New York State Nursing Schools and Faculty Report:

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1 New York State Nursing Schools and Faculty Report: Institute for Nursing: New York State Nursing Workforce Center 4/5/2012 Carol S. Brewer, Debra A. Wolff, Cathryne A. Welch Page 1 of 50 Copyright 2012, Foundation of New York State Nurses, Inc.

2 Authors Carol S. Brewer, PhD, RN, FAAN NYS AHEC Statewide System Center, Director of Nursing Professor, University at Buffalo School of Nursing Chair, Steering Committee, Institute for Nursing: New York State Nursing Workforce Center Member, Steering Committee, Future of Nursing New York State Action Coalition Debra A. Wolff, RN, MS, PCNP Doctor of Nursing Science Student, The Sage Colleges Project Director, Future of Nursing New York State Action Coalition Foundation of New York State Nurses Cathryne A. Welch, EdD, RN Executive Director, Foundation of New York State Nurses Director, Institute for Nursing: New York State Nursing Workforce Center Co-lead, Steering Committee, Future of Nursing New York State Action Coalition Acknowledgements This work would not have been possible without the support of the New York State Nurses Association (NYSNA), who generously formatted and fielded the study for us. Support for data analysis was provided by funding from the New York Organization of Nurse Executives (NYONE), the New York State (NYS) Council of Deans and Directors of Associate Degree Nursing Programs, the Council of Deans of Nursing Senior Colleges and Universities in NYS, as well as the Foundation of NYS Nurses and the NYS Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Statewide System. Assistance with data analysis was provided by the generous volunteer work of biostatistician Eva Culakova, PhD, from Duke University. We also thank all the member of the Institute s Steering Committee, whose members represent, in addition to the above organizations, the NYS Board for Nursing. The Institute for Nursing (Institute), established in 2008, is a member of the National Forum of State Nursing Workforce Centers as the designated New York Nursing Workforce Center. Its aim is to coordinate the collection, analysis and dissemination of nursing data. It is dedicated to ensuring an adequate supply of qualified professional nursing personnel to meet the health care needs of NYS residents and finding solutions for nursing workforce problems in partnership with engaged stakeholders in NYS. Page 2 of 50

3 Institute Steering Committee Carol S. Brewer, PhD, RN, FAAN NYS AHEC Statewide System Center, Director of Nursing Professor, University at Buffalo School of Nursing Chair, Steering Committee, Institute for Nursing: New York State Nursing Workforce Center Member, Steering Committee, Future of Nursing New York State (NYS) Action Coalition Dianne Cooney-Miner, PhD, RN Dean, Wegmans School of Nursing, St. John Fisher College, Rochester Past President, Council of Deans of Nursing Senior Colleges and Universities in NYS Joan Cusack-McGuirk, RN, BSN, MA, NEA-BC Vice President and Chief Nursing Officer St. Luke's Cornwall Hospital Deborah Elliott, MBA, RN Deputy Executive Officer New York State Nurses Association Member, Steering Committee, Future of Nursing NYS Action Coalition Tina Gerardi, MS, RN, CAE Nursing Consultant, Immediate Past Chief Executive Officer, New York State Nurses Association Member, Steering Committee, Future of Nursing NYS Action Coalition Christine Kovner, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Senior Fellow, Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, NY University College of Nursing Member, Steering Committee, Future of Nursing NYS Action Coalition Marianne Markowitz, MS, RN Dean, College of Nursing, St. Joseph s Hospital and Health Center, Syracuse Past President, New York Council of Associate Degree Nursing Programs Mary Ellen Plass, MS, RN Senior Vice-President and Chief Nursing Officer, Albany Medical Center, Albany Member, Board of Directors of the New York Organization of Nurse Executives Cathryne A. Welch, EdD, RN Executive Director, Foundation of NYS Nurses Director, Institute for Nursing: New York State Nursing Workforce Center Co-lead, Steering Committee, Future of Nursing NYS Action Coalition Debra A. Wolff, RN, MS, PCNP Project Director, Future of Nursing NYS Action Coalition Foundation of NYS Nurses Barbara Zittel, RN, PhD International Nursing Consultant Immediate Past Executive Secretary to the New York State Board for Nursing Member, Steering Committee, Future of Nursing NYS Action Coalition Page 3 of 50

4 Topic Table of Contents Page Acknowledgements.. 2 Institute Steering Committee Members. 3 Table of Contents.. 4 List of Tables and Figures Executive Summary Introduction.. 10 Background Methods Sample.. 13 Survey.. 15 Analysis Results Schools and Programs.. Students Faculty Estimated Faculty Total Future Needs for Faculty Discussion Summary.. 47 References Page 4 of 50

5 Tables and Figures Table Page Table 1 Number and type of nursing schools and programs 18 Table 2 Pre-licensure programs for both respondents and non-respondents 19 Table 3a Post-licensure programs for respondent schools 20 Table 3b Post-licensure programs for non-respondents schools 21 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6a Table 6b Respondent schools - mean, median, range, standard deviation and total number of pre-licensure and post-licensure students Number and percentage of pre-licensure, post-licensure, full-time, and part-time students Total estimated number of students in non-respondent schools using median number of students in respondent schools Estimated number of students from non-respondent schools using Carnegie Classifications Table 7 Full-time status, part-time status of faculty 29 Table 8 Faculty demographics and tenure status 30 Table 9 Number and percentage of faculty by age for type of school and type of 34 program Table 10 Number of faculty with each type of highest degree, by full-time and 35 part-time for both nursing and non-nursing degrees Table 11 Average, median and range of yearly salary for full-time faculty 36 Table 12a Table 12b Total estimated number of nursing faculty in non-respondent schools using median number of nursing faculty in respondent schools Estimated number of nursing faculty from non-respondent schools using Carnegie Classifications Table 13 Budgeted and vacant full-time and part-time faculty positions 40 Table 14 Anticipated hiring of faculty 41 Table 15 New positions anticipated 41 Table 16 Separation of faculty for all reasons 41 Table 17 Separation of faculty for all reasons 42 Page 5 of 50

6 Figure Figure 1 Flow diagram of survey responses from NYS schools of nursing Page.. 14 Figure 2 Map of counties without nursing schools in NYS 17 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Percentage of pre-licensure, post-licensure, full-time and part-time students by type of school Percentage of full- and part-time students in pre- and post-licensure Programs by type of school Mean percentage of tenured and non-tenured fulltime faculty by type of school and type of program Figure 6 Race/ethnicity of CUNY nursing faculty.. 32 Figure 7 Race/ethnicity of SUNY nursing faculty.. 32 Figure 8 Race/ethnicity of private college nursing faculty.. 32 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Number of faculty by age (50 and under, 51 and over) by type of school Number of faculty by age (50 and under, 51 and over) by type of program Percentage of faculty (full-time and part-time) with each type of highest degree Figure 12 Reasons for faculty separation other than retirement.. 42 Figure 13 Strategies used to recruit full-time nursing faculty.. 43 Page 6 of 50

