MARKETING FINANCIAL SERVICES

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1 MARKETING FINANCIAL SERVICES Building a Better Bank: Strategies for Implementing a Marketing Process Bruce A. Clapp 1120 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C

2 This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative informa-tion in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other pro-fessional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. From a Declaration of Principles jointly adopted by a Committee of the American Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers and Associations. Founded in 1875 and based in Washington, DC, the American Bankers Association brings together banks of all sizes and charters into one association. ABA works to enhance the competitiveness of the nation s banking industry and strengthen America s economy and communities. The mission of the American Bankers Association is to serve its members by enhancing the role of financial services institutions as the preeminent providers of financial services. This mission is accomplished through federal legislative and regulatory activities, legal action, communication and consumer education, research, and products and services that promote, educate, train, inform and support members. To learn more about the American Bankers Association and the many services it offers, call BANKERS or visit us at our Web site: This textbook has been approved by the American Institute of Banking for use in courses for which AIB certifi cates or diplomas are granted. The American Institute of Banking is the professional development and training program of the American Bankers Association. Instructional materials endorsed by AIB have been developed by bankers, for bankers by the American Bankers Association, Washington, D.C. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronics, mechanical, photocopying, record, or otherwise without prior written permission of the American Bankers Association. Printed in the United States of America

3 Contents Preface xvii Part I What Is Marketing? 1 Chapter 1 Setting the Stage: Introduction to Key Marketing Concepts 3 The New Definition of Marketing 4 Key Elements of the Definition 5 The Marketing Concept and Its Four Pillars 7 Customer Orientation 7 Profit 10 Total Company Effort 11 Social Responsibility and Community Citizenship 12 Evolution of the Marketing Concept 14 Declining Sales or Market Share 14 Slow Growth 16 Changing Buying Patterns 17 Increased Competition 17 Increased Budgetary Pressures 18 Stages in the Adoption of the Marketing Concept 19 How Business Strategic Planning and Marketing Planning Differ and Work Together 21 The Importance of Market Definition 22 Product Orientation 22 Operations Orientation 24 Selling Orientation 24 Customer Orientation 26 Summary 27 Points for Review 29 Notes 29 Part II Getting Started: The Business of Banking 31 Chapter 2 Jumping In: The Financial Fundamentals 33 The Structure of Banking 34 How a Bank Makes Money 38 Reading and Understanding the Balance Sheet 41 Examples of Bank Balance Sheets 41 Managing and Leveraging Expenses 45 Pricing 45 Summary 46 Points for Review 46 Contents iii

4 Chapter 3 The Playing Field: A Changing Environment 47 Legislation 48 Community Reinvestment Act 48 Gramm-Leach-Bliley 50 USA PATRIOT Act 51 CAN-SPAM 52 Do Not Call 53 Check Fair Credit Reporting Act and the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act 55 Regulations 57 Regulation C 57 Regulation DD 58 Regulation Q 59 Regulation Z 60 Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity) 61 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) 62 Regulation R 62 Use of Federal Logos 63 Nondeposit Investment Products and Consumer Protections in Sales of Insurance 64 Compliance 66 Integrating Compliance 67 Compliance Resources 68 Competitive Forces 68 New Competitors 69 Credit Unions 69 Captive Financing 70 Changing Buying Behaviors 70 Summary 71 Points for Review 71 Notes 72 Chapter 4 Rules of the Game: Organization, Implementation, and Evaluation 73 Organizing the Bank for Marketing 74 The Centralized Marketing Department 76 Decentralized Marketing 79 Organizing for Marketing in a Holding Company 79 Environment: The Relationship of Marketing to Other Departments 80 Technology 81 Systems and Operations 81 Human Resources and Personnel 81 Training 82 Accounting and Finance 82 Bank Investments 83 iv Marketing Financial Services

5 Compliance/Legal Services 83 Auditing 83 Line Divisions and Subsidiaries 84 Branches 84 Chief Executive Officer 85 Implementing the Marketing Plan 86 The Quality Movement and Implementation 86 Factors Affecting Implementation 87 Evaluation: Performance Monitoring And Controls 88 Goal Setting 89 The Reporting Process 91 Some Common Problems Encountered in the Planning Process 92 Summary 94 Points for Review 95 Notes 96 Chapter 5 The Players: Understanding Consumers and the Market 97 Motivation and Consumer Behavior 99 Using Market Planning and Research to Know Your Market 101 The Macroenvironment 101 Economic Environment 101 Demographic Environment 103 Generational Environment 106 Social and Cultural Environment 106 Political, Legal, and Regulatory Environment 107 Technological Environment 108 Natural Environment 111 The Microenvironment 111 Customers 111 Producers and Suppliers 112 Intermediaries 112 Competitors 112 Publics 113 Summary 114 Points for Review 114 Notes 115 Chapter 6 The Game Plan: The Development of a Situation Analysis 117 Setting the Stage 118 Why Formalize the Situation Analysis? 118 Solid Foundation Versus Gut Instinct 119 The Four Elements of a Situation Analysis 120 Self-Analysis 121 Analysis of Macroenvironmental Factors 122 Contents v

