Cryptographic Support in a Gigabit Network

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1 Cyptgphi Suppt i Gigbit Ntwk Jth M Smith C Bd S Tw Dvid J Fb Distibutd Systms Lbty, Uivsity f Psylvi 200 Suth 33d St, Phildlphi, PA ABSTRACT My pplitis visid f ult-high-spd twks qui yptgphi tsfmtis f dt i tsit Suity hs ft b ftthught, d yptgphi suppt hs glly t kpt p with pfm iss i th twk mpts Tw distit xpimtl pttyps f high-spd DES bds w built t udstd hittul issus i pvidig yptgphi suppt f th AURORA gigbit tstbd Cmbiig yptgphi suppt with th hsttwk itf is iditd 1 Itduti Ntwk usg d pbilitis bth isig t tifi ts Th tffi ld th NSFt bkbs i th Uitd Stts dubls vy fw mths; muh f this is du t th isd tivity pvidd by itti with th twks, lg umbs f psl wksttis td t LANs, d lg umbs f mputs td vi 9600 bit p sd (bps) dil-is Muh f this tffi is tditil Itt tffi, g, lti mil, tws, d fil tsf, lthugh sigifit ptg f tffi is du t mt tmil sssis vi lgi d tlt Ntwk pbilitis isig i umb f wys Mst imptt f ths is bdwidth, s bdwidth b spt t hiv vity f th qulity-f-svi (QOS) gls I th vy futu, twk thlgis with bdwidths 1 Gbps will b dplyd i svl s f th Uitd Stts [1] Rsh it ssitd thlgis hs b udwy f svl ys 11 Applitis f Gigbit Ntwks Amg th pplitis visid f suh twks ittiv tlfig, dvd multimdi systms [15] with suppt f ssy dt suh s ttil dt, d dvd displys with xtmly high-qulity imgig pbilitis My f ths pplitis wuld t b pssibl withut lg vilbl bdwidths; whil vid stms d imgs b mpssd, mpssi is ly pptil t th udlyig bit t, whih b mus Ths pplitis xtmly tttiv, s thy mv us twds wld wh mt mdil digsis d bti miig pssibl, d wld wh jt lg my bm lss f issu! My m pplitis b imgid, d w xpt tht my my bm mmilizd 12 SuityPivy My ppsd pplitis, hwv, will t b fsibl withut sigifit ttti pid t th issu f suity Th d f suity, pvsly, is bst illusttd by xmpls f wht uld hpp if it is lkig: Mdil imgs tsmittd thugh swithd twk, d p dmiistti f utig pit llws th imgs t b pusd Lug is ppt ptiul st f imgs; this dt is ptd t isu mpy f ymus buty, d isu is fusd f th imgd idividul A Tlbti mmd stm is ltd t itdu subtl dfts it mptit s pduts, g, utmbil tsmissis VLSI

2 - 2 - msks Mitig f wth pditi visuliztis llws fig gi tds t buy US gi futus t pi whih huts US mkts ft th is iv Tditilly, suity shms lid ith dmiisttiv ms (g, systms with xtmly stitd ss, ful mitig d udits, t) yptgphi suppt, sm mbiti f thiqus 13 Cyptgphy Si twks, by thi tu, qui distibutd tl, yptgphi ms hv smwht m utility th slly dmiisttiv ms t hiv suity A dtild suvy f yptgphi thiqus is byd th sp f this pp, but itduti is vilbl i svl bks; Dig s bk [9] is quit ssibl Th mj xs f hi : hi f ypti lgithm, hdw sftw implmtti, d plmt i twkig hittu Of th mthds vilbl whih hv withstd sigifit yptgphi ttk, th Dt Eypti Stdd [16] (DES) d th Rivst- Shmi-Adlm [17] (RSA) shms sm mst tttiv Whil th us f publi-ky thlgy hlds my sdutis, th p pfm f RSA implmttis mj pblm A t suvy f hdw implmttis f th RSA lgithm[bikll89] idits tht th fstst vilbl implmttis fst th 1 Mbps; i ft, th fstst implmtti ptd