7 Executive Summary Background Nationally, there was a 7.7% vacancy rate of faculty in 2011 in baccalaureate and higher programs (Fang, D., Li, Y., 2011), but that rate is unknown in New York State (NYS). While the average age of a nurse in NYS is 50 years old (Healthcare Association of New York State [HANYS], 2011, p. 3), the average age of nursing faculty in NYS is unknown. Turnover and aging are two factors contributing to the national nursing shortage, that in spite of recent easing, is expected to grow to 260,000 RNs by 2025 (Buerhaus, Auerbach, &Staiger, 2009). Graduations in NYS are predicted to increase through (Center for Health Workforce Studies [CHWS], 2009). Understanding faculty data is important because new nurses are educated by the faculty workforce, and an insufficient supply of faculty places a bottle neck on the supply of all new registered nurse (RN) graduates There are currently no existing data that describe NYS nursing schools and faculty, or evaluate the characteristics of the nursing faculty workforce to shape education, recruitment and employment policies. As a result, The Institute for Nursing: NYS Nursing Workforce Center, initiated a survey and analysis of NYS nursing schools, students, and faculty to help fill this gap. The goal of this study was to survey NYS nursing schools to provide more detailed and complete aggregate baseline data about NYS nursing schools and the number, characteristics, distribution, and retirement plans of faculty. Methodology Survey questions were designed, as much as possible, to be similar to the NYSED survey The survey was converted to a web based format using the CVent software with the collaboration of NYS Nursing Association (NYSNA). Faculty surveys were sent to the deans and directors of NYS nursing schools. Faculty information was collected in aggregate form from each school. Data collection remained open until March Results of the Survey Response to the survey A total of 64 complete responses were obtained for a final response rate of 61.0%. One half of the City University of New York (CUNY) schools responded, 62.0% of the State University of New York (SUNY), and 64.0% of private schools. Page 7 of 50

8 Programs Data collected on separate programs confirmed that there are approximately 231 programs within NYS nursing schools. The pattern of school distribution across the state is very similar, with most schools distributed along the NYS Thruway corridor and in the New York City/Long Island region. Of the 42 counties with a nursing school, only nine counties with nursing schools did not respond. The majority of the responding schools (n=56; 87.5%) have pre-licensure programs, but fewer responding CUNY schools have pre-licensure programs (n=5; 83.3%) versus 88.5% (n=23) of SUNY and 87.5% (n=28) of private schools. AD programs are offered by 56.3% of respondent schools and 48.4% offer generic or accelerated BS. Of accelerated BS programs, 68.4% of these programs are reported in the private schools. Of AD programs 55.2% are in the SUNY system, 15.5% are in the CUNY system and 29.3% are in the private schools. Only 1 CUNY school reported an RN completion program (AD to BS); the most programs (n=18) were reported in private schools. Only 4 respondent schools reported PhD nursing programs, and only 4 reported doctorate in nursing practice (DNP) programs, with two additional programs in non-respondent schools and basic master s programs (n=15). Students The 64 respondent schools reported enrollment of 13,075 full-time (FT) students, and 10,188 part-time (PT) students, for a total of 23,263 students for Fall State-supported schools (SUNY and CUNY) enrolled 37.0% and private schools enrolled 63.0% of the total student population. Faculty Sixty two schools provided faculty level data with a total of 998 FT faculty and 1,076 PT faculty reported. CUNY reported that 68.4% of their faculty were FT versus only about 46% for SUNY and private schools. Schools with post-licensure only programs were more likely to have FT faculty (57.1%) than either pre-licensure only (46.6%) or schools with both pre- and postlicensure programs (48.8%). FT faculty at SUNY and CUNY schools are most likely to have tenure (48.8% and 48.6%, respectively). Pre-licensure only programs had a higher percentage of tenured faculty (56.2%) than post-licensure only (27.2%) or schools with both pre- and postlicensure programs (32.3%). The percentage of female faculty in private schools varied the most (75.0% 100.0%). CUNY schools reported 47.5% of their total faculty were non-white, compared to 8.7% of SUNY faculty and 18.7% of private schools faculty. Only 41.0% (n=25) of all schools reported some faculty under 30, and 15 schools (24.6%) reported faculty over age 70. All schools reported a Page 8 of 50

9 majority of the total faculty age 51 or older with CUNY having the largest percentage (55.9%). Overall 53.9% % of all faculty were 51 years of age or over. A large majority of NYS faculty (69.0%) had a master s degree as their highest degree. Fewer had doctoral degrees (only 18.2%). Only 41 faculty with DNPs were reported. About one third (29.8%) of those with doctorates have them in a non-nursing field. A further 12.9% have bachelor s degree or less. Estimated total faculty Using Carnegie Classifications to estimate non-respondent school faculty numbers, the overall number of faculty from 104 nursing schools in NYS is estimated to be 3,245. Future needs for faculty Of all schools reporting data on vacant positions (n=58), 27.4% reported FT vacant positions, with an average of 21.6 budgeted positions. PT or adjunct faculty were frequently (n=17, 29.3%) used to fill FT positions. The most common clinical specialty positions difficult to fill were, in order, maternal/ob, mental health,, pediatrics, and medical surgical areas. Between the 60 new positions anticipated in and the 77 FT and 73 PT faculty separated in , there is considerable demand for faculty; about 6.6 to 7.0% of the estimated 3,000 or more faculty needed to be filled in the 2011 academic year. Forty-three out of 61 schools (70.5%) anticipate at least one faculty retirement in the next 3 academic years. and there was a Overall it is anticipated there will be 110 faculty retirements from 43 nursing schools in NYS within the next 3 academic years. Recommendations Future educational assessments need to include the number, type, and enrollments of programs available online. Expansion of for-profit nursing schools should be monitored. More and/or expanded programs are likely to be needed in NYS to achieve the IOM recommendations of doubling the number of doctorates in nursing. Adequate funding for NYS nursing students must be explored further, including tuition reimbursement programs, federal and state aid, and private scholarships. Since nursing schools have a critical dependence on PT faculty, more complete data are needed on the characteristics and role of PT faculty, including unpaid adjuncts and clinical preceptors. Curriculum revisions should emphasize efficient use of FT faculty. Exit interviews with departing faculty may assist schools in targeting retention strategies. Page 9 of 50

