1 Question bank relating to each chapter Chapter 1 Development of a strategic approach to marketing its culture; internal macro- and external micro-environmental issues 1. What factors have given rise to the need for a strategic approach to marketing? 2. What are the key benefits that derive from the process of marketing planning? 3. Describe what you consider to be the most important corporate considerations and inputs to the marketing planning process. 4. Distinguish between marketing objectives, marketing strategies and marketing programmes. 5. What are some of the most recent trends and developments in marketing concepts and applications? 6. Discuss the different approaches to structuring the marketing organization, indicating their relative advantages and disadvantages. 7. What are the key steps in introducing a marketing orientated culture within an organization, and what might be the main problems in achieving this? 8. Outline and discuss what you feel are some of the key developments in the concept and practice of marketing in the contemporary organization. 9. Using examples, discuss the importance of the marketing environment to the marketing manager. Chapter 2 Markets and customers: consumer and organizational buyer behaviour and marketing strategy 1. Discuss and suggest key questions that the marketer must ask and answer about the buying behaviour of customers? 2. What are the uses and limitations of focus group discussions in researching buyer behaviour? 3. There are a number of key steps and stages in consumer buyer behaviour. What are the main categories of forces and factors that affect these? 4. There are a number of key steps and stages in organizational buying behaviour. What are the main categories of forces and factors that affect these? 5. What are some of the major differences between organizational and consumer buying decisions? 6. What do you understand by each of the following and what is their relevance to the organizational marketer? (a) Just in time purchasing; (b) Zero defects (c) EDI systems and the extranet Chapter 3 Markets and customers: market boundaries; target marketing 1. What is the importance of defining the business, and what approaches can be used in order to achieve this? 2. Why is target marketing so important to the contemporary marketer, and what are the criteria for effective segmentation? 3. Why have marketers become increasingly concerned about traditional methods of designating social class? 4. What bases can be used to segment industrial markets? 5. What are the criteria for evaluating market segments, and what are the different targeting strategies which a marketer may use? 6. A microwave oven manufacturer wants to develop a benefit segmentation of the microwave oven market. Suggest some possible benefit segments. 7. In what circumstances might a marketing firm use a concentrated marketing strategy? Illustrate your answer with examples. 8. Explain lifestyle segmentation and discuss its use in market segmentation. 9. Using the two primary dimensions of expensive/not expensive and serious/not serious, plot the product positioning of the national daily newspapers on a two dimensional scale. Discuss a possible product positioning for a new daily newspaper.
2 Chapter 4 Product and innovation strategies 1. Using examples, explain each of the following terms: (a) Product item; (b) Product line; (c) Product mix. 2. Explain the different types of innovations that can be found in markets. Use appropriate illustrations in your explanation. 3. What are the possible alternative strategies for innovation? 4. What are the key steps in developing and launching new products? 5. Explain and discuss some of the most important recent developments in the area of new product development and innovation. 6. Define the product in modern marketing terms. Give an example of a traditional and modern held view of a product or service. 7. Explain and discuss the various product categorizations. What marketing approaches are normally associated with each? 8. How can the product life cycle concept be used as a tool for strategic marketing? Chapter 5 Pricing strategies 1. Explain the key inputs and considerations when making pricing decisions. 2. Why are pricing decisions strategic, and what misconceptions detract from this strategic role for pricing? 3. What are the main internal cost-based methods of pricing and what are their advantages and limitations? 4. Some feel that customer value-based pricing is the only way to set prices. What do you understand by this approach to pricing, and how can it be implemented by the marketer? 5. How might pricing strategies and tactics change over the life cycle of a product? 6. Why is pricing such a dynamic element of marketing, and what are some of the major changes and trends affecting this area of the marketing mix? Chapter 6 Channels of distribution and logistics 1. What are the major strategic channel choices available to the marketer with regard to distribution system design? 2. What is the difference between vertical marketing systems and conventional marketing channels, and why have vertical marketing systems become more popular? 3. Using examples, identify the different basic types of franchise system 4. What is meant by flows in marketing channels and what is the significance of these for channel design and management? 5. Using examples, discuss the different types of conflict which can occur in channels of distribution and how these might be minimized. 6. Why has the effective management of physical distribution and logistics become so important to present day marketers? 7. What is the relationship between materials management, physical distribution and logistics, and how do these different elements affect customer satisfaction? 8. What are the key steps and considerations in designing and operating the business logistics system? 9. What do you understand by the term trade-offs in the design and operation of the business logistics system? 10. What are some of the major trends and developments in the area of physical distribution and logistics? Chapter 7 Communications 1. What are the main elements of the communications process, and how does an understanding of these elements help the marketer develop more effective marketing communications? 2. Outline the key steps in the planning of marketing communications strategies. 3. Compare and contrast the strong versus weak theories of advertising. 4. Using examples, indicate the sorts of situations, products, etc., where each of the following promotional tools might be used:
