Programming CAN-based Fieldbus Systems using Java

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1 Title Programming CAN-based Fieldbus Systems using Java Manuel Joaquim Pereira dos Santos, Ricardo José Caetano Loureiro Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal, Helmut Dispert Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Kiel University of Applied Sciences, Kiel, Germany

2 Contents 1. Introduction: Embedded Intelligent Devices 2. Java in Embedded Control: e.g.: Java Servlet Technology (the Embedded Java Controller - EJC) 3. Java and Native Code

3 Evolution The evolution of embedded intelligent devices is driven by technological advancements: low cost microprocessors and peripheral devices Internet Java programming language Examples: new hardware platforms (e.g. Strong ARM architecture) Internet and the HTTP to access devices Development of robust and reliable software using Java.

4 Opportunities Sun Microsystems, Inc.: "Combining the strengths of these (new) technologies, there is a huge market opportunity for companies that discover how to leverage the benefits of Java technology on embedded devices."

5 Java Solution: A New Paradigm: Write once, run anywhere Java

6 Java History of Java (true story) 1990: A small group is formed at Sun Microsystems with the task to think about the future of multimedia in private households. Group Member: James Gosling Idea: develop a generic and simple programming language to implement intelligent electronic devices (household). Embedded Programming

7 Java Why Java? Object-oriented (encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance), No multiple inheritance, Platform independent bytecode, Java primitive data types have fixed sizes, Automatic run-time bounds-checking, True Boolean type, No pointer programming, Automatic garbage collection, Language support for multithreaded applications.

8 Java in Embedded Systems Java Usage Models: The proposed Java usage models fall into one of four categories: No Java Embedded Web Server Java Embedded Applet Java Application Java

9 Java in Embedded Systems These models are distinguished by two binary variables: location of the stored Java bytecodes the processor on which the bytecodes are executed These variables can take one of two values: target (the embedded system) host (a general-purpose computer attached to the embedded system) Ref.: Michael Barr

10 Java in Embedded Systems Host Host Host Host Java Java Target Target Target Target Java Java No Java Embedded Web Server Embedded Applet Application Ref.: Michael Barr

11 Java 2 Platform Profile Profile Profile Profile Java Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) Core Core APIs APIs Profile Profile Profile Profile Java Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE) Core Core APIs APIs Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME) encompasses VMs and core APIs specified via Configurations as well as vertical or market-specific APIs specified in Profiles. TV TV Screen Screen Car Profile Profile Phone Phone Profile Car Profile Profile Profile Personal Personal Profile Profile Mobile Information Mobile Device Information Profile Device Profile Java Java 22 Micro Micro Edition Edition Core Core APIs APIs Smart Card Smart Profile Card Profile Java Java Programming Language Java Java HotSpot HotSpot Java Java Virtual Virtual Maschine Maschine (JVM) (JVM) KVM KVM Card Card VM VM

12 Java Application Environments Desktop OS Enterprise Servers Mainframes RTOS Vendors Set-top boxes PDAs ScreenPhones Hi-end mobile phones Internet TV Car navigation Industrial Controllers Intrumentation Automotive Printers Hi-end Pagers Mid-range Phones SmartCards Java Ring Java AE Personal Java AE Embedded Java AE Java Card

13 Java 2 Platform Editions JavaCard Java Technology Enabled Devices Java Technology Enabled Desktop Workgroup Server High-End Server Micro Edition Standard Edition Enterprise Edition

14 Java Application Portability: 1. mechanism for executing Java bytecodes on any processor 2. common set of class libraries

15 Java Development Cycle Compile-time Environment Java Source (.java) Run-Time Environment (Java Platform)Environment Class Loader Bytecode Verifier Java Classes Libraries Java Compiler Java Interpreter Just-in-Time Compiler Virtual Java Machine Java Bytecode (.class) Run-Time System Operating System VM Hardware

16 Java Architecture Java Programming Language Compiled Byte Code The Java Architecture 1. Programming Language 2. Virtual Machine (VM) 3. API Java Runtime System Virtual Machine Java API Operating System Computer Hardware

17 Access Hardware using Java The basic idea of embedded control is to directly access hardware level properties: Registers, I/O-interfaces, sensors, actuators, etc. Problem Basic Properties of Java: Platform independent bytecode, No pointer programming, Automatic garbage collection,

18 Access Hardware using Java Solutions: Use dedicated hardware platform, dedicated OS and dedicated Java VM. Example: Snijder Embedded Java Controller (EJC). see: 1st Int. Workshop, Vaasa, 2002 Use native languages that allow access to hardware level functions.