10 NYS Nursing Schools and Faculty Report Institute for Nursing: NYS Nursing Workforce Center The need for data about the New York State (NYS) nursing education system cannot be overstated. There are currently no existing data that describe NYS nursing schools and faculty, or evaluate the characteristics of the nursing faculty workforce to shape education, recruitment and employment policies. As a result, a survey and analysis were initiated of NYS nursing schools, students, and faculty to help fill this gap. The survey was sponsored by: NYS Area Health Education Center (AHEC) System, NYS Nurses Association (NYSNA), NY Organization of Nurse Executives (NYONE), NYS Council of Deans and Directors of Associate Degree Nursing Programs, Council of Deans of Nursing Senior Colleges and Universities in NYS, as well as the NYS Board of Nursing. The Institute for Nursing: NYS Nursing Workforce Center, located at the Foundation of NYS Nurses, was the lead organization for the implementation and analysis of the survey. Letters of support were obtained from each organization. The purpose of this report was to focus on faculty within the context of basic school information. The faculty shortage is an acute bottleneck in the supply of nurses. However, the pipeline for faculty education is a minimum of two years post baccalaureate for a master s degree, and three years (for the doctor of nursing practice [DNP]) to six years for the doctoral degree - degrees required to teach in most baccalaureate programs. It also became necessary for the report to address students and programs as currently there is no information available that delineates the nursing faculty workforce in NYS in the context of program and student information, or indicates future participation in the workforce of either of these groups. There are some minimal data from the NYS sample from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (NSSRN) 2008 survey reported in the AHEC report (Brewer & Watkins, 2011). In that report (using weighted samples), 13.8% of registered nurses (RNs) in NYS have a master s degree, and just under 1% have a doctorate. The proportion of RNs with graduate degrees working in education fell from 56.5% in 2000 to 34.7% in 2008, or 4.0% of all NYS RNs. Only 17.5% of RNs with Doctorates and 6.9% of RNs with master s degrees work in academic education (Brewer & Watkins, 2011). Page 10 of 50

11 Background Nationally, there was a 7.7% vacancy rate of faculty in 2011 in baccalaureate and higher programs (Fang, D., Li, Y., 2011), but that rate is unknown in NYS. The national faculty average age in 2004 was 53 years and was projected to increase (American Association of College of Nursing [AACN], 2004). A National League of Nursing (NLN) faculty study in 2006 showed that almost two thirds of all full-time nurse faculty members were 45 to 60 years old and likely to retire in the next five to 15 years (NLN, 2006). While the average age of a nurse in NYS is 50 years old (Healthcare Association of New York State [HANYS], 2011, p. 3), the average age of nursing faculty in NYS is not recorded in the National Sample Survey. The national nursing shortage, in spite of recent easing, is expected to grow to 260,000 RNs by 2025 (Buerhaus, Auerbach, &Staiger, 2009). Graduations in NYS were lowest in 2002, but increased 74% to nearly 8,222 graduates in 2007, with increases predicted through 2009 to 9,634 (Center for Health Workforce Studies [CHWS], 2009), which is comparable to the number taking the licensing exam in 2008 (New York State Education Department [NYSED], 2008). Understanding faculty data is important because new nurses are educated by the faculty workforce, and an insufficient supply of faculty places a bottle neck on the supply of all new RN graduates but most especially on new graduates of baccalaureate and doctoral programs. Data to understand how NYS nursing faculty or nursing schools have kept pace with this growth are currently unavailable. Federally required enrollment, graduation, and faculty data are collected by the NYSED, but these data are rarely analyzed. Also included are faculty demographics and class ratios. The NYSED surveys are designed to collect information about each individual program within nursing departments, schools and colleges in NYS. In NYS the large majority of schools confer the baccalaureate of science (BS) degree, not a baccalaureate of science in nursing (BSN), so the term BS to refer to baccalaureate nursing degrees will be used in this report. There are approximately 231 programs (associate degree (AD), BS completion programs, generic BS programs, as well as graduate programs) within these 105 departments, schools, or colleges (we will use school to generically refer to a complete set of programs at one nursing department, school, or college/university). Three basic types of schools exist in NYS: State University of NY (SUNY), City University of NY (CUNY), and private. Each year schools add or close programs, so that data about programs can quickly become outdated. In NYS, as of 2010, data from this survey show there are thirty-eight master s degree programs and ten doctoral nursing programs. Popular programs that may be increasing in enrollment include RN completion (AD to BS), accelerated BS, and DNP programs. About 11% of Page 11 of 50

12 RNs practicing in New York report a master s or doctoral degree as their highest degree (CHWS, 2009; this number is slightly less than the 13.8% reported in the 2008 NSSRN data for NYS), but the proportion of these RNs working as faculty is unknown. Doctoral capacity (enrollments and graduations) is unknown, as the only source of these data are the unpublished NYSED surveys. Without tracking these data, potential shortages cannot be estimated, particularly in underserved areas, nor can best solutions be determined. However, a recent survey of doctoral programs by the Future of Nursing - NYS Action Coalition found that about 470 students are enrolled in NYS doctoral programs, including the DNP (personal communication, Chair, Committee to Double the Number of Doctorates). In a national study, Fang and Li (2011) reported that of schools reporting needing full-time faculty but not hiring (n=104) the reasons were: 1) insufficient funds to hire new faculty (72.1%), 2) unwillingness of administration to commit to additional full-time positions (50.0%), 3) inability to recruit qualified faculty because of competition for jobs with other marketplaces (33.7%), 4) unavailability of qualified applicants for faculty positions in their geographic area (24.0%). In NYS, nursing program expansion is limited by: 1) limits on student slots, 2) lack of clinical sites, 3) lack of qualified faculty, 4) lack of classroom space, and 5) lack of funding for faculty (CHWS, 2009), all of which indicate an educational and governmental inability or unwillingness to invest in nursing schools. No current survey has comprehensive statewide information about graduate nursing students or faculty. The state has reduced funding to the SUNY and CUNY system by many millions of dollars, which may impact nursing schools ability to increase the number of graduates, though it is not evident in what programs the cuts occurred (Bykofsky, 2010). The purpose of this study was to evaluate NYS nursing education schools and the faculty workforce. The goal was to survey NYS nursing schools to provide more detailed and complete aggregate baseline data about NYS nursing schools and the number, characteristics, distribution, and retirement plans of faculty. Regional differences among schools were examined. In addition, the type of school and type of programs offered as well as factors that impact the adequacy of the schools in providing nurses to NYS were compared. Data from the survey will allow an assessment of whether growth in student enrollment matches faculty growth. The University at Buffalo Social Sciences Institutional Review Board reviewed the proposal and it was determined that the survey was exempt. Page 12 of 50