6 Analysis of Microenvironmental Factors 125 SWOT Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats 136 Summary 137 Points For Review 138 Notes 138 Chapter 7 The Background: Marketing Research and Marketing Information Systems 139 Definition of Marketing Research 141 Marketing Research or Market Research? 141 Marketing Research in Banking 142 Using Marketing Research to Understand the Market 143 Types of Market Data 143 Updating Market Data 145 Market Data Sources 146 The Marketing Research Process 146 Step 1: Defining the Problem 146 Step 2: Planning and Designing the Research Project 147 Step 3: Collecting the Data 150 Step 4: Analyzing the Data 154 Step 5: Reporting the Research Finding 154 Step 6: Integrating the Data into Planning 155 When and Why Results Are Used 155 Marketing Information Systems 156 MCIF Introduction 156 MCIF Systems and Marketing Research 157 CRM and MCIF Systems 158 Types of CRM 158 Points of Use and Relevance for MCIF 159 Summary 160 Points for Review 160 Notes 160 PART III Building the Foundation: Strategic Marketing Planning 161 Chapter 8 Master Plan: Developing the Strategic Marketing Planning Process 163 The Marketing Management Process 164 What Is Management? 164 What Is Marketing Management? 165 The Task of Marketing Management 165 The Marketing Planning Process 168 The Importance of Marketing Planning 168 Conducting the Situation Analysis 169 Setting Marketing Objectives 169 vi Marketing Financial Services

7 Selecting the Target Market 170 Designing the Marketing Strategy 171 Implementing the Plan 174 Evaluating the Results 175 Why Plan? Some Routine Arguments 176 Prerequisites for Planning 178 The Planning Funnel 178 Three-Year Planning and Flexibility 179 Summary 179 Points for Review 180 Notes 180 Chapter 9 The Road Map: Setting Goals and Objectives and Identifying Marketing Strategies and Tactics 183 Setting Marketing Goals and Objectives 184 Importance of Setting Marketing Goals and Objectives 186 What Do Goals Look Like? 187 The Hierarchy of Goals in Business 187 Characteristics of Marketing Objectives 189 Developing a Marketing Strategy 190 Bottom Up and Top Down 190 Involving the Entire Organization 191 Segmentation and Target Market Selection 191 Marketing Strategy and Tactics 193 The Eight-Step Process 195 Strategy Formulation in Action 196 Applying Strategy to a Bank Marketing Plan 196 Applying Strategy to a Product Marketing Plan 197 Summary 199 Points for Review 200 Notes 200 Chapter 10 Ready, Aim... : Segmentation and Positioning Strategies 201 Segmenting the Market 202 Avoiding Analysis Paralysis 203 Segmentation at Work 204 Segmentation Strategies 204 Segmenting the Commercial Banking Market 208 Target Market Selection 208 Generational Marketing 210 Integrating Generational Marketing 214 Types of Segmentation 214 Undifferentiated Marketing 214 Differentiated Marketing 214 Concentrated Marketing 215 Contents vii

8 Positioning 215 Summary 217 Points for Review 217 Notes 218 PART IV Building the House: The Marketing Process 219 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 The Foundation: Process Support and Making the Marketing Process Part of Everyday Thinking 221 Structure of Marketing 222 Size and Scope of Marketing Departments 223 Interaction with Operations 224 Call Centers 224 Image Processing 225 Making Marketing An Everyday Process 226 Integrating Branding 227 Customer Service and Experience 229 Recency and Frequency 230 Retention and Attrition 232 Summary 234 Points for Review 236 Notes 236 Keeping Score: Measurement, ROI, and Showing the Worth of Marketing 237 Methods of Evaluation 238 ROI 238 ROMI 238 ROI and ROMI Combined 239 Gaining Agreement 240 Methods of Evaluation 241 Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Payback 241 Full Organizational Impact 242 Calculations 242 ROI 242 ROMI 242 Calculation of Required Lift 243 Break-even Community Event 243 Calculation of Projected Sales Units 243 Product Profitability 243 Using ROI and ROMI to Define and Refine Your Planning and Execution 244 Summary 245 Points for Review 245 Notes 245 viii Marketing Financial Services