by Bikll ptd t but 50 Kbps Sigifitly fst implmttis f th pivt-ky DES lgithm vilbl i hdw [10, 13, 20] d hittul thiqus f futh impvig its pfm hv b ptd [4] Th mid f this pp disusss th Au Gigbit Tstbd [6] d sh it th issu f pppit yptgphi suppt 2 Th AURORA Gigbit Tstbd AURORA [6] is xpimtl wid twk tstbd whs mi bjtiv is th xplti d vluti f twk thlgis Th Gbps twk will lik fu sits: Bll s Mistw Rsh d Egiig Lbty i Mistw, NJ IBM Rsh s Cmput Si Lbty i Hwth, NY MIT s Lbty f Cmput Si i Cmbidg, MA Uivsity f Psylvi s Distibutd Systms Lbty i Phildlphi, PA Th lgil tplgy f AURORA is illusttd i Figu 1 Vid Vid Vid Vid Wkst Wkst Wkst Wkst MIT (MA) IBM (NY) Bll (NJ) P (PA) OC-12 Ctl Offi Ctl Offi Ctl Offi Ctl Offi Figu 1: AURORA Lgil Tplgy Eh f th th lis fm sits t tl ffis i Figu 1 psts lgil OC-12 Th pit f this figuti is t fist build idpdt plnet (plnet is th fllw- t PARIS [5] ) d Sushi [11] twks Ths idpdt twks will b ittd i d t udstd itpbility f th thlgis Ou hst itf [21] is itdd f th Sushi-ATM lgil tplgy Th xt th stis dsib th dsigs f high-pfm yptgphi subsystms Th fist tw hv b implmtd d th thid will b implmtd s 3 Explitti f Plllism i Custm DES Dsig Th Dt Eypti Stdd (DES) is th mst widly usd publily vilbl st-ky lgithm Si its itduti [16], DES implmttis hv impvd i hivig high ypti ts Cmput dt mmuitis ts hv ls isd, d tdy s high-pfm mput twks [1] futh is th ypti bdwidth dd t vid pfm bttlks i systms quiig suity Thus, hittul

3 - 3 - ms t is DES thughput w studid, with th itt f pduig DES implmtti t stisfy ths bdwidth dmds Th ky id ws t us th physil plllism pssibl i hdw lizti t impv pfm withut stig t xti thlgis Wh suh plllism b xplitd hply usig hittul ivtis, th xplty sh wuld pdu usful tift Th yptgphi subsystm ws lyzd s sis f lvls, gig fm th bsi mbitil lgi f sigl t th us f vlppd pti f th hst pss d th yptgphi subsystm Th DES is implmtd s sixt uds f ky-ditd iphmt; h ud implmts pmuttis d substitutis th bit iput usig th bits f ky f slti f th ptiul tsfmti Th bits f utput f ud fd bk s iput f th xt ud util sixt uds hivd, t whih pit th bits utput At th mbitil lgi lvl, wh sigl ud is implmtd, th lgithm b split it svl plll mputtis f isd spd By gtig subkys yl i dv, th tim quid b fftivly vlppd with th us f th subky i th st f th ud pti A dditil vlp b md f th tw stgs f xlusiv- (XOR) gts t th xps f isd mplxity d gtut Us f multipl ud implmttis is mputti bdwidth if th DES md f pti hs ds t qui fdbk f iphtxt [19], ulig ut ll but th Elti Cd Bk (ECB) mthd Uftutly, ECB is kw t b susptibl t plitxt fquylysis bsd ttks si idtil iput blks sult i idtil utput blks A ppsd ptig mthd [14] sists this ttk yt ds t qui fdbk f iphtxt Th bsi id thy pps is th us f squ umbs XORd it plitxt blks i fdfwd md f pti This pdus fquy-lyis thwtig my-t- mppig s wll s limitig dpdis itdud by hiig whih ihibit ut pti At th bd lvl, ut IO pssig d DES mputti pvids f stdy-stt pti f th ypti uit This b mplishd usig dubl-buffig d smll mut f xt lgi I dditi t this buffig, th us f Dit Mmy Ass (DMA) f th ypti bd llws th