IGCSE Revision Tutorial

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1 IGCSE Revision Tutorial This session focuses on the Depth Study (Germany ) The Learning Aims include understanding: The early beliefs of the Nazi Party. Weimar Germany in the key years of 1923 and How Hitler became Chancellor. How the Nazis controlled Germany. How the Nazis won support. Was Nazi Germany a totalitarian society? Nazi Image

2 Key dates in the early Nazi Party 1919: Adolf Hitler joins the German Workers Party (led by Anton Drexler). Drexler places Hitler in charge of propaganda and political ideas. 1920: Party renames itself the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis) and releases 25 Point Plan

3 How many of the Nazi policies and beliefs from 1920 can you name? List them below:

4 Highlights from the 25 Point Programme (1920) Union of all Germans into a greater Germany Annul (cancel) the Treaty of Versailles Demand more land Jews have no right of citizenship Large industries must share their profits Improve old age pensions Property can be confiscated without compensation if it is for the good of the nation Freedom of religion as long as it does not endanger the position of the state. Jewish religion is opposed. All immigration of non-germans to stop immediately. Strong central government

5 Source Work Practice The programme of the National Socialist German Worker s Party is unchangeable Speech by Adolf Hitler, 24 February 1920 In the late 1920s Hitler amended the policy to only allow for confiscation of property owned by Jews British text book, Does the second source mean Hitler was lying in the quote?

6 Factors to consider in your answer: Provenance: The purpose, intended audience and time of each source. Source B shows us that HINT: Are the disagreements between the sources ONLY due to lying or is there a more to it than simple deception?

7 Answer in bullet points below.

8 Lying? Disagreement over the unchanging nature of Nazi Policy. Source B shows us that policy did change. Source A says that it was unchangeable. Hitler was trying to show Nazis as uncompromising to gain support. Also changed policy to gain support. Shows Hitler was prepared to change policy. More than simple lying if policy had been popular he would not have changed it!

9 : Key events in Nazi History Hitler placed in charge of propaganda and ideas by Anton Drexler. Nazi programme released. Party name changed. SA formed (1921) Why would it take 12 years for Hitler to became the German Chancellor?

10 The Munich Putsch (1923) Hitler felt that violence was the only way to gain power. In 1923 he led the Munich Putsch, an attempt to overthrow the government of Bavaria and then overthrow the Weimar government.

11 Why did Hitler decide 1923 was the right time?

12 1923: A good year for a Putsch because: 1. Weimar government (Stresemann) had called off passive resistance to the French occupation in the Ruhr. This was resented by many Germans. 2. Weimar government distracted by Ruhr/Hyperinflation crisis. 3. Hitler had 3000 SA members who were looking for action! 4. He also had the support of Ludendorff a war hero from World War One! WEIMAR WEAK + NAZIS STRONG = PUTSCH-TIME!

13 What happened in Munich? Hitler and 600 SA (Stormtroopers) took over Bavarian Government buildings. Hitler chose Bavaria because the region had a lot of right-wing groups angry at the Weimar government. But the army turned on the Nazis. Hitler escaped in a car

14 How far was the Putsch successful? Success because Failure because

15 1923: A turning point for the Nazis Failure: The Putsch failed 16 Nazis were killed Hitler and other leading Nazis were arrested and tried for treason. The Nazi Party was banned. Success: Hitler used the publicity surrounding his trial to draw attention to the Nazi Party. Newspapers reported every word of the trial. The trial proved that Weimar judges favoured the Right wing: Ludendorff was freed and Hitler was only sentenced to 5 years in prison. The recommended sentence for treason was life. Hitler only served 9 months and used that time to write Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Hitler switched strategies, from the use of violent force to seizing power through the democratic process.

16 The Putsch failed because Weimar Germany had partially recovered and stabilised since How FAR had Germany recovered by 1923/24? A = Reasons for people to feel more confident or secure. B = Reasons for people to resent Weimar or support right-wing parties.

17 How far had Weimar recovered by 1923/1924? End of Extremism? Recovered? Extremists losing popular support: Most working people supported Ebert s Social Democrats (Communists never had more than 15% of votes in elections). Right-wing lacked strong leaders. Kapp Putsch (Berlin, 1921) showed that working people would rise up against the Right to protect the Weimar Government. Neither the Nazis nor the Freikorps had the support of the German people (seen as too extreme and violent) Army did not trust early Nazis (too extreme!!) Still in trouble? Right-Wing still resented Weimar Government Stabbed in the Back myth Many Germans still angry about the Treaty of Versailles!! Reparations amount released in 1921 shocked the German People. Loss of valuable land and colonies had made business more expensive this affected the German economy and caused anger and resentment! Army restrictions still a sore point (wounded pride!)

18 How far had Weimar recovered by 1923/1924? Effective Government? Recovered? When Ebert asked Germans to use passive resistance against the French in the Ruhr people obeyed!! When Stresemann replaced Ebert he took decisive action He called off the passive resistance, burned the old currency and issued the Rentenmark. Each step he took helped to solve the Hyperinflation crisis.. Still in trouble? Middle classes troubled by Hyperinflation. Many Germans blamed it on reparations (they ignored the impact of Ebert s decision to print more money). Weimar Government blamed for the Hyperinflation crisis because it had accepted the TOV in the first place!! (DOH!)

19 Munich,1923 Balance of Power not on the side of the Nazis!!!

20 The Nazi response to failure in Organise. 1923? Target the anxious middle classes, businessmen and farmers. Propaganda, Propaganda, Propaganda!