13 Methods Sample: The number of NYS nursing faculty is currently unknown, but a rough estimate shows that it could be as high as 5,250, if each school (n=105) averaged 50 faculty. However, such an estimate would not account for many factors including vacancy rates, size of school, and budget limitations for faculty positions. Brewer and Watkins (2011) estimated about 1300 faculty with master s or doctoral degrees and about 6600 counting all RNs working in academic education. As there was no known contact list for all faculty members so faculty surveys were sent to the deans and directors of schools to fill out as they do their annual NYSED surveys. Lists of schools and deans from NYSED, NYSNA, and the Foundation of NYS Nurses were compared and duplicates eliminated. Deans or directors (N=104) were identified in November, One school was inadvertently not sent the original survey. This was not discovered until after data collection had ended, therefore it will be counted as non-respondent for the purpose of student/faculty estimates, response rates and program descriptions. Adding this school to the original 104 brings the total of NYS nursing schools to 105. Of the original school contacts, 28 recipients made no attempt to open the web-based survey, 7 recipients visited the survey, 7 partially completed it and 62 completed the survey. Based on feedback about either an incorrect or wrong recipient, an additional 22 surveys were sent out. Of these, 14 recipients did not open the survey, 3 visited it, 4 partially completed it and 1 completed the entire survey. Overall 63 complete responses were obtained (see Figure 1). For non-respondents, some partially filled out the survey (n=11) with some of these (n=4) only confirming the name and address of the school, some only visited the survey website without providing data (n=10), while the remainder never opened the survey (n=42). From the available surveys it was found that two programs from the same school had submitted surveys, one with complete data and one with partial data. This school was contacted and the data from both surveys were combined and verified. Two of the surveys that were partially completed had complete data on all the student variables and were therefore used in that part of the analysis. NYS has one online program with 16,000 nursing students (total respondents=65). This program was not included in the analyses (final N=64). In addition, the school websites for nonrespondents were used to identify the type of school or affiliation (SUNY, CUNY or private) and types of programs offered (pre-licensure only, post-licensure only, or both pre- and postlicensure). The final response rate was 61.0%. One half of the CUNY schools responded, 62.0% of the SUNY, and 64.0% of private schools. Figure 1 shows a Flow Diagram of the survey responses. Page 13 of 50

14 Figure 1: Flow Diagram of survey responses from NYS schools of nursing Original survey sent = 104 Plus 1 school that was inadvertently not included Additional surveys sent = 22 Total surveys sent = 126 No Response = 28 No Response = 14 Total No Responses = 42 Visited = 7 Visited = 3 Total Visited = 10 Partial Response = 7 Partial Response = 4 Total Partial Responses = 11 Complete Response = 62 Completed Response = 1 Total Complete Responses = 63 Total Responses Used for Analysis = 63 Complete Responses + 2 Partial Responses = 65 Responses 1 Complete Response = 64 Responses Used for Analysis Page 14 of 50

15 Survey: The survey was designed with the input of the Institute Steering Committee, and reviewed by representatives from the endorsing organizations. Survey questions were designed, as much as possible, to be similar to the NYSED survey, and to fit the requirements of the Minimum Data Set for Education (Forum of State Nursing Workforce Centers, 2009). The goal was to accurately analyze data by the entire school rather than individual programs, and as a result an exact replication of the NYSED survey was not possible because in most schools faculty teach in multiple programs. The survey was converted to a web based format using the CVent software with the collaboration of NYSNA. Data collection began November 2010 and remained open until March 2011, with several reminder s to non-respondents. Information was not collected about online programs or the residency status of students. Faculty information was collected in aggregate form from each school rather than individual faculty data as is done with the NYSED survey. Analysis: Means, medians, frequencies, and contingency tables were analyzed as appropriate. The type of school and type of programs offered were collected from school websites on nonrespondents. Complete data on all schools addresses, type of school and types of programs was thus available for non-respondents as well as respondents. Based on the heterogeneity of nursing schools across NYS, schools were categorized in two different ways for the purpose of analysis. Each school was identified by type of school (SUNY, CUNY or private) and type of programs offered (pre-licensure only, post-licensure only and both pre- and post-licensure). Pre-licensure programs were defined as those that provide professional education before a student becomes licensed as an RN. Post-licensure programs were defined as either undergraduate level (for licensed RNs with a diploma or AD to obtain a BS), or graduate level (master s degree or doctorate). The following assumptions were made for the analysis: 1) tenured faculty were assumed to be full-time, 2) programs listed with reported zero number of students enrolled were assumed to be currently registered with NYSED, and 3) part-time faculty actually working a full-time schedule were recorded as full-time faculty. Composite variables were created in some cases for ease of reporting or to protect the anonymity of responders/non-responders. Lastly, a mean yearly salary was calculated if a respondent provided a salary range instead of a single number for that variable. In addition, an estimate of missing data from the non-respondents was conducted using the means and medians of the respondents to estimate an overall faculty workforce size and enrolled student population. For the purposes of this report one online school with 16,000 students was omitted from the results to avoid skewing the data. Page 15 of 50

16 An estimate of the total number of nursing students and faculty from non-respondent schools was conducted using two different methodologies. Both methods used data from respondent schools. The first method used to estimate the total number of nursing students from nonrespondent schools c (see Table 6a p. 27) was to use the median number of students from respondent schools a and multiple that number by the number of non-respondent schools b from each category (type of school d, type of program e and total nursing student population from all programs f ). This provided three estimates; two were weighted: type of school g and type of program h and the other was not weighted (overall nursing student population i ). The second method used to estimate the total number of nursing students from nonrespondent schools utilized the Carnegie Classification sizes, which range from very small 2- year schools to very large 4-year schools, thereby weighting the estimate by size of school. In Table 6b, p. 29, each school, both respondent and non-respondent, was placed into the appropriate Carnegie Classification size (http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/). The summed total number of nursing students reported by respondent schools j was divided by the summed total student population reported by the Carnegie Classification for each respondent school k to calculate a weighted mean percentage l for each Carnegie Classification. The weighted mean percentage l was then multiplied by the summed total student population provided by Carnegie Classification for the non-respondent schools m to estimate the total number of nursing students in the non-respondent schools for each Carnegie Classification n. To estimate nursing faculty for non-respondent schools a similar methodology was used, however, the Carnegie Classifications do not provide data on total number of faculty per institution. The first method used to estimate the total number of nursing faculty from nonrespondent schools 0 (see Table 12a, p. 38) was to multiply the median number of both fulltime (FT) and part-time (PT) nursing faculty from respondent schools p by the number of nonrespondent schools q from each category (type of school r, type of program s and total nursing faculty population from all programs t ). This provided three estimates; the type of school u or type of program v were weighted and the overall nursing faculty population was unweighted w. The second method used to estimate the number of nursing faculty from non-respondent schools z utilized Carnegie Classification school size categories (Table 12b, p. 40). The weighted median for FT and PT nursing faculty from the faculty survey for each of the Carnegie Classifications x was multiplied by the number of non-respondent schools from each category y. Estimates for both nursing student and nursing faculty populations are discussed in the results section. Page 16 of 50