hst pss t tiu th wk utly whtv th ypti uit is hivig O pit wth slight digssi is th us f plitd hdw f implmtig uds; this pvids itstig g f stpfm ltis wh lizbl 31 Ullig uds it hdw Cmputti lmts my b figud t implmt fti f th uds i pipli -lik pph Th mi id is th vsi f th ittiv uds f DES it pipli-lik stm pssig stutu, lgus t hdw lp ullig This b mplishd by tggig h bit iput with th bit ky with whih it udgs th sigl-ud tsfmti; ud fftivly b thught f s 120 bit wid pi f mbitil lgi A sigl-bd implmtti f th DES quis tht th 16 psibd uds f DES b pfmd th - bit dt iput d bit ky iput bf it is pstd s utput Th 16 uds m tht 16 psss thugh th itl dt pth f y implmtti b pfmd Suh situti is illusttd i Figu 2: ky dt 16 uds Figu 2: Sigl-Bd, 16 ud DES Hwv, if mplys multipl bds, f xmpl fu, s illusttd i Figu 3, du th umb f uds pfmd by h bd Th is smll is i th lgi whih must mplyd t mg th kyig, but this is sd-d fft s f s pfm is d Th pimy ltiship is this: up t mximum f 16 DES uits ( p ud), th is li stpfm tdff hivbl by (1) dublig th umb f DES uits, d (2) hlvig th umb f uds h pfms F xmpl, Figu 3 shws fu uits h pfmig fu uds Th upp limit is 16 uits, h pfmig 1 ud

4 ky dt 4 uds 4 uds 4 uds 4 uds Figu 3: Fu DES uits, 4 uds p uit Igig sd d ffts, th mj dly is idud by ud Thus, s h xpsi tks pl, th uit ut is dubld, d th ud ut is hlvd, mig tht th dly f th fist bit thugh th sixt uit s is lmst xtly th sm s th dly f th fist bit thugh th sigl uit s Tht is, t h pit th stpfm li, fm uit t sixt uits, th dly thugh th figuti is uhgd Wh kyig ds t b updtd fqutly, th pipli styl llws mthig f th dtpth flw with plll kypth I this wy, dt blks mpid by thi ky thughut th mputti Swithig kys btw sussiv dtblks withut flushig th pipli is md pssibl si th ky d dt stms syhizd F ifqut ky hgs, th tdff i kyig itti my t b wthwhil s mpd t mitiig spt ky gists f h stg f th pipli Eh ud wuld th miti its w ky ld (shdw) gist i this pph Th stdd s ky shiftig squ wuld b ptilly xutd h stg Si ptil xuti f th ky shdul wuld t sult i mplt ylig f th kytxt, th ky wuld b ldd fm th shdw gist wh it hd mpltd its sh f th mputti dt blk A limitti f th pipli pph is th bdwidth ilig impsd by th umb f uds i th lgithm, sixt This ms tht sigl pipli f psss t pvid m th sixt tims th ypti bdwidth f sigl pss Additilly, th pipli suffs i slbility si th umb f stgs pssibl is stitd t b ft f sixt This dfiit is mst tbl wh sidig upgd f pipli: t gi y is i bdwidth quis dublig i mputti sus Summy d Implmtti Expi Plll spts f th DES my b xplitd t th lvls: withi th lgithm kl, thugh dupliti f th lgithm kl, d i th ypti pss IO dsig Mitiig stt thughput ts quis ful sidti f th ypti systm s itf ipututput sti Ovlp f th iput, utput d ypti psss f subsqut txt blks pvids high thughput [23] Similly, DMA suppt dupls th hst pss fm th ypti futi t llw CPU pssig f th tsks t pd i plll with th ypti qust [2] W dvlpd DES bd [3] usig SSI TTL d MSI PALs usig th MUX ky gist pph Tstig f wiwppd pttyp with sigl lgithm kl iditd ypti t f 93 Mbps A itf t th Mi Chl Ahittu bus f th IBM RISC