9 PART V Marketing-Mix Strategies 247 Chapter 13 Who s on Second? Product Strategy and New Product Development 249 Importance of the Product 250 What Is a Product? 250 Product Item, Product Line, and Product Mix 251 Services vs. Products 252 Product Strategies 255 Product Mix Strategies 255 Product Life Cycle Strategies 257 Package (Systems) Selling 261 New Product Development 262 Types of New Products 262 New Product Development Process and Stages 263 Product Management 266 Adoption and Elimination 267 Product Adopter Categories 267 Product Failures 268 Product Elimination 269 New Products and Services in the Marketplace 271 Overdraft Privilege 271 Totally Free Checking 271 Remote Deposit Capture 272 Mobile Banking 272 Capacity and Demand Strategies 272 Summary 273 Points for Review 273 Notes 274 Chapter 14 How Much? The Pricing Strategy 275 The Definition and Role of Price 276 Pricing and the Bank s Profitability 277 How a Bank Earns a Profit 277 Price Elasticity of Demand 279 ALCO 282 Estimating Customer Response to Price Changes 283 Primary Data and Pricing 283 Secondary Data and Pricing 284 Pricing Decisions 285 Pricing Strategies for New Products 286 Changing the Price of Existing Products 290 How Pricing Decisions Are Made 293 Who Makes Pricing Decisions? 294 Contents ix

10 Reactions to Pricing 295 Customers Reaction 295 Employees Reaction 295 Competitors Reaction 296 Pricing Segmentation Model 296 Price Sensitivities 296 Regulation and the Pricing of Bank Services 297 Summary 298 Points for Review 299 Notes 299 Chapter 15 The Ballpark: Distribution Strategy 301 Marketing Channels 302 A Banking Example 303 Challenges to the Distribution of Bank Services 304 Physical Channels of Distribution for Bank Services 306 The Branch Network 306 Making Banking Services Accessible to the Disabled 313 Beyond Bricks and Mortar 313 Intermediaries in the Banking Industry 320 Summary 321 Points for Review 321 Notes 322 Chapter 16 Learning From Cracker Jack: Promotion Strategy and Personal Selling 323 The Promotion Mix 325 Advertising 325 Sales Promotions 325 Public Relations 325 Personal Selling 326 Service Quality Concept and Standards 326 Measuring Service Quality and Loyalty 327 Service Process Design and Redesign 327 Differences between Selling and Marketing 327 Selling as an Element of Customer Service 328 Ensuring Loyalty and Not Just Satisfaction 329 The Importance of Selling in Banking 330 Characteristics of a Successful Salesperson 334 Personal Attributes 334 Selling Skills 335 Managing the Selling Process 338 Recruiting 338 Training 338 x Marketing Financial Services

11 Motivating 339 Monitoring Results 340 Evaluating the Sales Effort 341 Rewarding Results of the Sales Effort 341 Designing a Training Program 342 Training Program Content 343 Executing a Sales Training Program 344 Summary 345 Points for Review 346 Notes 346 PART VI Hitting the Streets : Taking Your Marketing to the Market 347 Chapter 17 The Announcer: Advertising and Sales Promotion Generating Excitement 349 The Promotion Mix 350 Advertising 350 Sales Promotion 351 Public Relations 351 Personal Selling 351 Relative Use of the Promotion Mix Elements 351 The Communication Goal 352 Type of Product or Service 353 Nature of the Market 353 Product Life Cycle Stage 354 Advertising Expenditures 354 Constructing the Marketing Budget 355 The Size of the Marketing Budget 355 The Bank s Size and Scope 355 Advertising s Share of the Marketing Budget 356 How Advertising Dollars Are Spent 360 The Goals of Advertising 362 Executing the Advertising Message 366 Measuring Advertising s Effectiveness 371 The Advertising Agency 372 Bank Advertising Regulation 373 Sales Promotion 374 Point-of-Purchase Merchandising 374 Incentives 376 Seminars 376 Specialties 376 Contests 377 Premiums or Gifts with Purchase 377 Contents xi