17 Programs Results Data collected on separate programs confirmed that there are about 231 active programs (such as AD to BS completion programs, generic BS programs, as well as graduate programs) within NYS nursing schools. However, the actual number was uncertain because many schools keep programs on the books even though no students are enrolled. It appears that the reason for this is to avoid the need to obtain NYSED approval for a new program if the program were to be restarted. NYSED requires that each program be registered. Thus, if there are three programs in one school each is registered separately, but the dean or director of the department, school, or college is responsible for filling out the survey for each program for NYSED. Using zip codes, and utilizing MapPoint software the geographic distribution of NYS schools of nursing was examined. A comparison between the geographic distribution of responders and non-responders was made, however, the map is not shown to preserve schools identities. The pattern of school distribution across the state is very similar, with most schools distributed along the NYS Thruway corridor and in the New York City/Long Island region. While rural schools were represented, some specific areas were not if the only school in that area did not respond. Twenty of the 62 counties in NYS are without a nursing school (See Figure 2). Of the 42 counties with a nursing school, only nine counties with nursing schools did not respond. Figure 2: Map of counties without nursing schools in NYS Note: Pushpins represent location of nursing schools (n=104). Counties highlighted in purple do not have a nursing school. Page 17 of 50

18 Table 1 shows the distribution of schools by CUNY, SUNY, and private categories. Nonresponding schools were categorized by checking school websites for information. Therefore this analysis will focus on 104 total schools in NYS. Good representation from each type of school was found with 62.0 % of SUNY schools, 64.0% of private, and 50.0% of CUNY schools represented in the data analysis. Table 1 shows that the majority of the responding schools (n=56; 87.5%) have pre-licensure programs, but fewer responding CUNY schools have prelicensure programs (n=5; 83.3%) versus 88.5% (n=23) of SUNY and 87.5% (n=28) of private schools. Table 1: Number and types of nursing schools and programs (61.0% response rate) Respondents CUNY SUNY Private Total Pre-licensure only Post-licensure only Both pre & post licensure Sub-total Non-respondents Pre-licensure only Post-licensure only Both pre & post licensure Sub-total Total * Note: *One on-line nursing school located in NYS was eliminated from the results. See text for explanation. Key: CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Page 18 of 50

19 In Table 2, the type of pre-licensure programs available by type of school is described, including non-respondent schools. None of the schools offer a generic master s degree program, and a few (respondent=13; non-respondent=2) offer licensed practical nurse (LPN) programs. Associate degree programs are offered by 56.3% of respondent schools and 48.4% offer generic or accelerated BS. Of accelerated BS programs, 68.4% of these programs are reported in the private schools. Of AD programs 55.2% are in the SUNY system, 15.5% are in the CUNY system and 29.3% are in the private schools. Table 2: Pre-licensure programs for both respondents and non-respondents Number of schools with listed program(s) CUNY (n=12) SUNY (n=42) Private (n=50) Prelicensure only (n=55) Postlicensure only (n=14) Both pre & post licensure (n=35) All Programs (n=104) RESPONDENTS LPN Diploma Associate Generic BS Accelerated BS (Non-nursing graduate) Generic Master s degree No Pre-licensure programs NON- RESPONDENTS LPN Diploma Associate Generic BS Accelerated BS (Non-nursing graduate) Generic Master s degree No Pre-licensure programs Key: LPN licensed practical nurse; BS baccalaureate in science; CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Page 19 of 50

20 Post-licensure programs are described in Table 3a and 3b. Only 1 CUNY school reported an RN completion program (AD to BS); the most programs (n=18) were reported in private schools. Only 4 respondent schools reported PhD nursing programs, and only 4 reported DNP programs, with two additional programs in non-respondent schools (it is likely that additional programs have been opened since this survey was completed) and basic master s programs (n=15). There were no generic master s degree programs. Non-respondent information was obtained from school websites and confirmed by information found on the NYSED website list of nursing programs in NYS is presented below in Table 3b. Table 3a: Post-licensure programs for respondent schools Total number of schools RESPONDENTS Number of schools BS in nursing (AD integrated with BS or for RNs with an AD or Diploma) Basic Master s in Nursing (for BS graduates) Accelerated Master s (for RNs with an AD) CUNY (n=12) SUNY (n=42) Private (n=50) Prelicensure only (n=55) Postlicensure only (n=14) Both pre & postlicensure (n=35) All programs (n=104) DNP PhD (Nursing) DNS and other Doctoral programs None Key: AD associate s degree; BS baccalaureate in science; RN registered nurse; DNP Doctorate in nursing practice; DNS Doctorate in nursing science; PhD Doctorate in nursing philosophy; CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Page 20 of 50

21 Table 3b: Post-licensure programs for non-respondent schools Total number of schools NON- RESPONDENTS Number of schools BS in nursing (AD integrated with BS or for RNs with an AD or Diploma) Basic Master s in Nursing (for BSN graduates) Accelerated Master s (for RNs with an Associate degree) CUNY (n=12) SUNY (n=42) Private (n=50) Prelicensure only (n=55) Postlicensure only (n=14) Both pre & post licensure (n=35) All programs (n=104) DNP PhD (Nursing) DNS and other Doctoral programs None Key: BS baccalaureate in nursing science; RN registered nurse; DNP Doctorate in nursing practice; DNS Doctorate in nursing science; PhD Doctorate in nursing philosophy; CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Students Table 4 reports the number of pre-licensure and post-licensure students in the respondent schools, excluding the online school. At this time there is no way to estimate the number of online programs based outside of NYS that enroll NYS students. Specific information about on-line programs was not collected in this survey. Page 21 of 50

22 The 64 respondent schools reported enrollment of 13,075 full-time students, and 10,188 part-time students, for a total of 23,263 students. The average number of students per school was 364 and the median was 225; this large difference indicates a few larger schools are skewing the mean. Almost 66% of FT students were enrolled in private schools, and the remainder in SUNY or CUNY schools. Among PT students, 59.5% were in private schools, and among all students, 63.0% were in private schools. Table 4: For respondent schools - Mean, median, range, standard deviation and total number of pre-licensure & post-licensure students by type of school and type of programs Number of prelicensure & post-licensure students CUNY (n=6) SUNY (n=26) Private (n=32) Prelicensure only (n=35) Postlicensure only (n=8) Both pre & postlicensure (n=21) All programs (n=64) FT students mean median range , , ,200 Standard Deviation Total FT Students 791 3,679 8,605 4, ,557 13,075 PT students mean median range Standard Deviation Total PT students 921 3,206 6,061 3,906 1,236 5,046 10,188 All students mean median range , , ,200 Total FT & PT students 1,712 6,885 14,666 8,012 1,648 13,603 23,263 Key: FT- full-time; PT part-time; CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Page 22 of 50