Systm6000 ws ls implmtd This implmtti tught us gt dl but th itl stutu f th DES hdw itslf, d ws supisigly sussful dsig xis Uftutly, th pts st f th implmtti, pttil pfm limittis du t pkgig, d th lg mut f hdwk quid t plit th wk ihibitd us I dditi, utly with th mplti f th wk d xpimtl vluti, vy high-spd DES hips w bth implmtd i sh lbtis [10] d ud t b mmilly vilbl [20] Th vilbility f suh hips bth mvd f th mtivtis f implmtig th bd (high pfm), d bld us t dit u gis twds hittul issus, suh s wh th hip shuld b iptd 4 Cut Shm Expi with th wi-wppd bd dsibd i Sti 3 iditd tht high ypti spds w pssibl, d tht hittul slutis uld pvid sidbl lvg, idpdt f thlgy his f th ltis Hwv, y sluti ws itdd f ipti i u Gigbit tstbd, d thus svl plis w ssy f twkig xpimts, d th gtivs dsibd bv (mplxity d hdwk) w thus v m imptt VLSI Thlgy s VM007 ypti hips [20] w hs s th bsis f Mi Chl Ahittu bus d This hip hs umb f imptt ftus,

5 mst tbly th ft tht it b lkd t 30 Mhz, yildig Elti Cd Bk (ECB) d Ciph Blk Chiig (CBC) spds f 192 Mbps This is tily dqut f th ut gti hst itf, whih pts t OC-3 spds (155 Mbps) A ky b ldd i 8 lk yls, but 03 misds Svl gists f kyig pvidd Th Mi Chl Ahittu bd hs b implmtd d tstd, d sftw suppt hs b witt It pts t td spd, whih xds th mximum tsf t (130 Mbps) pssibl btw th hst d Mi Chl Ahittu dvis with th ut gti Mi Chl Ahittu IO Chl Ctll Th mj diffiulty with this pph is th umb f bus tstis ssy t mv dt t d fm th twk itf This psts sius pfm limitti du m t th lty ivlvd i udtips th i th bus thughput Sti 52 disusss lttivs; th tu f th tffi is illusttd i Figu 4 Pss Mmy Bus Mmy Systm IO Bus Cypt Suppt Hst ATM Itf lls Figu 4: Bus-Ctd Ahittus 5 Th ight wy Ou xpi with th pttyps f Stis 3 d 4 lds us t bliv tht tuly highpfm ypti subsystm must b iptd it th hsttwk dpt A ATM hst itf W hv dsigd d implmtd pttyp ATM hst itf [21] f th IBM RISC Systm6000 Th hst itf is implmtd s pi f Mi Chl Ahittu bds [7] Th Sgmt bd svs t vt dt bjts, suh s IP pkts, t ATM lls Ths lls th st v th twk ATM lls 48 byts f dt plus 5 byts f hd, s tht sbly sizd dt bjt (sy 8192 byts) th mhi quis my ATM lls t b put th twk mdium Th Rssmbl bd tks ATM lls fm th twk d -gggts thm it dt bjts suh s pkts Amg th futis th Sgmt d Rssmbl bd pvids th mputti f CRC hksums, multiplxig d dmultiplxig f vitul iuits, d smll mut (Kbyts) f buffig Th mdl f th hst itf s l i systm is this: th hst sftw mks y tl disis, whil th hst itf pfms llifiti, dllifiti, d y dt mvmt t d fm th hst This sigifitly dus th bud th wkstti, s it is gizd f dt pssig, t mmy mipulti M i C h l B us M i C h l I t f ATM Hd Gt Clss 4 AAL Gt Dt Buff 512 by 32 FIFO 511 Th Sgmt Sgmtti Ctll SONET Fm Figu 5: Sgmt E O OC-3 A blk digm f th Sgmt is pstd i Figu 5 Wh dt is t b tsmittd it th twk, th vitul iuit idtifi (VCI) t b usd is ldd it th hd gt A multiplxig idtifi (MID) is ls ldd it th AAL gt if th dt is t b tsmittd vi th Clss 4 ATM Adptti Ly (AAL4) [12] Th hst th sts up stmig md [8] ( ptimizd bus tsf md f tiguus dt) tsf t mv th dt whih is t b tsmittd fm pid buff i hst mmy t th FIFO buff th Sgmt Th lti d siz f