19 Java - Jbed VM Glue Code VM Browser Glue Code VM OS OS Glue Code RTOS OS and VM Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Java in a WWW browser Java on a desktop OS Java on a RTOS Java on the bare metal

20 EJC - Embedded Java Controller I 2 C I 2 C RS485 COM 1 (RS232) RS485 COM 1 EJC System Bus COM 0 (TTL) Ethernet COM 0 ETH. Digital I/O LCD 1-Wire Boot Flash Digital I/O LCD 1-Wire PWR Switch Input LED Output Boot Flash EJC-SK1 carrier board block diagram

21 EJC - EW1A block diagram E 2 PROM Temp. Sensor CPU ARM7TDMI DRAM Flash ISA-like + memory bus COM 1 TTL COM 2 RS232 RS485 I 2 C master Digital I/O LCD Ethern. DIMM connector Embedded Java Controller block diagram

22 EJC Java Level User applications and servlets HTTP server FTP server Telnet server EJC class library + servlet framework JVM Intent JVM + PJAE + javax.comm EJC middleware and system software Kernel Drivers Elate RTOS kernel + low-level libraries (TCP/IP, file system architecture, graphic subsystem, etc.) Serial Ethernet I 2 C Dig I/O Flash NV RAM LCD Overview of the EJC software architecture.

23 EJC - Native Code Access to hardware or peripherals through native code: Special feature of the EJC (the intent JVM): Java classes can be directly written in VP assembler. VP assembler is a high-level assembler language which is targeted at a special Virtual Processor, and that is translated to native code either statically, at sysgen-time, or dynamically, when a class is loaded by the device (happens automatically). Access to hardware is possible without the runtime overhead of JNI or other similar mechanisms.

24 JNI JNI - The Java Native Interface Advantages: Support platform-dependent features. Integration: Make existing libraries or applications written in another programming language available to Java. Speed: Implement time-critical code.

25 JNI Application C Side Functions Libraries JNI Java Side Exceptions Classes VM

26 JNI JNI allows interaction in two directions: Java programs can use native methods written in other languages Native methods can use Java objects and methods out of Java applications

27 JNI Java Libraries C Program Java Classes Java Methods Java VM

28 JNI C Routines Assembly Rout. Java Program C++ Classes Exception Handler C Debugger C Runtime TypeChecker

29 JNI-Example Java-File: HelloWorld.java class HelloWorld { public native void displayhelloworld(); static { System.loadLibrary("hello"); } public static void main(string[] args) { new HelloWorld().displayHelloWorld(); } }

30 JNI-Example Java Code Compilation: javac HelloWorld.java Creating the C header file: javah jni HelloWorld

31 JNI-Example Name of native language function that implements the native methods: prefix + class name + _ + method name java_ + HelloWorld + _ + displayhelloworld JNIEXPORT void JNICALL Java_HelloWorld_displayHelloWorld(JNIEnv *, jobject);

32 JNI-Example Native Methods (C code): #include <jni.h> #include "HelloWorld.h #include <stdio.h> JNIEXPORT void JNICALL Java_HelloWorld_displayHelloWorld (JNIEnv *env, jobject obj) { printf("hello World!\n"); return; }

33 JNI-Example HelloWorldImp.c contains three header files: 1.jni.h This file contains information needed by the native language to exchange data with the Java runtime system. 2.HelloWorld.h The generated header file. 3.stdio.h Contains the printf function.