21 Nazis in the Wilderness: Organise 1924 Brown shirts became the uniform, the Swastika became the symbol of the Nazi Party. Local parties set up throughout Germany. Hitler Youth Groups established Enlarged the SA (100,000 members by 1928). Formed the SS (Elite bodyguard/military) First Nazi rally held in town of Weimar.

22 Hitler hit the ground running when he left prison! What was the purpose of these actions?

23 Target the middle class, business and farmers ( ) Most Germans were workers why not target them? Many workers supported the Social Democratic Party (SPD) of Ebert. The SPD supported Weimar Democracy. Most industrial (factory) workers were doing well in the period. Radical workers were more likely to support communist parties than Right wing parties like the Nazis!

24 Target the middle class, business and farmers ( ) Why appeal to the middle class and businesses aren t they usually LESS likely to support extremists? Middle class people had been shocked to see their savings disappear during the Hyperinflation crisis. They felt vulnerable. Another economic crisis and they might seek more radical solutions (HINT!) Small shop-owners lost customers to large department stores (which were often owned by Jews)

25 Target the middle class, business and farmers ( ) Why would the Nazi Party target farmers? Surely farmers are practical people who were less likely to be impressed by Hitler s hysterics! Farm incomes had dropped. Farmers had increased production during the war to feed soldiers but were now producing too much. Farmers despised the permissive culture in Weimar cities. The permissive sexuality, racial mixing (German girls dancing to Black Jazz music!) and disturbing art shocked and repelled rural Germans. Hitler appealed to rural values and saw the Ideal German as a person who was born of the land

26 On the left is a painting by Adolf Hitler in On the right is a painting by Ernst Kirchner. The Kirchner painting shows prostitutes in Berlin in 1913.

27 Propaganda ( ) 1925: Goebbels put in charge of Nazi Propaganda. What did Goebbels believe were the keys to successful propaganda? Feelings not logic! Slogans not detailed policy! Range of methods not just one or two!

28 How many methods of Nazi Propaganda ( ) can you name? Posters Leaflets Films Radio Broadcasts Records Rallies Photographs Postcards

29 Sourcework Use clever, concise, large and striking posters. In most areas they should regularly use the same colors. In so far as the police allow, the preferred color is the familiar red of the National Socialist posters in Munich. Despite the high cost, effective public posters are by the best and most effective method of announcing a meeting, and therefore the cheapest as well. For examples of poster texts, see the appendix to Book I of "Mein Kampf. Quote from 1927 Guidebook for Nazi Propaganda Writers What does this source tell us about the use of propaganda by the Nazi Party in the 1920s?

30 How did all these activities affect the ballot box? Guess the % of votes cast for the Nazis in each of these years. May % (32 seats in the Reichstag) December % (14 seats in the Reichstag) May % (12 seats in the Reichstag)

31 Enough to make an ambitious leader take a long bath and wait for a miracle to happen!!!

32 What stopped the Nazis gaining popular support in the 1920s?

33 Weimar Germany during the Stresemann Era ( ) Gustav Stresemann was Chancellor for a few months in As Chancellor he: Called off Passive Resistance in the Ruhr Issued the Rentenmark and burned the worthless German Currency ending the Hyperinflation Crisis!

34 Weimar Germany during the Stresemann Era ( ) For most of the 1920s (he died in 1929) Stresemann was the Foreign Minister for Germany. His job was to negotiate treaties and agreements with other countries. He was VERY good at his job A few things helped him succeed: 1. He was smart. Stresemann had studied philosophy and literature at Berlin University and had a PhD in economics. 2. He was from the Right-wing (but moderate) Liberal Party so he appealed to a wide range of parties in the Reichstag. 3. The economies of many European countries were beginning to recover from the war. This made countries less tense and more willing to discuss potentially tricky issues. 4. America was going through an economic boom. France and Britain owed the US money for wartime loans. Some US politicians wanted to make sure that Europe recovered so that France and Britain could pay back the money they owed!

35 Weimar Republic Stresemann!! Economic accomplishments of the 1920s 1924 Dawes Plan 2 Billion dollars of US loans pour into Germany. Factories start opening, unemployment drops, reparations start to get paid and German exports increase. KEY FACT By 1928 German Production had returned to pre-war levels

36 Weimar Republic Stresemann!! Economic accomplishments of the 1920s 1929 Young Plan Allowed Germany to extend the period over which it repaid reparations.

37 Weimar Republic Stresemann!! Political accomplishments of the 1920s Locarno Treaties (1925) Accepted the Western borders of Germany as detailed in the Treaty of Versailles. France and Belgium (the countries that shared these borders) agreed to take any future disagreements to the League of Nations. There would be NO Ruhr occupations in future.

38 Weimar Republic Stresemann!! Political accomplishments of the 1920s Germany joins the League of Nations (1926) Locarno proves that Germany is becoming a good neighbour. Germany is admitted into the League of Nations in 1926.

39 Weimar Republic Stresemann!! Cultural accomplishments of the 1920s The Kaiser had heavily censored art and theatre in Germany. During the Weimar Period Germany celebrated a new openness and went through a dramatic and unprecedented cultural revival. Berlin became a world capital of cinema, theatre, art, and literature. Stars like Marlene Dietrich, film directors like Fritz Lang and playwrights such as Brecht made Germany the centre of avant garde (cutting-edge) culture. People flocked from New York and London to witness the remarkable developments going on inside Germany.

