Secure Machine to Machine Communication on the example of Smart Grids

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1 Corporate Technology Secure Machine to Machine Communication on the example of Smart Grids 10.ITG Fachtagung Zukunft der Netze 2011, Steffen Fries Siemens AG, CT T, GTF IT Security : : Hamburg, , September 2011

2 Outline M2M Communication Trends from automation industry The need for Security Secure M2M Communication in Smart Grids Security Credential Lifecycle and required Management Summary & Challenges page 2 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

3 Observed Trend Increasing Intelligence and Open Communication Intelligent device potential 2012* * Source: Harbor Research "Pervasive Internet/M2M 2009" Mobile info Static info Mobile devices # of devices "5 Static devices 0"4 Controllers & sensors 1"8 Microcontrollers & microprocessors 50" Building Automation Process Automation Factory Automation Energy Automation page 3 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

4 Conversion of the Conventional Grid to a Smart Grid today tomorrow power information page 4 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

5 Smart Grid Scenarios Incorporation of Decentralized Energy Resources and Flexible Loads requires Security Automated billing Innovative pricing Market place interaction Market Fully integrated energy sources including renewables, biomass, etc. Load balancing Integration of DER Electro Mobility Demand response management Microgrids Commercial Industrial Generation Transmission Distribution Residential Fossil Power Generation Wind Power Solar Power Fixed or wireless PMU Fixed or wireless Quality Sensors Smart Meters Electric Vehicle DER Energy Storage Services Operations Remote energy management and control Load Monitoring and Balancing Real-time outage notification Power Quality Monitoring (e.g., through application of PMUs) Smart metering Smart appliances page 5 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

6 Smart Grid Typical Components Smart Energy Distribution Control Center Protection and control of the energy facilities Substation Controller Concentration of information for upper layers, protocol conversion Protection Field Device Protection of the energy facilities (e.g., switching of circuit-breaker) Measurement Field Device e.g., Phasor Measurement Providing information about power quality (measurement of phase difference by which the voltage leads or lags the current in an AC circuit) Smart Home Vehicle abstraction and connection point Home energy abstraction layer Smart Meter (Vehicle/Spot) Smart Meter Consumption / Storage Consumption/generation Value Added Services Smart Home Equipment e.g., SW/FW update Intelligent control of energy consumption page 6 September 2011 Billing Infrastructure Clearinghouse Zukunft der Netze 2011 Charging Infrastructure Charging Spot Home Energy Gateway

7 IT-Security Becomes a Pre-requisite for Future Control Systems Driven by Convergence of Safety & Security Current Situation Predominantly isolated communication networks Often proprietary networks and applications (Limited) Physically secured access to networks and devices Long lifetime of control equipment Systems are mainly designed for performance, reliability and safety, not security Often availability is the most important security objective Business Support & Operation Control Field Device Trends Increasing usage of standard OSs and applications Widespread usage of Ethernet and TCP/IP (including Internet) Increasing usage of wireless networks Interconnection of formerly isolated networks Increasing intelligence in peripheral components (e.g. Intelligent Access Devices) IT-security becomes a pre-requisite for safety applications page 7 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

8 Security Requirements for Smart Grid Applications stem from a Variety of Potential Attacks (examples) Generation / DER Misuse of local administrative rights Distribution and Transmission Falsified status information from synchrophasors (PMUs) in widely dispersed locations can limit the power flow. Customer Prosumer behavior tracking, e.g., through smart meters Market Fraud based on falsified offers and contracts (Customer, Utilities, DNOs, ) Operation Misuse of remote service access page 8 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

9 Smart Grid (Some) Security Objectives Generic objectives Availability and reliability of energy provisioning Limitation of attack effects (geographical and functional) Correct billing of energy transactions between involved Transmission Distribution peers (prosumer, operator, market, energy provider) Customer Additional scenario specific objectives Operations System Operation Critical Business Critical Corporate Public Smart Grid/Smart Home Interactions: Privacy of metering information (Smart Metering) Generation Market Services Smart Grid internal: Access to communicated and stored data only for authorized personnel ( Keep outsiders out ) Smart Grid cross domain: Clearing of energy and payment transactions between energy providers, DNOs, microgrids with different level of trustworthiness Information Exchange Logical Power System Domains Logical Security Domains page 10 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