3 (a) Advertising; (b) Sales promotion; (c) Public relations; (d) Sponsorship. 5. Using examples where appropriate, discuss why direct marketing has become such an important tool of marketing promotion. 6. With examples of your choice, show the usefulness of the following: (a) Brand advertising; (b) Corporate advertising; (c) Generic advertising. 7. Outline some of the major sales promotion tools available to the marketer. 8. Which publics might a public relations campaign be aimed at? 9. Give examples of each of the following: (a) Advertisements using the USP; (b) Advertisements based on imagery ; (c) Advertisements using rationality as the main motivator. 10. To what extent do you believe that below-the-line promotions are particularly useful in encouraging impulse purchases? Chapter 8 Selling 1. What are the major types of sales force, and what are the differences between these types as regards the nature of the selling process and the sorts of skills and activities involved? 2. Why are effective recruitment and selection procedures and techniques so important when considering sales staff; what are the key steps in these processes? 3. What types of training might be required for sales staff in a company, and what key areas should be covered in an initial training programme for new sales staff? 4. What are the key steps in the general sales sequence, and what activities and skills are involved at each of these stages? 5. Discuss the key development in selling and sales management. In your answer state some of the major implications for these for the selling process. 6. Discuss the importance of needs analysis within personal selling. 7. Outline the main stages in personal selling and discuss the techniques that can be used to achieve a sale. 8. What are some of the key developments in selling and sales management, and what are the implications of these for the selling and sales management process? 9. How can the links between motivation, training and evaluation lead to better sales performance? Chapter 9 Customer care and relationship marketing 1. Discuss what is meant by internal marketing and outline why this is increasingly felt to be essential to marketing management. 2. What is the importance of environmental analysis to the marketing manager? 3. What are the three levels of environment and what are some of the major elements in each of these levels? 4. What are the key requirements for an effective system of environmental appraisal? 5. Explain the nature and role of product/brand management. Illustrate your answer with organizational structures most suited to different types of products and services. 6. What do you understand by the term customer care in the context of contemporary marketing, and why has the importance of customer care grown in recent years? 7. Explain how customer care relates to the overall marketing planning process. 8. Outline and discuss the implications of a relationship marketing approach for the practice of marketing. Chapter 10 Direct marketing 1. Explain the implications of what is meant when direct marketing is described as a pro-active approach to marketing, by taking the product or service direct to customers rather than waiting for them to come to the seller. 2. Direct marketing is sometimes referred to as precision marketing. What is meant by this? 3. Why is direct marketing one of the fastest growing areas of marketing?
4 4. What factors have fuelled the growth of direct mail as an element of direct marketing over recent years? 5. What is viral marketing and how is this related to marketing? 6. Explain and discuss the basic principles and applications of database marketing. 7. What are the key steps in conducting a direct mail campaign? 8. Conventional communications, principally media advertising, is not as effective as it used to be. Why is this? How has the rise of the internet enabled companies to better communicate with customers than traditional advertising? 9. What is meant by multi-level marketing and how does it rely on the principle of team building in its implementation? Chapter 11 Sales forecasting 1. Why is it important to attempt to forecast the future with regard to sales and how are these forecasts related to corporate and functional objectives? 2. Outline and discuss the practical applicability of objective techniques of forecasting. 3. Outline and discuss the practical applicability of subjective techniques of forecasting. 4. What is meant by the notion of trade-off between accuracy and costs in the selection of forecasting techniques? Discuss how this trade-off can be made so as to ensure the best value for money for a company. 5. What are the major elements and requirements of the sales forecasting system? 6. As an information flow from the market to the firm, how important is sales forecasting for marketing? Why should such forecasting be the responsibility of the marketing department as opposed to the financial department? 7. What is the relationship between the sales forecast and the sales budget? 8. How does a market forecast differ from a company forecast? How does a top down method of forecasting differ from a bottom up method? 9. For a company of your choice in an industry of your choice, justify the forecasting methodology you would undertake in providing: (a) Medium-term forecasts; (b) Long-term forecasts. Chapter 12 Marketing information systems and research 1. What is a marketing information system? What are the main sub-systems in such a system? Why do marketers increasingly need such information systems? 2. What are the main problems in designing a marketing information system, and how can these problems be minimized? 3. What is a database, and how can such databases be used by the marketer to improve the effectiveness of marketing strategies? 4. Explain each of the following in the context of marketing research: Observation, Experimentation, Survey research, Sampling, Contact methods. 5. What is the research brief; why is it important, and what should the research brief encompass? 6. What problems are to be encountered in assessing the cost effectiveness of marketing research? 7. In what research circumstances are observational techniques more suitable than other fieldwork techniques? 8. Distinguish between the universe and the sample frame. Chapter 13 Analysing the environment: (opportunities and threats) and appraising resources (strengths and weaknesses) 1. What is the importance of strengths and weakness analysis to the marketing manager? 2. What are the problems associated with the use of checklists in an appraisal of strengths and weaknesses? 3. Why is the concept of value so important in the appraisal of company resources, and what are the major groupings of activities in Porter s value chain?