40 Weimar Stresemann Era Of course, not all Germans benefited from or approved of these developments. Weimar Germany had yet to recover fully from the legacy of the war: 1. Resentment caused by the Treaty of Versailles 2. Fragility of the Miracle recovery. 3. Anger about decadent (obscene, indulgent) Weimar culture. 4. Anger about the Selling Out of Germany

41 Weimar Stresemann Era 1) Resentment caused by the Treaty of Versailles: 1. Many Germans still resented the reparations and loss of land. The Dawes and Young Plans made repaying the reparations easier but many felt that Germany should not have been given the bill in the first place! 2. Germans also looked across their borders to land that HAD been theirs and contained people who HAD been their neighbours. This sense of a diminished Germany still caused feelings of anger and resentment. 3. The military limitations imposed by the Treaty still angered many Germans.

42 Weimar Stresemann Era 2) Fragile recovery 1. The miracle recovery was based upon U.S. loans. Some Germans were concerned about the fate of Germany if the flow of U.S. funds were to stop or if the American banks demanded immediate repayment.

43 Weimar Stresemann Era What is the message of this cartoon? The source is a Nazi Party cartoon from The large figure represents Germany. The small figure is a Jewish banker.

44 Weimar Stresemann Era 3) Anger about Weimar Culture Many of the artists in Weimar Germany had served in the army during World War One and had been horrified by their experiences of war. They used their art to criticise military values and political leaders. More dangerously, they blurred lines of race and sexuality. Depictions of homosexuality, the love of black Jazz music and mocking satire were key features of Weimar culture. This was too much, too soon for many Germans who felt that everything they valued in German culture was being attacked by these decadent artists

45

46 Weimar Stresemann Era 4) Weimar Government was betraying ( selling out ) Germany. Nationalists (people who felt that the main goal of politicians should be making Germany strong again) felt betrayed by Locarno and the League of Nations. Why?

47 Germany in October 1929: A tale of two leaders. Stresemann. Successful Foreign Minister, Nobel Peace Prize Winner in Adolf Hitler. Rejected from Art School. Party polling at less than 3%. Good public speaker.

48 October, 1929: The month that October changed everything! Gustav Stresemann dies of a stroke. October 29, 1929 Wall Street Crash triggers Great Depression. Germany s recovery and stability is about to face its greatest challenge yet

49 The Great Depression (1929) It started in America. Wall Street is the street in New York where people can buy shares in companies. The more confident people are about a company the more the shares will rise in value. In 1929 in America people began to realise that too many factories were producing too many products the American market was filling up with products that nobody wanted to buy. People realised that their shares in factories were about to become worthless.

50 The Great Depression (1929) On October 29 people began selling shares to make money before anyone else realised they were buying worthless investments. Problem was everyone was doing the same thing! The value of ALL shares crashed. This was the Wall Street Crash. American factories started closing. Banks realised that all the money they had lent to factories and businesses was likely to be lost. They started to panic. They turned to loans made to other countries and started demanding repayment. Germany had received large sums of money from US banks. These loans had poured into Germany and been used to build up the economy. Now the tide turned the other way. As American banks started demanding their money back German factories had no choice but to shut down and sell out.

51 Unemployment in Germany ( )

52 The impact of the Depression 6 Million unemployed (1.3 before the Depression). Industrial production halved. Banks collapsed wiping out the savings of many German families. People were thrown out their homes and many starved in the streets. Political parties in the Reichstag bickered and refused to cooperate no party seemed to have a clear idea of how to handle the crisis. In 1930 Chancellor Bruning CUT government spending on work and welfare which made even LESS money available to create jobs!

53 Nazi Propaganda Nazi Propaganda used striking images and simple slogans. This poster states Arbeit and Brot Work and Bread

54 How much did support for the Nazis rise during the 1929 Great Depression? Before May % (32 seats in the Reichstag) December % (14 seats in the Reichstag) May % (12 seats in the Reichstag)

55 How much did support for the Nazis rise during the 1929 Great Depression? THE GREAT DEPRESSION THE GREAT DEPRESSION THE GREAT DEPRESSION September % (107 Seats in the Reichstag) July % (270 seats in the Reichstag) November % (196 seats in the Reichstag) March 1933 (Just after the Reichstag fire) 44% (288 seats in the Reichstag)

56 Why would unemployment lead to support for the Nazi Party increasing?

57 From what you know of the period is it fair to say that without the Great Depression the Nazis would never have come to power?

58 Okay one more question. Why were the Nazis able to take advantage of the Great Depression? Were they passive (taking advantage of anger) or active (presenting reasons to be angry)?

59 Competing explanations for the Nazi rise in the polls. It is important to remember that History is rarely a case of A leads to B leads to C leads to Nazis! As each of these causes flashes up rank them from Not helpful to the Nazis 2 Helped a little 3 Helpful but not essential. 4 Very helpful, an important cause of rising Nazi popularity. 5 Without this the Nazis would still have been receiving 2.6% of the vote!