10 Security Regulation/Guidelines/Standards ensure Reliable Operation of the Smart Grid (examples) NERC CIP DoE ES-ISAC AGA 12 INL EU SGCG BSI BP NIST SGIP CIGRE D2/B3 BDEW WP VDEW VDI/VDE 2182 WIB NIST SP 800 CERT DHS DKE ANSI IETF FIPS 140 DNP3 W3C OASIS ISO ETSI IEEE IEC CEN CENELEC ZigBee SEP ISA page 12 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

11 Core Standards for Smart Grids IEC TC57 Reference Architecture Common Information Model IEC / Market Communication IEC IEC Roadmap Substation Automation Distribution Automation DER Automation IEC Tele-control Protocols IEC DKE Roadmap Smart Metering IEC DLMS, IEC COSEM Cyber Security IEC NIST Interop Report page 13 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

12 Example: IEC produced by IEC TC57 WG15 Enables secure modern Energy Control Networks Integrity protection and encryption of control data Control Center IEC IEC IEC DNP3 MMS Heavily uses asymmetric crypto for authentication and authorization Part 1: Introduction Part 2: Glossary Substation Controller Station Bus Part 3: Profiles including TCP/IP (cover those profiles used by ICCP, IEC Part 104, DNP 3 over TCP/IP, and IEC over TCP/IP) Part 4: Profiles including MMS (cover those profiles used by ICCP and IEC 61850) Part 5: Security for IEC and derivatives (covers both serial and networked profiles) Process Bus Merging Unit Field Devices CBC Circuit Breaker Controller GOOSE SMV Part 6: Security for IEC Peer-to-Peer Profiles (profiles that are not based on TCP/IP) Part 7: Network and System Management Part 8: Role Based Access Control Part 9: Credential Management (Draft) Part 10: Technical Report regarding Security Architecture Guidelines for TC 57 Systems (Draft) page 15 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

13 Further Example: IEC Securely Connecting the Vehicle to the Smart Grid Joint ISO/IEC activity targeting a standard for the interface between vehicle and charging station supporting Connection of vehicles to the power grid Billing of consumed energy (charging) Roaming of electric vehicles between different charging spot Value added services (e.g., software updates) Trust Relations To backend (Energy Provider) for signed meter readings and encrypted information (e.g. tariff) To charging spot as terminating transport peer Electric Vehicle Charging Spot Energy Provider with Control and Billing Functionality, Clearinghouse, Charge Spot Provider Application e.g., contract related data, meter reading, tariffs, etc. contract authentication XML Security Trapo authentication, transport protection TLS Security page 16 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

14 Security Credential Management Spans the complete Product Lifecycle Generation Entity internal or external generation (Distinction: long term keys, session keys) Certification Distribution Storage Update Archiving Typically done for architecture asymmetric keys through a certificate authority (CA) Imprinting offline (on storage media) / online (inband or out of band) Obfuscated in firmware, Deployment stored in customer in secured infrastructure memory comprises (e.g., flash) or HSM (e.g., TPM) Secure Plug & Work Product Design Manufacturing Engineering Installation Deployment Credentials have dedicated Security parameter lifetime, maintenance: update key based update, on a given security policy Operation Decommis- Typically sioning done for long term keys Definition of necessary security features in base Generation of manufacturer specific security parameter supporting the product individualization. Engineering of use case and/or customer specific security parameter key generation, certification, distribution and storage. Base can be the vendor specific credentials. revocation and/or key archival Secure deletion of security parameter: comprises key archiving, key destruction Development and Manufacturing of Products, Security Service Definition Development and Deployment of Security Services Destruction Session keys after session ending, Long term keys after key renewal page 17 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

15 Summary and Challenges Summary Machine-2-Machine connectivity down to field devices is a major driver for the Smart Grid Security has been acknowledged as one of the important corner stones within a Smart Grid Technical security solutions for dedicated parts of the smart grid are provided through standards Regulation and guideline documents are available and are being further evolved Research is addressing smart grid security in several funded projects (e.g., FINSENY FP7) Challenges Coordination and alignment of requirements from plurality of stakeholders (IT, Energy, Consumer, etc.) Coping with differences in innovation speed, e.g., Metering: Metrological data vs. Energy Management Political influence Regulated markets; Mandates in Europe Device-oriented security and identity infrastructure (processes, scalability, limits of authority, ) supporting efficient creation, distribution and handling of cryptographic credentials Device security platform modules and their integration into products & production Security has to cope with domain specific characteristics (device capabilities, multicast, ) Migration from existing environment to an environment featuring appropriate IT security page 19 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

16 Thank you for the attention! Questions? page 20 September 2011 Zukunft der Netze 2011

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