23 Figure 3 shows a graphic comparison between the percentage of pre-licensure and postlicensure students, both FT and PT by type of school, based on Table 5, which displays the number of students in each category. Private schools enrolled 72.5% of PT post-licensure students and 49.5% of FT post-licensure students. Only 3.6% of FT pre-licensure nursing students were enrolled in respondent CUNY programs. Figure 3: Percentage of pre-licensure, post-licensure, full-time, and part-time students by type of school Pre-licensure Full-time Students CUNY 3.6% Pre-licensure Part-time Students CUNY 9.81% Private 68.0% SUNY 28.4% Private 47.5% SUNY 42.7% Private, 49.5% Post-licensure Full-time Students CUNY, 24.7% Post-licensure Part-time Students CUNY, 8.2% SUNY, 19.3% SUNY, 25.8% Private, 72.5% Key: CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Page 23 of 50

24 Table 5: Number and percentage of pre-licensure, post-licensure, full-time, and part-time students by type of school (N =23,263) CUNY Number of students (row %) (column %) SUNY Number of students (row %) (column %) Private Number of students (row %) (column %) Total number of students (row %) (column %) FT pre-licensure students 416 (3.6%) (24.3%) 3,287 (28.4%) (47.7%) 7,853 (68.0%) (53.5%) 11,556 (100%) (49.7%) PT pre-licensure students 521 (9.8%) (30.4%) 2,266 (42.7%) (32.9%) 2,522 (47.5%) (17.2%) 5,309 (100%) (22.8%) FT post-licensure students 375 (24.7%) (21.9%) 392 (25.8%) (5.7%) 752 (49.5%) (5.1%) 1,519 (100%) (6.5%) PT post-licensure students 400 (8.2%) (23.4%) 940 (19.3%) (13.7%) 3,539 (72.5%) (24.1%) 4,879 (100%) (21.0%) Total number of students 1,712 (7.4%) (100%) 6,885 (29.6%) (100%) 14,666 (63.0%) (99.9%) 23,263 Key: FT full-time; PT part-time; CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Table 5 shows that among respondent schools, state-supported schools (SUNY and CUNY) enrolled 37.0% and private schools enrolled 63.0% of the total student population. Among respondent schools, 32.0% of FT pre-licensure and 52.5% of PT pre-licensure students are educated in state-supported schools. Post-licensure schools include both AD RNs working on a BS degrees, and graduate students. State supported schools enrolled 50.5% of FT post-licensure students and 27.5% of PT post-licensure students. The majority (68.0%) of FT pre-licensure and close to half (49.5%) of the FT post-licensure students are educated in private schools. The private schools also enroll the majority (72.5%) of PT post-licensure students. Page 24 of 50

25 Below, Figure 4 illustrates the composition of the student population by percent (pre-/ postlicensure and FT/PT) for each type of school. Figure 4: Percentage of full- and part-time students in pre- and post-licensure programs by type of school (N= 23,263 students) 100% 90% 23.4% 13.7% 24.1% 80% 5.7% 70% 5.1% 60% 21.9% 32.9% 17.2% 50% 40% 30.4% Post-licensure PT Post- licensure FT Pre-licensure - PT Pre-licensure - FT 30% 20% 47.7% 53.5% 10% 24.3% 0% CUNY (n=1,712 students) SUNY (n=6,885 students) Private (n=14,666 students) Key: PT part-time; FT full-time; CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Page 25 of 50

26 Table 6a: Total estimated number of students in non-respondent schools using median number of students in respondent schools by type of school and type of program (see p. 17) Type of school d Type of program e Total f Number of prelicensure & postlicensure nursing students Total nursing students at respondent schools (Table 4) CUNY (n=6) SUNY (n=26) Private (n=32) Prelicensure only (n=35) Postlicensure only (n=8) Both pre & post - licensure (n=21) All programs (n=64) 1,712 6,885 14,666 8,012 1,648 13,603 23,263 Median number of nursing students / school or program a Number of nonrespondent schools b (n=6) (n=16) (n=18) (n=20) (n=6) (n=14) All programs (n=40) Total estimated number of nursing students at non-respondent schools based on median number in 822 3,200 5,616 3,600 1,092 6,664 9,638 g 11,356 h 9,000 i corresponding respondent schools c Note: Estimation of the median number of nursing students at non-respondent schools c was calculated by multiplying the median number of students a at either type or school d, type of program e or all programs combined f by the number of schools b in each category. Total estimates of nursing students by type of school g. Total estimates of nursing students by type of program h. Total estimates of nursing students for all program totals combined i. Key: CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Two methods were used to estimate total nursing student populations in non-respondent schools (Tables 6a and 6b). See methodology details on page 17. In Table 6a the median number of students from each classification found in previous tables (type of school, type of program, and total nursing student population from all programs) were used to estimate nursing student populations for the non-respondent schools. Using this methodology (Table 6a) the calculated estimates of the total number of nursing students from both respondent (n=23,263) and non-respondent schools was 32,901 by type of school g ; 34,619 by type of programs h ; and 32,263 by overall program totals i. Page 26 of 50

27 In Table 6b, Carnegie Classifications, which allowed a more careful adjustment for the size of the schools, were used to estimate nursing student populations from non-respondent schools. Table 6b (using Carnegie Classifications) shows a total of 23,263 nursing students from respondent schools and an estimated 15,078 nursing students from non-respondent schools which makes an estimated total number of 38,341 nursing students in NYS weighted by size of school. Page 27 of 50

28 Very Small Two Year Small Two Year Medium - Two Year Large Two Year Very Large Two Year Very Small Four Year Small Four Year Medium Four Year Large Four Year Very Large Four Year Unclassified School Total Table 6b: Estimated number of nursing students from non-respondent schools using Carnegie Classifications (weighted by size of school) Respondent Schools Number of schools Total student population for each Carnegie Classification k 2,809 5,086 47,736 58,044 59, ,686 99, ,516 0 Unknown Range student population/school from Carnegie Classification ,153-2,198 2,732-7,208 6,877-14,147 15,507-24,822 _ 1,358-4,094 3,380-14,325 11,714-43,404 _ _ Total FT & PT nursing student population from Faculty Survey j 2, ,368 1,822 1, ,853 5,874 3, ,263 Range nursing student population/school from Faculty Survey _ 60-1, , , _ Weighted mean % l 90.7% 14.6% 2.9% 3.1% 2.5% 9.5% 15.5% 5.9% 3.3% - Non-Respondent Schools Number of schools * 40 Total student population /school from Carnegie Classification m 628 4,294 10,886 29,810 94, ,325 61,887 85, _ Range student population /school from Carnegie Classification ,048-2,246 3,314-3,873 6,667-13,320 14,823-22, ,441-3,320 3,530-12,195 13,858-24, _ Estimated FT & PT nursing student population n , ,615 3,651 2, ,078 *One non-respondent school did not have a Carnegie Classification. From its description, it appears to be a very small 2 year school. An estimate was made for this school based on data from the other 3 verysmall two year non-respondent schools. Note: Estimation of the total number of nursing students at non-respondent schools n was calculated by taking the summed total number of nursing students reported by respondent schools j divided by the summed total student population reported by the Carnegie Classification for each respondent school k to calculate a weighted mean percentage l for each Carnegie Classification. The weighted mean percentage l was then multiplied by the summed total student population provided by Carnegie Classification for the non-respondent schools m to estimate the total number of nursing students in the non-respondent schools for each category n. Key: FT full time; PT part time Page 28 of 50