34 JNI-Example 1. Write Java Code HelloWorld.java 4. Write implementation of native method HelloWorldImp.c jni.h stdio.h 2. Compile with javac 5. Compile native code, load shared library HelloWorld.class 3. Generate header file with javah HelloWorld.h hello.dll 6. Run program using java interpreter "Hello World"

35 Java in Embedded Systems Why Embedded Java? Hardware Independence (greater than with C/C++) Downloading capabilities: Software downloaded into device Internet Connectivity Security Better Productivity

36 Application: CAN-Bus CAN-Bus Controller Area Network Serial 2-wire bus system aimed at autombile applications, developed by Bosch. International Standard (ISO 11898)

37 Field Bus Systems Field Bus Organizations Field Bus Systems Sensor/Actuator Bus Process Bus ASI INTERBUS-S PROFIBUS DP CAN DIN-Bus BITBUS PROFIBUS FMS P-NET

38 Field Bus Systems Virtual CAN Interface Control Functions Monitor Functions CAN Analyzer User Application Virtual CAN Interface PCI-card Port Adapter USB-CAN CAN

39 Java based CAN Program class: VCIJNI.java ** Function: VCI2_PrepareBoard ** Native method declaration public native int VCI2_PrepareBoard(CAN_Analyser myapp, int board_type, short board_no, String AddInfo, byte AddInfoLength, JCallback receive, byte [] m_callback_databytes);

40 Dynamic Link Libraries Code in class VCIJNI.java to load DLL (VCIJNI.dll) into memory Operating System Windows Unix Mac OS X Extension.dll.so.dylib ** JNI-function ** for loading of the VCIJNI.DLL static { System.loadLibrary("VCIJNI"); } public VCIJNI() { }

41 Dynamic Link Libraries Java Code Compilation: javac VCIJNI.java Creating the C header file: javah jni VCIJNI

42 Dynamic Link Libraries Generated Header File IXXAT_VCIJNI.h /* DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE - it is machine generated */ #include <jni.h> /* Header for class IXXAT_VCIJNI */ #ifndef _Included_IXXAT_VCIJNI #define _Included_IXXAT_VCIJNI #ifdef cplusplus extern "C" { #endif /* * Class: IXXAT_VCIJNI * Method: VCI2_PrepareBoard * Signature: (LIXXAT/CAN_Analyser;ISLjava/lang/String;BLIXXAT/JCallback;[B)I */ JNIEXPORT jint JNICALL Java_IXXAT_VCIJNI_VCI2_1PrepareBoard JNIEnv *, jobject, jobject, jint, jshort, jstring, jbyte, jobject, jbytearray);

43 Dynamic Link Libraries File VCIJNI.cpp implementeing the native code for function Java_IXXAT_VCIJNI_VCI2_1PrepareBoard JNIEXPORT jint JNICALL Java_IXXAT_VCIJNI_VCI2_1PrepareBoard ( JNIEnv * env, jobject jobj, jobject myapp, jint board_type, jshort board_no, jstring AddInfo, jbyte AddInfoLength, jobject JReceiveCallback, jbytearray callback_databytes) { int i_test; jboolean *iscopy = NULL; //Produce a new global reference to Object " JReceiveCallback " g_jobj_jcallback = env->newglobalref(jreceivecallback);

44 Dynamic Link Libraries Create Object: // Object with the Java Native Interface static VCIJNI vci = new VCIJNI(); // prepare board for further configuration i_test = vci.vci2_prepareboard( myapp, BoardConfStruct.board_type, BoardConfStruct.board_no, AddInfo, AddInfoLength, JReceiveCallback, JReceiveCallback.m_a_data);

45 Java/CAN - demo a) CAN Interface: USB-to-CAN Module Intelligent CAN module for the USB-Port

46 Java/CAN - demo b) Connected Device: Absolute Rotary Encoders Allows a direct read-out of the angular position

47 Java/CAN - demo Program Code: CAN Code: GUI: Java C++ Java Swing Future Expansion: Internet Connectivity: Java

48 Using Java to Control CAN Some more important applications CAN Bus CAN Device OFF ON Summer Cottage in Vaasa

49 The end Thank you!

50 The End Contact: Prof. Dr. Helmut Dispert University of Applied Sciences Kiel Faculty of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Grenzstr Kiel, Germany Tel.: /4123 Fax.:

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