60 Multiple causes for the rise in support: Nazi Strengths Hitler s speeches A powerful, charismatic speaker. Used film, radio and records to spread Nazi message. In 1932 traveled by plane to campaign in Presidential election (first politician to do so!) An exciting, modern leader (yet also a man of the people)

61 Multiple causes for the rise in support: Nazi Strengths Propaganda campaigns Designed by Goebbels Generalised slogans (hard to criticise) Posters and pamphlets were everywhere Bold, striking images

62 Multiple causes for the rise in support: Nazi Strengths Violent treatment of opponents SA (Stormtroopers or Brownshirts) attacked communists, often with the support of police and the army Impressed many Germans with their apparent order and discipline

63 Multiple causes for the rise in support: Criticisms of Weimar Government Criticisms of Weimar Weak coalitions and Thirteen (!) Chancellors ( ) meant that Weimar lacked decisive, effective leadership. Germans had traditionally favoured strong, authoritarian governments. As the Depression impacted on Germany criticisms of Weak Democracy grew louder. Specific Criticisms Chancellor Bruning s spending cuts (1930) caused more unemployment and hardship. Weimar s association with the Treaty of Versailles became in increasing cause of discontent.

64 Multiple causes for the rise in support: Nazi Policies Nazi Policies Twenty five points appealed: large businesses owned by Jews would be nationalized, old age pensions would increase, large industries were to share their profits

65 Multiple causes for the rise in support: Business concerns about communism Support from Big Business As the Depression really impacted upon Germany business became concerned about German workers seeking radical solutions. In particular, Business did not want communists to gain influence in the Reichstag: Nazis were anti-communist

66 Multiple causes for the rise in support: Treaty of Versailles and the memories of 1923 The Treaty of Versailles was still despised by many Germans. Many Germans felt that the treaty was the cause of the 1923 Hyperinflation crisis. The economic recovery of the Stresemann era led to an uneasy acceptance of the Treaty. As Germans faced yet another economic crisis (only 6 years after the last one) old resentments resurfaced. Weimar was forever going to be associated with the Treaty of Versailles (Reparations, Loss of land, War Guilt, Reduction in Military). The Nazi Party were promising to tear up the Treaty of Versailles!!! This poster (from 1938) shows how Hitler has torn up each term of the Treaty of Versailles!

67 Which causes best explain the rise of the Nazi Party? The impact of the Depression Hitler s speeches Propaganda campaigns Violent treatment of opponents Criticisms of Weimar Government Nazi Policies Business concerns about communism

68 Patterns: Crisis and response 1919 Crisis: Treaty of Versailles. Consequence: Political instability 1929 Crisis: Great Depression Consequence: Political instability 1923 Nazi plan to seize power: Munich Putsch Nazi plan to seize power: Turn electoral support into demand for Chancellorship

69 How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933? True or False: The Chancellor was the most powerful person in Germany. True or False: Under the Weimar Constitution the leader of the largest party in the Reichstag automatically became the Chancellor. Both are false. The Weimar Constitution (1919) gave extraordinary powers to the President (including the power to appoint and dismiss the Chancellor). The Chancellor was like a Prime Minister. The President was more like a King. The President had the power under Article 48 of the Constitution to shut down the Reichstag and Rule by Decree (which means What I say is the law, IS the law!

70 Why was the fact that Hindenburg was the German President in 1933 a problem for Hitler s ambitions to become Chancellor? HINT: There were two main reasons why Hitler would have had sleepless nights because of President Hindenburg Hindenburg was a genuine war hero who been Germany s military leader during World War One. He shared the army s suspicion of Hitler. In fact, he disliked Hitler intensely. 2. Hitler had challenged Hindenburg for the position of President in Hitler lost by 19 million votes to 13 million. This meant that Hindenburg would be President until 1940 (a seven year term). Even in 1933 there were signs that the worst of the Depression was over. Hitler knew that if he had to wait until a change of President to become Chancellor the chances are the Nazi Party would no longer be around!

71 Why did Hindenburg appoint Hitler to the position of Chancellor in 1933? It is history, so there has to be more than one reason 1. Business Pressure Leading industrialists and businesses put pressure on Hindenburg to appoint the staunch anti-communist Hitler to the position of Chancellor. 2. Restore Credibility of the Reichstag. Hindenburg had already had to use Article 48 to pass the unpopular spending cuts proposed by Bruning. Only the Nazi Party had the electoral support to be effective in the Reichstag.

72 Why did Hindenburg appoint Hitler to the position of Chancellor in 1933? It is history, so there has to be more than one reason 3. Trouble in the streets The SA were causing unrest. Battles between communists and Nazis convinced many Germans that strong leadership was needed to restore order. 4. Scheming of Von Papen and Hindenburg. Hindenburg was still concerned about giving too much power to Hitler. Franz Von Papen was a former Chancellor and close friend of Hindenburg. He came up with the plan of making Hitler Chancellor but appointing Conservatives loyal to Von Papen in key positions in the Reichstag Cabinet (the most important ministers)

73 With Von Papen as Vice Chancellor and Conservatives in Cabinet they could surround and control Hitler!

74 Message? A British Cartoon from 1933 The Temporary Triangle

75 From Chancellor to Fuhrer Hitler was appointed Chancellor on January 30, There are four steps he needed to go from the insecure position of Chancellor ~ remember there were 13 from 1919 to 1933! ~to being the Fuhrer (Supreme Leader) of Germany. Steps to Power 1. Reichstag Fire 2. Enabling Act 3. Night of the Long Knives 4. Death of Hindenburg

76 Reichstag Fire Reichstag Fire - 27 Feb 1933 The Reichstag (the German Parliament) burned down. A Dutch Communist named van der Lubbe was caught red-handed with matches and fire-lighting materials. Hitler used it as an excuse to arrest many of his Communist opponents, and as a major platform in his election campaign of March The fire was so convenient that many people at the time claimed that the Nazis had burned it down, and then just blamed the Communists. Modern historians, however, tend to believe that van der Lubbe did cause the fire, and that Hitler just took advantage of it.