29 Faculty Faculty were defined as nurses working FT or PT for a wage or salary (Table 7). Deans and directors were asked not to include unpaid adjunct faculty and preceptors. Not all schools reported faculty information and some only provided partial faculty data. Table 7 shows that 62 schools provided faculty level data with a total of 998 FT (median=12, mean= 16.1, SD=11.7) faculty and 1,076 PT (median=11, mean= 18.6, SD=25.2) faculty reported. Four schools left PT faculty data blank and eleven schools only reported PT faculty for specific variables. CUNY reported that 68.4% of their faculty were FT versus only 46-47% for SUNY and private schools. Schools with post-licensure only programs were more likely to have FT faculty (57.1%) than either pre-licensure only (46.6%) or schools with both pre- and post-licensure programs (48.8%). Table 14 differs somewhat from this table because four schools did not respond. Table 7: Full-time status, part-time status of faculty by type of school and type of program. Schools Total number of full time faculty (# schools reporting) CUNY (n=6) 104 (n=6) SUNY (n=26) 343 (n=26) Private (n=30) 551 (n=30) Prelicensure only (n=33) 439 (n=33) Postlicensure only (n=8) 52 (n=8) Both pre & post licensure (n=21) 507 (n=21) All (n=62) 998 (n=62) Mean FT faculty Median FT faculty Standard Deviation Total number of part time faculty (# schools reporting) 48 (n=5) 399 (n=26) 629 (n=27) 504 (n=33) 39 (n=8) 533 (n=17) 1,076 (n=58) Mean PT faculty Median PT faculty Standard Deviation Total Faculty , ,040 2,074 Key: FT full-time; PT part-time; CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Page 29 of 50

30 Faculty demographics were collected from each respondent school. Table 8 provides data on tenure, gender, ethnicity, and age status of faculty by type of school, type of program and overall. Tenured faculty were assumed to be full-time. Table 8: Faculty demographics and tenure status Faculty characteristics (Number of schools reporting faculty level data) CUNY (N=6) SUNY (N=26) Private (N=30) Prelicensure only (N=33) Postlicensure only (N=8) Both pre & post licensure (N=21) All respondents (N=62) Schools reporting tenure n=number of school reporting a tenure system (percentage of schools reporting a tenures system) 6 (100.0%) Faculty Tenure Status 25 (96.2%) 19 (59.4%) 23 (70.0%) 8 (100.0%) 19 (90.5%) 50 (80.6%) Total number of faculty with tenure Mean percentage of FT faculty with tenure 48.7% 48.8% 32.2% 56.2% 27.2% 32.3% 33.8% Faculty Demographics Female (Number of schools reporting gender of faculty) 93.2% (6) 94.9% (26) 95.0% (30) 95.5% (33) 95.5% (8) 94.4% (21) 94.9% (62) Non- White (Number of schools reporting ethnicity of faculty) 47.5% (6) 8.7% (26) 18.7% (29) 16.6% (31) 15.7% (8) 18.0% (21) 17.3% (61) Faculty under 30 (Number of schools reporting age of faculty) 4.6% (6) 2.4% (26) 3.5% (29) 3.4% (33) 1.1% (8) 3.1% (20) 3.1% (61) Faculty over 70 (Number of schools reporting age of faculty) 0% (6) 0.8% (26) 2.5% (29) 0.9% (33) 1.1% (8) 2.5% (20) 1.6% (61) Key: CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Sixty-two schools reported whether or not they had a tenure system; of those fifty schools (80.6%) reported having a tenure system. Among schools that offer tenure, FT faculty at SUNY and CUNY schools are most likely to have tenure (48.8% and 48.6%, respectively), and Page 30 of 50

31 least likely to have tenure in private schools (32.2%). Pre-licensure only programs had a higher percentage of tenured faculty (56.2%) than post-licensure only (27.2%) or schools with both pre- and post-licensure programs (32.3%) (Figure 5 and Table 8). Figure 5: Mean percentage of tenured and non-tenured full-time faculty by type of school and type of program 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 51.4% 51.2% 67.8% 43.9% 72.8% 67.7% 50% 40% Non-Tenured FT faculty 30% 20% 10% 48.6% 48.8% 32.2% 56.2% 27.2% 32.2% Tenured FT faculty 0% Key: FT full-time; CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York The majority (94.9%) of all faculty were female; in fact 20 schools reported 100% female faculty. This varied little by type of school or program. The percentage of female faculty per individual schools ranged from: CUNY (82.8% 100.0%), SUNY (81.8% 100.0%) and private (75.0% 100.0%) (data not shown). Mean percent of total non-white faculty varied considerably (see Figures 6-8). CUNY schools reported 47.5% of their total faculty were non-white, compared to 8.7% of SUNY faculty and 18.7% of private schools faculty. Page 31 of 50

32 Figure 6: Race/Ethnicity of CUNY Nursing Faculty Hispanic/Latino, 3.6% Asian, 5.0% Other, 1.4% White, 52.5% African American, 37.6% White African American Hispanic/Latino Asian Other Figure 7: Race/Ethnicity of SUNY Nursing Faculty African American 4.9% Hispanic/Latino 1.6% Asian 0.9% Other 1.3% White 91.3% White African American Hispanic/Latino Asian Other Figure 8: Race/Ethnicity of Private College Nursing Faculty Hispanic/Latino, 2.2% African American, 9.0% Asian, 3.8% Other, 3.7% White, 81.3% White African American Hispanic/Latino Asian Other Page 32 of 50