6 th hst s buff spifid duig stm st-up Whil this tsf is big md, th Sgmt pdus th hd hk CRC d fmts th tl ifmti it th pppit ATM d AAL4 hd fmts As s s suffiit dt hs b pld it th FIFO buff, th sgmtti tll mvs th dt f th fist ll fm th FIFO buff d dds ATM hd, AAL4 hd d AAL4 til If th ll is yig AAL4 dt, th pyld CRC is lultd s th dt is mvd t th SONET fm [18] d pld i th pppit fild t th d f th ll This pss is ptd util th FIFO buff is did M i C h l B us M i C h l I t f Likd List Mg Pit Mmy Dul Pt Rssmbly Buff Ctll Dul Pt Rssmbly Buff 32K by Th Rssmbl CAM Lkup Hd Ctll CAM 512 by 48 Figu 6: Rssmbl Cll Bdy Mg O E OC-3 SONET Fm Th Rssmbl is illusttd i Figu 6 It is mpsd f fu mj substis whih pt utly Th ll mg, CAM lkup tll, d th likd list mg (LLM) xplit this uy t fm ATM ll-pssig pipli Th ll mg vifis th itgity f th hd d pyld (if th ll is yig AAL4 dt) f lls ivd fm th twk by th SONET fm It xtts th VCI fm th ATM hd d th MID d lgth fm th AAL hd W utly ig th 4-bit squ umb i th AAL4 s w bliv it is isuffiit t pvid libl ms f ll lss dtti Th bdy f th ll is pld i FIFO buff f lt mvmt it th dul pt ssmbly buff (DPRB) Th CAM lkup tll mgs tw CAMs whih pvid lkup suppt f ttl f 2 simultus vitul tis d th ssmbly f 2 dtgms Th hst is bl t flush udsid vitul iuits d dtgms fm th ssmbl thugh th CAM lkup tll A f sultig fm th CAM lkup pti is pssd t th LLM Th LLM, s its m suggsts, stblishs d mitis likd list dt stutu f h f th vitul iuit d dtgms tht is big ivd Dt ivd fm th twk is pld t th d f th pppit list whil dt dstid f hst mmy is d fm th ft f th list Th LLM llts sp i th DPRB f dt mig it th ssmbl fm th twk d psss th lti t th DPRB tll Th ll bdy whih ws pld it th FIFO by th ll mg is mvd d witt it th pppit ssmbly buff Th hst is bl t d dt fm ptiul vitul iuit dtgm by spifyig list f t th LLM whih dtmis th lti i th DPRB wh dt is std Th lti is pssd t th DPRB tll whih mvs th dt fm th buff f tsf it hst mmy v th MCA bus 513 Disussi Pfm f u ut hittu is quit gd; w sd d iv t but 130 Mbps, msud by AIX us pss dig IO t d fm th hst itf Dtild pfm dt [22] is vilbl 52 Iptig Cyptgphi suppt: lttivs Th sstilly tw wys i whih ypti hdw b mplyd O mthd is t mk th ypti d glly vilbl f ss th Mi Chl Ahittu bus, s ws d f th slutis f Stis 3 d 4 This hs th dvtg tht y ppliti mply th ypti hdw, f xmpl, t ypt d dypt dt witt t disks, t pvid ppliti-t-ppliti yptgphi suppt Hwv, this pph (s illusttd i Figu 5) suffs fm th d t ss th bus multipl tims f h twk tsti, g, dt must ss th bus t b yptd, ss th bus ft thy yptd, d if th pst-ypti tsf is t systm mmy, thid tsf (it th hst itf) is quid (lthugh this is t stitly ssy th Mi Chl Ahittu s it suppts d-t-d tsfs) Si th sidbl bus tivity will svly ihibit