12 The Promotional Campaign 377 Summary 378 Points for Review 379 Notes 380 Chapter 18 The Promoter: Communications Creating Buzz and Spreading the Word 381 The Communication Process 383 Paid versus Public Communications 384 Community Relations 385 Public Relations 386 The Purpose of Public Relations 389 The Position of Public Relations in the Organization 390 The Role of Public Relations 392 Public Relations Tasks 393 Benefits of the Broader Perspective of Public Relations 400 Other Communication Methods 401 Marketing 401 Direct Mail 401 Telemarketing 403 Web Site 403 Partnerships 404 Summary 404 Points for Review 405 Notes 406 PART VII Other Topics in Bank Marketing 407 Chapter 19 The Complete Team: The Wholesale Side of Banking 409 Business Banking 411 Identifying the Market and Assessing Its Needs 411 Adapting the Marketing Mix to the Business Banking Market 413 Trust Marketing 420 Adapting the Marketing Mix to the Trust Market 421 Summary 425 Points for Review 426 Notes 426 PART VIII All-Star Game: Comprehensive Case Studies 427 Case A Conducting Marketing Research to Assist in a New Product Pricing Decision 429 Market Research Report: Pricing a New Low-Cost Checking Account 429 Defining the Problem 429 Planning and Designing the Project 430 xii Marketing Financial Services

13 Selecting a Research Tool 430 Designing the Sample 430 Collecting the Data 432 Analyzing the Data 432 Reporting the Results 437 Case B Marketing Plan for a New Product: Home Equity Credit Line 439 Executive Summary 439 Situation Analysis 440 Economic Data 440 Demographic Data 441 Political/Legal Considerations 441 Social/Cultural Considerations 441 Competitive Analysis 441 Self-Analysis 442 Summary of Problems and Opportunities 444 Goals 444 Corporate Goals 444 Marketing Goals 444 Detailed Marketing Strategy and Tactics 445 Target Market 445 Product Strategy: Product and Market Expansion 445 Pricing Strategy 445 Promotion Strategy 445 Distribution Strategy and Tactics 448 Measurement and Evaluation of Results 448 Case C Sales Techniques 451 Scenario 1. New Checking Customer Effective Technique 451 Scenario 2. New Checking Customer Ineffective Technique 453 Scenario 3. New Savings Account Effective Technique 454 Case D Developing a Retail Promotional Campaign 457 Citizens and Northern Bank Introduces New Focus on Students with Ju$t For Kid$ and Sammy Saver 457 Background 457 Setting Goals and Objectives 457 Developing Strategy and Tactics 457 Selecting the Media 457 Creating the Advertising 458 Developing the Sales Promotion Materials 458 Implementing Internal and External Communications 458 Monitoring and Evaluating Results 458 Note 458 Contents xiii

14 Case E Developing an Advertising Campaign 459 Introduction 459 Background 459 Analysis of LaSalle State Bank s Logo 460 Marketing Mix 460 Goals and Objectives 461 Monitoring 462 Evaluation 462 Conclusion 463 Note 463 Case F Developing a Marketing Plan for Main Street Bank 465 Introduction 465 Situation Analysis 465 Analysis of the Economic Market Environment 465 Analysis of the Demographic Environment 466 Customer Analysis 469 Analysis of the Bank s Competitive Environment 471 Self-Analysis 473 Summary of MSB s Problems and Opportunities 473 Goals and Objectives 476 Mission Statement and Corporate Goals 476 Target Market Selection 476 Selected Marketing Objectives 476 Strategy and Tactics (Action Plan) 477 Strategy #1 477 Strategy #2 477 Case G Using an MCIF to Create, Manage, Track, and Report a Marketing Program 479 Introduction 479 Goals and Objectives 479 Selected Marketing Objectives 479 Preparation 479 MCIF Research 479 Product Reviews 480 Process 480 Outcomes 480 Strategy 480 Timeline 481 Expected Results 481 Case H Examples of Bank Community Relations Activities 483 A Community Development Project 483 Franklin Bank Does Well By Doing Good 483 xiv Marketing Financial Services

15 Community Support Efforts 484 Community Banks Help Battle Floods 484 Community Improvement Project 484 A Major School Initiative Revitalizes a Small Town 484 Notes 485 Case I Marketing Implications of Mergers and Acquisitions 487 Introduction 487 Communication 488 Internal Communications 488 External Communications 488 Product, Pricing, and Distribution Issues 488 Establishing a New Identity 489 Merger Strategies for Customer Retention 489 Conclusion 489 Notes 490 PART IX Tool Kit and Supplemental Resource Guide 491 Tool Kit 493 Supplemental Resource Guide for Financial Services Professionals 529 Glossary 539 Index 551 Contents xv

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