive protein

16 Metabolic syndrome

17 What Are the Symptoms of Diabetes? Thirst Excessive urination Weight loss Fatigue! Nerve damage numbness and tingling hands & feet Blurred vision Poor wound healing Increased infections

18

19 What Are the Symptoms of Diabetes?! Diabetes Has Severe Complications Diabetic ketoacidosis coma Cardiovascular disease high BP Kidney disease kidney failure Amputations 60% of all amputations Eye disease and blindness Flu and pneumonia-related deaths Tooth and gum disease

20 Complications of Uncontrolled Diabetes Include Amputation and Eye Disease

21 ! Ulcers

22 What Are the Symptoms of Diabetes?! Blood Tests Are Used to Diagnose and Monitor Diabetes Fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) Hemoglobin A1C test

23 How Is Diabetes Treated?! Lifestyle Changes Can Improve Glucose Levels Weight Loss Recommended goal is to lose 5 to 10 percent of current weight Adopting a Healthy Diet Whole grains Coffee Fatty fish Healthy carbohydrates Increasing Physical Fitness The Diabetes Prevention Program recommends 30 minutes of physical activity 5 days a week Body fat percent

24 How Is Diabetes Treated?! Oral Medications and Weight Loss Surgery Can Help Medications can Reduce glucose production by the liver Slow the absorption of carbohydrates from the small intestine Increase insulin production by the pancreas Increase the insulin sensitivity of cells People who have undergone gastric bypass surgery appear to have high rates of cure.

25 How Is Diabetes Treated?! Insulin Injections May Be Necessary! Type 1 diabetes-injections are a must! Type 2: Injections for people with type 2 diabetes whose blood glucose levels cannot be adequately controlled with other treatment options Insulin cannot be taken in pill Some people use an insulin infusion pump.

26 How Is Diabetes Treated?! Diabetes Care Can Be Expensive On average, health care costs for diabetics are $15,000 to $25,000 higher per year than for healthy patients. The direct and indirect costs of treating diabetes in the United States total $174 billion per year. The costs related to undiagnosed diabetes are unknown.

27 What Can You Do to Prevent Pre-Diabetes? Consider your risk factors. Family history, overweight, Latina Diabetes screening-fasting blood sugar Maintain a healthy weight Exercise 30 minutes 5 times a week. Consume a low fat, low sodium, high fiber diet, no sugar diet

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