7 twk pfm, this sms smwht udsibl Th th lttiv is t ipt th yptgphi hdw it th hsttwk itf This is ft usd wh lik ypti is dsid, but hs th dwbk tht th yptgphi hdw is pivt t th itf I dditi, lik ypti itslf hs svl dwbks Fist, it pvids littl tl f pplitis, g, f ustmizd ky his Sd, it mks ky mgmt f bity hst-t-hst ypti i swithd twk diffiult; pkt-swithig xbts this pblm si hds yptd d must b dbl if usd f utig I th xt sti, w dsib sluti whih mbis sm f th flxibility f th spt d hittus with th highpfm htistis f lik-ypti sluti M i C h l B u s M i C h l B u s I t f Ky Dt ATM Hd Gt Clss 4 AAL Gt Eypti VM007 Dt Buff 512 by 32 FIFO SONET Fm Sgmtti Ctll OC-3 E O 53 Iptig Cyptgphi Suppt: A high-pfm hittu As shw i Figus 5 d 6, bth th Sgmt d Rssmbl pti f th hst itf bk it svl futil blks, whih pt utly This hdw uy pmits high-pfm slutis t b dvisd usig ixpsiv thlgy his Th ssmbl, i ptiul, mks gt us f uy by sttig up pipli whih hs fu lgil stgs Th hittus w pps illusttd i Figus 7 d 8 Th dditi f th ypti hip i h s svs t dd th futil blk, whih pt utly with th th th blks Ky lkup is d by ddig xt fild t th hd-f-list dt stutu i th pit mmy Ext sp f suh pupss ws svd i th igil itf dsig Ths hd-f-list stutus ltd usig th CAM with th Vitul-Ciuit Idtifi s tg Th yptgphi kys ldd it th VM007 i plll with dt mvmt fm th Cll Mg s dt buff it th Dul Pt Rssmbly Buff This sluti pvids th fllwig sigifit dvtgs: 1 Pivt kys f h vitul iuit (2 Vitul Ciuits utly supptd i th hst itf) 2 Rl-tim gil kyig ss Vitul M i C h l B u s Figu 7: DES-ugmtd Sgmt M i C h l B u s I t f Ctl Pth Cll Mg SONET Fm CAM Lkup Ctll CAMs 512 by 48 Likd List Mg Pit Mmy O E Dt Pth Ky OC-3 Dul Pt Rssmbly Buff Ctll Dul Pt Rssmbly Buff 32K by 32 Dypti VM007 Figu 8: DES-ugmtd Rssmbl Ciuits 3 Cut ltxt d iphtxt stms 4 Appliti-spifi tl f yptgphi kyig 5 Cltxt hds d iphtxt pylds

8 (whih s tspt thugh pkt-swithd fbis) 6 Clusis Ulss wkstti hittus hg gtly, yptgphi hdw shuld b iptd it th hsttwk itf This dds mgil mut f mplxity t th itf d mshs quit mftbly with futis it ldy pfms, suh s llifiti, dllifiti, d mputig hksums Th dvtgs t this pph stm fm th ft tht ith hst mmy ss bus tstis quid byd tht ssy t mv dt fm th ppliti dt s t th hsttwk itf Ky mgmt is lsly ltd with ATM hd mipulti, d b pfmd ffiitly with th dditi f smll mut f lgi i th hst itf Whil w hv usd th DES lgithm t pttyp u xpimtl slutis, u hittul ppsls t dpdt its us; thy lt t th plmt f yptgphi hdw i wkstti td t high-bdwidth twk Ths hittul slutis d t std i th wy f ppliti-t-ppliti ( d-td ) pivy, ud th ssumpti tht th wkstti ptig systm is tustd subsystm Distit kys b ldd f h ATM vitul iuit (i, h ppliti) My high-bdwidth pplitis qui suity, spilly pivy Ths quimts will div tsfmtis i wkstti hittus, spilly high-pfm mmuitis subsystms Ou ppsl suggsts giig pph whih is bth xtmly st-fftiv d pvids high pfm, whil sifiig littl i flxibility 7 Nts d Akwldgmts Albt G Bsius hs b ih su f ids d itil judgmt; h did th implmtti dsibd i Sti 3 Blji Siivs implmtd th d mplyig th VLSI Thlgy s VM007 dsibd i Sti 4 AURORA is jit sh fft udtk by Bll Atlti, Bll, IBM Rsh, MIT, MCI, NYNEX, d P AURORA is spsd s pt f th NSFDARPA Spsd Gigbit Tstbd Iititiv thugh th Cpti f Ntil Rsh Iititivs NSF (Cptiv Agmt Numb NCR ) d DARPA pvid fuds t th Uivsity ptiipts i AURORA Bll is pvidig suppt t MIT d P thugh th DAWN