77 General Election - 5 March 1933 General Election - 5 March 1933 Hitler held a general election, appealing to the German people to give him a clear mandate. Only 44% of the people voted Nazi, which did not give him a majority in the Reichstag, so Hitler arrested the 81 Communist deputies (which did give him a majority). Goering become Speaker of the Reichstag.

78 Enabling Act - 23 March 1933 Enabling Act - 23 March 1933 The Reichstag voted to give Hitler the power to make his own laws. Nazi stormtroopers stopped opposition deputies going in, and beat up anyone who dared to speak against it. The Enabling Act made Hitler the dictator of Germany, with power to do anything he liked - legally. Hitler Used His New Powers To: Ban Nazi opponents and Jews from government jobs and positions in courts or education. Ban Trade Unions Order the start of major public works (roads etc). Take over local governments. Turn Germany into a one-party state (there were no more elections in Germany until the Nazis were defeated in World War Two).

79 Night of the Long Knives Night of the Long Knives - 30 June 1934 The SA were the thugs who Hitler had used to help him come to power. They had defended his meetings, and attacked opponents. By 1934 there were more than a million of them. Historians have often wondered why Hitler turned on the SA. But Hitler was in power in 1934, and there was no opposition left - the SA were an embarrassment, not an advantage. Also, Rohm, the leader of the SA, was talking about a Socialist revolution and about taking over the army. This was troubling business leaders (who had supported Hitler) and the army (who Hitler needed if his plans for Lebensraum etc were to be achieved). On the night of 30 June 1934 Hitler ordered the SS to kill more than 400 SA men.

80 What is David Low s message?

81 Death of Hindenburg Führer - 19 August 1934 When Hindenburg died, Hitler took over the office of President and leader of the army (the soldiers had to swear to die for Adolf Hitler personally). Hitler called himself 'Fuhrer'.

82 Four steps: Four obstacles removed Reichstag Fire Enabling Act Night of the Long Knives Hindenburg s Death Use power of state (radio, posters, newspapers) to spread anti-communist propaganda. Call for a clear mandate to deal with communist threat to Germany!! Outcome: Voter support goes from 33% to 44% (52% with support of Nationalist Party) Hitler uses threats and intimidation (including banning and arresting Communist Party members) to pass the Act (Law) Outcome: Hitler has the power to rule by decree a Dictator! Hitler removes the threat posed by Rohm (who was complicating relationships with business and the army). SA brought under control. Outcome: Opponents removed (including some politicians), Hitler s ruthlessness is revealed (sends message to opponents), the army is impressed by Hitler s decisiveness, the fiercely loyal SS replace the less reliable SA. The death of Hindenburg removes the only rival for influence in Germany at the time. Outcomes: Hitler declares himself the Fuhrer. Army swears a personal oath of loyalty to Hitler.

83 Rank these events in order from MOST to LEAST significant Reichstag Fire Enabling Act Night of the Long Knives Hindenburg s Death Be prepared to EXPLAIN your choices!

84 August 1934: The Fuhrer (Leader) Mein Kampf (1923) had stated three clear aims: 1. Tear up the Treaty of Versailles 2. Lebensraum (expand Germany) 3. Defeat Communism

85 The Nazis also wanted to create a completely new society

86 The Nazis also wanted to create a completely new society Opposition = Democracy Freedom of expression= Democracy Total State Control = Fascism

87 Fascism Fascism = Belief (ideology) that the individual exists to serve the interests of the state (government) Key Beliefs in Nazi Fascist Ideology Nationalism All people must be loyal to Germany. Racism Aryans are superior Jews, Gypsies and Slavs are inferior Militarism Germany must be a strong military to secure Lebensraum Loyalty Loyalty to the Fuhrer is most important.

88 The Nazis had a total vision GOALS 1. Tear up the Treaty of Versailles 2. Lebensraum for Germany 3. Defeat communism And. 4. Purify Germany of inferior races VALUES 1. Nationalism 2. Militarism 3. Racism 4. Fierce Loyalty to the Fuhrer METHODS Win support/loyalty Benefits Propaganda Education Control Opposition Ban Political Parties Concentration Camps Gestapo

89 What is a state which has total control of every aspect of life called? Totalitarian States have. 1. Official Ideology ( Mein Kampf ) 2. One Party (since the Enabling Act) 3. Police Control based on terror. German police carried out Nazi Policy even if it was illegal (e.g. Kristallnacht) 4. Total Control of Media. Goebbels was Minister of Enlightenment and Propaganda. 5. Total Control of Military. Hitler made the army swear a personal oath of loyalty. 6. Control of the economy. The Nazis banned unions and directed resources to wartime efforts.

90 Did the Nazis create a perfect totalitarian state? Not TOTALLY 1. Foreign journalists still operated until Nazis did not control all media in Germany. Criticism from inside Germany could still be heard. 2. Sensitive to foreign criticism. Hitler reacted to strong criticism from overseas. Some Nazi leaders wanted to take stronger action against churches but Hitler restrained them. He was concerned about the reaction of foreigners.