5 4. What are the horizontal and vertical linkages in an organization s value chain, and why can they be important in developing competitive strategies? 5. Discuss the essential stages in an environmental scanning and appraisal system. 6. What do you understand by following terms in the context of appraising company resources: (a) strategic fit; (b) core competencies; (c) marketing assets. 7. Outline the process of conducting a SWOT analysis and discuss the importance of the SWOT analysis for marketing planning purposes. Chapter 14 Evaluating and controlling strategic marketing 1. Why is the evaluation and control of marketing probably one of the weakest areas of marketing practice in many companies, and what can be done about overcoming this weakness? 2. What are the essentials of the control process, and what should the strategic control process enable the management of a company to accomplish? 3. Using examples outline the main types and areas of marketing control. 4. Why is market share analysis often used as one of the main control and evaluation areas of marketing, and what are the problems of using it? 5. Outline the nature and purpose of the marketing audit and discuss the steps in carrying out such an audit. 6. Outline and discuss the different approaches to setting the marketing budget, indicating their relative advantages and disadvantages. Chapter 15 Strategic marketing planning tools 1. What are the key forces in Porter s framework of competitive industry structure? 2. What key pieces of information would the marketer ideally like to know about competitors, and what are the different types of competitor positions that can be identified in an industry? 3. What factors can give rise to conflict in the implementation of strategic marketing plans and how can such conflict be minimised? 4. What aspects does the implementation element of marketing planning encompass, and why is it so important? 5. What do you understand by the term business mission in the context of the marketing planning process? 6. Discuss the use of the Ansoff Matrix in identifying opportunities for growth. 7. Briefly outline how the marketing mix might be combined and vary according to the following situations: (a) At different stages of the product life cycle; (b) In industrial versus consumer markets; (c) In services marketing; (d) In small- and medium-sized companies; (e) In not-for-profit organizations. Chapter 16 Global marketing 1. International/global marketing has been one of the fastest growing areas of commerce over the past forty years. What factors underpin this growth and why might we expect this growth to continue? 2. Using examples, explain Wells international product life cycle theory for international trade. 3. What are the major differences and special issues that arise when considering international as opposed to purely domestic marketing activities? 4. Using examples, explain the following concepts relating to cultural and social forces in international marketing: a. Self reference criterion; b. High and low context culture; c. Cultural sensitivity. 5. Outline and explain the key decisions in planning and implementing international marketing programmes.
6 Chapter 17 Services marketing and not-for-profit marketing 1. Using examples, discuss what you feel to be the key distinguishing characteristics of service products. 2. Discuss the following characteristics of service products in each case indicating the implications of the characteristic for the marketing of service products: i. Inseparability; ii. Perishability; iii. Variability. 3. Using examples discuss what is meant by each of the following additional marketing mix elements in services marketing: i. People; ii. Process. iii. Physical evidence; 4. Compare and contrast relationship versus transaction marketing. 5. Discuss what you feel to be some of the major implications of adopting a relationship marketing approach for the development of marketing strategies. 6. What are the special characteristics of service products, and to what additional issues do these give rise when marketing this type of product?
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