pjt IBM hs supptd this fft by pvidig RISC Systm6000 wksttis, d this wk ws ptilly supptd by IBM Fulty Dvlpmt Awd Th Hwltt-Pkd Cmpy hs supptd this fft thugh dtis f lbty tst quipmt RISC Systm6000, AIX, PCRT, PS2 d Mi Chl tdmks f IBM Etht is tdmk f Xx UNIX is tdmk f UNIX Systms Lbtis 8 Rfs [1] Gigbit Tstbd Iititiv Summy, Cpti f Ntil Rsh Iititivs, 1895 Pst Whit Div, Suit 100, Rst, VA USA (Juy 1992) [2] Dvid P Ads d P Vkt Rg, High-Pfm Itf Ahittus f Cyptgphi Hdw, i EURO- CRYPT 87 Pdigs, Spig-Vlg, Amstdm (1987) [3] Albt G Bsius d Jth M Smith, Explitig Plllism i Hdw Implmtti f th DES, i Pdigs, CRYPTO 1991 Cf, d J Figbum, St Bb, CA (August, 1991), pp [4] Albt G Bsius, Hdw Alysis d Implmtti f th NBS Dt Eypti Stdd, Uivsity f Psylvi, Shl f Egiig d Applid Sis (Apil, 1991) MSE Thsis (CIS) [5] Isl Cid d Id S Gpl, PARIS: A Apph t Itgtd High-Spd Pivt Ntwks, Ittil Jul f Digitl d Alg Cbld Systms 1, pp (1988) [6] Dvid D Clk, Bu S Dvi, Dvid J Fb, Id S Gpl, Bhth K Kdb, W Dvid Siski, Jth M Smith, d Dvid L Thus, Th AURORA Gigbit Tstbd, Cmput Ntwks d ISDN Systms 25(6) (Juy 1993) [7] IBM Cpti, IBM RISC Systm6000 POWERstti d POWERsv: Hdw Thil Rf, Mi Chl

9 Ahittu, IBM Od Numb SA , 1990 [8] IBM Cpti, IBM RISC Systm6000 POWERstti d POWERsv: Hdw Thil Rf, Gl Ifmti Mul, IBM Od Numb SA , 1990 [9] DR Dig, Cyptgphy d Dt Suity, Addis-Wsly (1982) [10] Hs Ebl, Psl Cmmuiti 1Gbps GAs DES Chip, DEC Systms Rsh Ct (Apil 1991) [11] J Giplli, J Hiky, W Mus, W D Siski, d M Littlwd, Sushi: A High-Pfm Slf-Rutig Bdbd Pkt Swith Ahittu, IEEE Jul Sltd As i Cmmuitis 9(8), pp (Otb, 1991) [12] CCITT Rmmdti I363, B-ISDN ATM Adptti Ly (AAL) Spifiti, 1990 [13] 1989 IC MASTER, Ft Sht, Wst Digitl WD20C03A, 1989 [14] Athy MAuly d Dvid C Fldmi, Miimizig Ptl Odig Cstits t Impv Pfm, Submittd f publiti Avilbl vi ymus ftp fm Itt hst thumpbllm, 1991 [15] Kl Nhstdt d Jth M Smith, A Itgtd Multimdi Ahittu f High- Spd Ntwks, i Pdigs, Multimdi 92 Cf, Mty, CA (Apil 1992) [16] NBS, Dt Eypti Stdd (FIPS Publiti 46), Ntil Buu f Stdds, US Dptmt f Cmm, Wshigt, DC (Juy, 1977) [17] R L Rivst, A Shmi, d L Adlm, A mthd f btiig digitl sigtus d publi-ky yptsystms, Cmmuitis f th ACM 21(2), pp (Fbuy 1978) [18] Thms J Rb d Kth A Wlsh, A SONET STS-3 Us-Ntwk Itf IC, i Pdigs, Custm Itgtd Ciuits Cf, S Dig, CA (My, 1991) [19] Ntil Buu f Stdds, Fdl Ifmti Pssig Stdd #81: Optil Mds f th DES [20] VLSI Thlgy, I, VM007 Dt Eypti Pss:Adv Ifmti Sht, 8375 Suth Riv Pkwy (602) , Otb 1991 [21] C Bd S Tw d Jth M Smith, A High-Pfm Hst Itf f ATM Ntwks, i Pdigs, SIGCOMM 1991, Zuih, SWITZERLAND (Sptmb 4-6, 1991), pp [22] C Bd S Tw d Jth M Smith, Implmtti d Pfm f ATM Hst Itf f Wksttis, i Pdigs, IEEE Wkshp th Ahittu d Implmtti f High-Pfm Cmmuitis Subsystms (HPCS 92), Tus, AZ (Fbuy 17-19, 1992) [23] Igid Vbuwhd, Fk Ht, Js Vdwll, d Hug d M, Suity d Pfm Optimizti f Nw DES Dt Eypti Chip, IEEE Jul f Slid Stt Ciuits 23(3), pp 7-6 (Ju 1988)

Lecture 27. Rectangular Metal Waveguides

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