91 Did the Nazis create a perfect totalitarian state? Not TOTALLY 3. Sensitive to internal criticism. The Nazis bowed to pressure from within Germany. When Germans found out about the mentally ill being sent to concentration camps they were horrified. The Nazi government changed this policy. 4. Hitler was an ineffective leader. Hitler was lazy and paid little attention to detail. He relied upon the ambitions and loyalty of deputies. This resulted in senior Nazis becoming involved an inefficient struggle for the Fuhrer s approval. This meant that senior Nazis often saw each other as rivals rather than allies weakening and dividing the government.

92 Did the Nazis create a perfect totalitarian state? Not TOTALLY 5. Opposition remained In spite of their best efforts not all Germans accepted and adopted Nazi goals, values and methods. Private Opposition Thoughts of women who resented the loss of freedoms they enjoyed during Weimar. Resentment of workers who resented the poor working conditions and loss of union representation. Public Opposition Youth voted with their feet. In 1939 the Hitler Youth had to be made compulsory because most young Germans showed little interest in the military exercises and obsession with discipline. Some groups Edelweiss Pirates and Swing Movement rejected Nazi values altogether. The Swing Bandits listened to black music (jazz!) and the Edelweiss Pirates stole guns and killed the Gestapo chief! Violent Opposition The JULY BOMB PLOT. As the war went from bad to worse a group of army officers turned against Hitler. Colonel von Stauffenberg left a briefcase bomb Hitler s conference room. Hitler was wounded but not killed. He rounded up 5000 conspirators and executed them.

93 Of course, in 1933 the Nazis had more immediate concerns than how historians would judge their efforts over the next 12 years!

94 If Hitler was to secure power there were three things to consider carefully 1. Germany was still dealing with the Depression. Issue: Economic Recovery 2. German history in recent years had been one of unrest, turmoil and violence. Potential opponents needed to be dealt with. Issue: Control 3. Only 44% of Germans had voted for the Nazi Party in the last election. Loyalty to the Fuhrer would need to be actively encouraged. Issue: Support

95 Economic Recovery Strengthening the German economy was critical for two reasons: 1. The Nazis had come to power promising to end mass unemployment 2. Any expansion of German territory would require a massive increase in factory production of arms, vehicles etc.

96 What did the Nazis do to aid economic recovery? 1. The National Labour Service sent men to build major new road and rail networks (the famous autobahn motorway networks were built at this time). 2. Banned Trade Unions and replaced them with the Nazi-associated German Labour Front. This meant that workers could not go on strike for better conditions or pay. This allowed the Nazis to control the workforce without fear of organised opposition.

97 What did the Nazis do to aid economic recovery? Rearmament and Conscription. Conscription was introduced in 1935 (reducing unemployment AND expanding the army) Hitler announced a FOUR YEAR PLAN in 1936 to get the German economy ready for war. Coal mines, steel mills, engineering companies were all needed to build the weapons of war.

98 Was the Nazi economic policy successful? Yes 5.5 Million Germans were unemployed in By 1939 there was a labour shortage (not enough workers!) Important roads and rail networks were built. National Pride was restored. No Unemployment was falling before Hitler became Chancellor so the Nazis cannot take all the credit. Wages remained low during the 1930s and many workers complained that they were better off in the 1920s.

99 Nazi Germany: Control Control is all about limiting the power of opponents. 56% of Germans had voted for other parties in the March 1933 election. This was in spite of Hitler having huge advantages going into the election: Appointed Chancellor in January Reichstag Fire in February Able to use State media to spread fear of communist terrorists in the March election.

100 Nazi Germany: Control Concerns about political opponents Enabling Act bans other parties Concerns about the SA being out of control Concerns about criticism inside Germany and troublemakers like socialists, communists, trade unionists and church members Concerns about general criticism or disloyalty Concerns about opposition in general Night of the Long Knives Concentration Camps established from 1933 Gestapo (Secret Police) and their network of informers SS (Nazi fanatics loyal to Hitler). Their job run Concentration Camps and destroy opposition Police and Courts. Only judges loyal to Hitler were appointed. Police carried out Nazi policy Propaganda: To ensure that Germans accepted Nazi values and beliefs

101 Yes Was the policy of control successful? Political opposition largely destroyed. The Gestapo were greatly feared and many Germans were willing to act as informers. 3 million Germans were held in prison or camps because of their political beliefs or resistance. Opposition among Jewish groups, communists and other unpopular groups was effectively controlled. There was no organised attempt to overthrow the Nazis or mass protests.

102 Was the policy of control successful? No Resistance continued in spite of Nazi methods. In church leaders were arrested because of their opposition to Nazi interference in the Protestant Church. The Nazis were unable to turn the full power of the state against some groups (particularly youth and some churches). They were concerned about how the German people would react if their kind (instead of communists, Jews, unionists) were targeted. As World War Two turned against the Nazis they began to lose control. People refused to do the Heil Hitler salute and hoarded food. Jokes about Hitler (illegal since 1933) became popular. There were assassination attempts (July Bomb Plot)

103 So what can we conclude? Nazi control methods worked well against unpopular sections of the population or against formal, organised opponents (such as political parties) However, it failed to end resistance completely and groups which had status or were important to German people (churches and their youth) still continued to resist the Nazis. In these cases the Nazis were reluctant to use the methods that had proven so effective against undesirable groups. As the war progressed active opposition grew more widespread.

104 Control is not enough. Propaganda is a means to an end. Its purpose is to lead the people to an understanding that will allow it to willingly and without internal resistance devote itself to the tasks and goals of a superior leadership. Who would have said this?

105 What does it mean? Propaganda is a means to an end. Its purpose is to lead the people to an understanding that will allow it to willingly and without internal resistance devote itself to the tasks and goals of a superior leadership. What does this quote tell us about the limits of controlling opposition?

106 What do YOU know about Goebbels? What position was he given in 1933? Minister of Enlightenment and Propaganda. How many people worked in his Ministry by 1937? 14,000 What did his Ministry control? All media Newspapers (1600 were closed by 1934) All art exhibitions (Nazi approval was needed) The music you could hear (Jazz was banned)

107 So what is the purpose of Propaganda?

108 More effective than

109 So what is the purpose of Propaganda? To make the beliefs and values of every German citizen the same as the values of the Nazi Party. To guarantee fierce loyalty to Hitler.

110 The Nazi Values What were they? Nationalism Germany is a great country, destined to be greater. Militarism Germany will expand through military strength and the use of force. Racism Ethnic Germans are superior to inferior races such as Jews, Gypsies and Slavs. Loyalty Hitler is the Fuhrer. A good German is a fierce follower of Hitler.

111 Describe method and message Rallies Method: What was done? Nuremburg Rallies were held annually. Massed numbers of Nazis gathered in stadium. Orderly rows. Giant flags. Searchlights. Hitler and other Nazis spoke. Message: How would this sell the Nazi message? Emphasised order (important following the chaos of the Great Depression). Great Spectacles (a source of Pride). Large scale (sense of belonging) Hitler s speech was the highlight (loyalty)

112

113 Describe method and message 1936 Berlin Olympics Method: What was done? Built a new stadium to hold 100,000 people Lit by modern electric lighting. First use of television cameras at Olympics. Stadium had largest clock ever built. Stadium full of giant Swastika flags. Germans used Nazi salute. Army and SS used to patrol streets and enforced order. Message: How would this sell the Nazi message? Germany is efficient, modern and wealthy. The German people support the Nazis. Germany is an orderly society. Germany put on its best face for international media (Anti-Jewish posters were taken down)

114

115 Describe method and message Books and art Method: What was done? The Ministry of Enlightenment and Propaganda banned many authors (including Rosa Luxemburg the assassinated Spartacist leader) Book burnings. Mein Kampf was promoted everywhere. All Jewish artists were banned. Any art that did not support German (Nazi) values was banned. Exhibitions of degenerate art were used to shock the German people with graphic and offensive art. Message: How would this sell the Nazi message? Nazis used painting of simple, rural scenes to emphasise traditional values of Blood and Soil Blood and Soil paintings emphasised the German people s connection to the land (it is ours! lets get some more!) Sculptures emphasised physical ideals (useful for soldiers!) Criticisms of war or depictions of the horrors of war were banned.

116

117 Describe method and message Newspapers Method: What was done? Newspapers supported the Nazi message or they were closed down. Message: How would this sell the Nazi message? No news is good news. Germans could not rely upon newspapers to present alternative points of view.

118 Nazi newspaper showing Europe being menaced by an evil Jewish figure

119 Describe method and message Cinema and radio Method: What was done? Nazis used newsreels to show Nazi successes (more jobs!) Nazi films emphasised the glory of Hitler and Nazi achievements. Foreign films were censored. Cheap radios were made available so Germans could hear Hitler s speeches. You could be executed if you listened to foreign broadcasts (no BBC!). Message: How would this sell the Nazi message? Even German leisure activities spread Nazi values. It was risky to seek out foreign points of view.

120

121 Describe method and message Posters Method: What was done? Simple, bold images emphasising Nazi strength or the ugliness of opponents (Jews!). Simple slogans. Posters were EVERYWHERE. Message: How would this sell the Nazi message? Posters emphasised Nazi achievements (especially economic more jobs!) They made Hitler into a semi-religions leader (loyalty!). Emphasised racial purity. Emphasised the injustices done to Germany (disarmament, the Treaty of Versailles)

122

123 Describe method and message Festivals Method: What was done? New festivals and national holidays were created Hitler s Birthday on April 20 Day he became Chancellor (Jan 30) Festivals such as Christmas were celebrated as days of German unity and emphasised Peace through Strength. Message: How would this sell the Nazi message? Nationalism Encouraged a strong sense of community through shared holidays and experiences. Loyalty Festivals emphasised significant days in the life and career of Hitler.

124 All nature is a gigantic struggle between strength and weakness, an eternal victory of the strong over the weak (Merry Christmas from Adolf Hitler!)

125 Which of these methods was the most important? Rallies The Berlin Olympics Literature and Art Newspapers Cinema and Radio Posters Festivals Pick the one you think is mot important and write a sentence explaining your conclusion. Pick the one you think was the LEAST important method of gaining support and explain why.

126 What were the other methods used to win support? Providing Benefits Providing incentives to adopt Nazi values Education Making sure that youth adopted Nazi values.

127 The Nazis targeted three main groups. Which groups did they need to target to spread their values Into the home.? Women Into the workplace? Workers Into the future.? Youth

128 Winning support of women and families Methods Generous welfare payments for mothers. Aryan women were given a Marriage Loan so they could afford to stay home. For each child they had 25% of the loan was paid off. Medals were given to mothers (8 children = a Gold medal) Message/Purpose Militarism. Germany s birth rate had been declining. Hitler needed more children for his armies. Hitler needed more Germans to populate the lands conquered when Germany gained Lebensraum

129 Controlling women and families Methods Married women doctors and civil servants lost their jobs in Childless couples had to pay more tax. Employers were discouraged from hiring women. Access to university education was restricted for women. Aryans were discouraged from using contraception. Message/Purpose Kinder, Kirche, Kuche Children Church Kitchen. The Nazis believed the woman s place was in the home, raising children. They violently rejected the idea of women working, smoking and wearing men s clothes as a Jewish and Communist idea to undermine Germany!

130

131 How successful was the Nazi Policy on Women? Successful The Birth Rate did increase slightly (15 babies per thousand adults in per thousand by 1939) Not successful Many women resented the loss of freedoms they had gained during 1920s. When the Nazis needed workers during World War Two they had to abandon their policies and ask women to work!

132 Winning support of workers Methods Public works programmes lowered unemployment. Propaganda praised the role played by German workers. The Strength through Joy scheme rewarded workers with cinema tickets, courses and sporting events. The Beauty of Labour scheme improved working conditions by installing lowcost cafeterias and better washrooms Message/Purpose Nationalism A strong Germany needed a strong economy. Militarism The armed forces needed a loyal workforce to produce all the weapons needed to secure Lebensraum

133

134 How successful was the Nazi Policy on Workers? Successful Ending unemployment by rearming and building the autobahn and large public buildings (1936 Berlin Olympics Stadium) was very popular! Not successful Workers lost their political party (The Social Democrats) and their right to form Trade Unions. This was resented by many. In 1933 all workers had to join the German Labour Front. This organisation abolished the right to strike for better conditions Wages remained low (which helped keep business costs down). Many workers complained by the late 1930s that they were better off under Stresemann.

135 What about farmers and Farmers and Big Business had been loyal supporters of the Nazi Party were they happier than the industrial (factory workers)? business?

136 Farmers Reasons to support Nazis From 1933 the Nazi regime organised boards to buy all the food produced by farmers. This guaranteed them a market and an income. Peasant Farms were protected by law. Banks could not seize them even if the farmers failed to pay their mortgage. This secured farm ownership for peasant farmers. Reasons to be critical Farmers had to sell their food to the boards. Enterprising farmers could not market their own produce directly to the customer. Banks became less willing to lend money to farmers. Under Nazi law the eldest child inherited farms. This was meant to keep people on the land and stop it being divided among too many people. It also meant that many younger children left to find work in the cities.

137 Big Business Reasons to support Nazis Large contracts for construction work. Large contracts for rearmaments. No Trade Unions Workers lost right to strike. Workers could not leave if you were an essential industry Reasons to be critical If you disliked making money this was a horrible time to own a large business. Businesses which did succeed included Mercedes Benz, Volkswagen and Hugo Boss (SS Uniforms)

138 Business, Farmers, Workers Who benefited the most? Who benefited the least?

139 Winning support of youth Methods Nazi education policy emphasised the racial superiority of Aryans (The Curriculum included race studies which presented scientific evidence of Jewish inferiority) All subjects emphasised military service (chemistry dealt with chemical weapons) History emphasised German Heroes of the past. The Hitler Youth provided physical exercise, military training, the opportunity to receive a political education, songs celebrating Nazi values and German Pride. Nazi inspectors checked up on teachers. Nursery rhymes were rewritten to spread Nazi values (especially about Jewish monsters ) Message/Purpose Nationalism Education and Youth movements emphasised German pride and History. Community! Many German youth joined the Hitler Youth because it was exciting. Militarism Education texts used military imagery in all subjects. Hitler Youth had military training, marches, songs and physical training. Racism According to Nazi education you were special just by being Aryan. Loyalty to the Fuhrer Hitler was portrayed as the Father of all Germans. Teachers who were critical were dismissed (or worse!).

140

141 How successful was the Nazi Policy on Youth? Successful Some children did volunteer to join the Hitler Youth in its early years (50% of boys in 1933, 15% of girls) Not successful The Nazis had banned all other youth groups in 1933 so these figures were not really that impressive. As the Nazis were expanding German territory in the late 1930s the Hitler Youth became more disciplined. Many youth disliked the new leaders. The new leaders were strict and uncompromising (no contact outside the Hitler Youth!). In 1939 Membership was made compulsory (this tells us what?) Groups of youth such as the Swing movement and the Edelweiss Pirates resisted the Nazis In 1942 the Gestapo broke up 28 groups of Youth who were causing problems for authorities. The Nazis hung 12 Edelweiss Pirate ringleaders in 1944.

142 What does this tell us? Even the might of the Nazi State found teenagers difficult to control! Also, persecuting the youth of Germany was likely to be an unpopular move!

143 To summarise The Nazis attempted to create a Totalitarian state but were only partially successful. They had limited success when it came to controlling opposition (and their success lessened as setbacks in World War Two from 1943 and the Allied bombing campaign began to impact on support!) They used a range of methods to gain support. Support was based upon Germans adopting Nazi values with complete conviction. Three groups were particularly important (women, workers, youth). These groups controlled home, workplace, future. They had limited success in their attempts to gain 100% support. Many groups resisted or resented the Nazis privately. Some groups publicly opposed the Nazis.

144 How can we explain the Holocaust? To put it another way: Why did the Nazis persecute minorities?

145 True or False? The Nazis invented Anti-Semitism (persecution of the Jews). False: Jews had been persecuted throughout European history. WHY? Association with the death of Jesus Christ. Perception that they were controlled banking (this was false)

146 True or False? The Nazis only persecuted non-aryans. False: 72,000 people were executed because they had mental illnesses. Many of these were Germans.

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