33 NYS schools have an aging nursing faculty. Not all schools provided data on the breakdown of age groups for faculty (n=61) and some only reported age groups for full-time faculty (n=51). Only 41.0% (n=25) of all schools reported some faculty under 30, and 15 schools (24.6%) reported faculty over age 70 (data not shown). Figures 9 and 10 show the number of faculty 51 years and over by type of school and type of program, respectively. Percentages of faculty by age are shown in Table 9. Of the type of schools, private schools reported the largest number of faculty age 51 and over (n=523), while all schools reported a majority of the total faculty were age 51 or older with CUNY having the largest percentage (55.9%). Based on the type of programs offered, schools with pre-licensure only programs had the largest number of faculty 51 years of age and over (n=471), while post-licensure only programs had the highest percentage of their total faculty age 51 and over (63.7%). Overall 53.9% % of all faculty were 51 years of age or over. For FT faculty this percentage increased to 62.0% (n=608), while less than half of PT faculty (44.7%; n=385) were age 51 and older. Figure 9: Number of faculty by age (50 and under, 51 and over) by type of school Age 51 and over 200 Age 50 and under CUNY SUNY Private Figure 10: Number of faculty by age (50 and under, 51 and over) by type of program Pre-licensure only Post-licensure only Pre and postlicensure Age 51 and over Age 50 and under Page 33 of 50

34 Table 9: Number and percentage of faculty by age for type of school and type of program Faculty by age (# of schools reporting) CUNY (n=6) Percent (n) SUNY (n=26) Percent (n) Private (n=29) Percent (n) Prelicensure only (n=33) Percent (n) Postlicensure only (n=8) Percent (n) Pre & postlicensure (n=20) Percent (n) Total FT Faculty (n=61) Percent (n) Total PT Faculty (n=51) Percent (n) Overall Faculty Total (n=61) Percent (n) Percentage of faculty age 51 and over (Total number of faculty age 51 and over) Total number of faculty 55.9% (85) 51.9% (385) 55.1% (523) 49.9% (471) 64.7% (58) 57.3% (464) 62.0% (608) 44.7% (385) 53.9% (993) ,843 Key: CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Of the 60 schools that provided data on highest educational status of faculty, a large majority of NYS faculty (69.0%) had a master s degree as their highest degree (Figure 11). Fewer had doctoral degrees (only 18.2%). Only 41 faculty (11.3%) with DNPs were reported among doctoral faculty (Table 10). About one third (29.8%) of those with doctorates have them in a non-nursing field. A further 12.9% have bachelor s degree or less. Most (91.9%) of all degrees are in nursing. Fourteen schools reported having faculty that are not nurses. Page 34 of 50

35 Figure 11: Percentage of faculty (Full-time & Part-time) with each type of highest degree (n=60 schools reporting) Type of Highest Degree Doctorate 18.2% Associates 1.4% Bachelors 11.4% Masters 69.0% Table 10: Number of faculty with each type of highest degree, by full-time and part-time for both nursing and non-nursing degrees (n=60 schools reporting) Associates Bachelors Masters PhD DNP DNS or Other Doctorate Total Nursing Degree FT Nursing Degree PT Total Non-nursing Degree FT Non-nursing Degree PT Total Overall Total Key: FT- full-time; PT part-time; PhD Doctorate in nursing philosophy; DNP Doctorate in nursing practice Page 35 of 50

36 Table 11 shows the annual average and median salary of schools for FT faculty (n=55 schools) reported by the deans and directors. Several respondent schools did not report salary data. PT faculty wages were reported in a wide variety of non-equivalent ways, so were omitted from this report. Average yearly salaries were estimated for FT faculty. Deans or directors were asked to report the average yearly salary for each rank (full-time and part-time), without consideration of tenure status, educational level or longevity. These salary estimates were then averaged across schools, therefore, the results in Table 11 should be considered only an overall approximation of nursing faculty salaries in NYS. The highest yearly salary for FT faculty was reported for CUNY schools, and the lowest for SUNY schools. Table 11: Average, median and range of yearly salary for full-time faculty by type of school, type of program, and overall (n=55) Both Prelicensurlicensure All Post- Full- pre- CUNY SUNY Private Time &post- (n=6) (n=24) (n=25) only only (n=55) Faculty licensure (n=28) (n=8) (n=19) Average Yearly Salary Median Yearly Salary Yearly Salary Range $71,666 $60,606 $70,554 $64,185 $68,398 $68,633 $66,334 $72,500 $60,000 $70,000 $65,000 $65,714 $67,000 $65,000 $65,000- $78,000 $40,000 - $86,523 $40,000 - $125,000 $40,000 - $85,000 Key: CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York $60,000 - $86,752 $40,000 - $125,000 $40,000 - $125,000 Schools pay FT faculty by a variety of methods (data not shown). Most schools pay faculty by semester (48.3%; n=891), with 37.3% (n=688) paid by 9-10 month contracts. Only 14.3% (n=264) of FT faculty are paid by 12 month contracts. Average yearly salaries in Table 11 were not adjusted by how faculty were paid as these were two separate survey questions. Estimated total faculty Table 7 shows the number of faculty from respondent schools (FT=998, PT=1,076), with a median of 23 and average of 33 nursing faculty (FT and PT) in each school (data not shown). Two schools that did not report any faculty data were considered non-respondent schools for Page 36 of 50

37 this part of the analysis. Two methods were used to estimate total faculty. Details on the methodology are reported on p. 17. Table 12a displays the first method. An estimate for non-respondent schools was calculated by multiplying the number of non-respondent schools in each category by the corresponding estimated median of respondent schools in the same category. The total number of known FT and PT faculty (n=2,074) from respondent schools, was added to the numbers calculated in Table 12a. This resulted in an estimate of the overall number of faculty from all 104 nursing schools in NYS to be from 3,012 to 3,019. As shown in Table 7, however, the total number of full and part-time faculty varied considerably by type of school and type of program. In addition, it would stand to reason that the size of each school would also impact the number of nursing faculty. Table 12a: Total estimated number of nursing faculty in non-respondent schools using median number of nursing faculty in respondent schools by type of school, type of program, and overall total from all programs Number of full-time & part-time nursing faculty (Number of schools reporting data) Total nursing faculty (FT and PT) at respondent schools (Table 7) CUNY (n=6) Type of school r Type of program s Total t SUNY (n=26) Private (n=30) Prelicensure only (n=33) Postlicensure only (n=8) Both pre & post - licensure (n=21) All programs (n=62) , ,040 2,074 Median number of nursing faculty (FT and PT) / school p Number of nonrespondent schools (includes two schools that did not report faculty level data) q (n=6) (n=16) (n=20) (n=22) (n=6) (n=14) All programs (n=42) Total estimated number of nursing faculty at non-respondent schools o u 941 v 945 w Note: Estimation of the median number of nursing faculty (full-time and part-time) at non-respondent schools o was calculated by multiplying the median number p of nursing faculty at either type or school r, type of program s or all programs combined t by the number of schools q in each category. Total estimates of nursing faculty by type of school u. Total estimates of nursing faculty by type of program v. Total estimates of nursing faculty for all program totals combined w. Key: CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York; FT full-time; PT part-time Page 37 of 50

38 For this reason an additional method to estimate the total number of nursing faculty in NYS was conducted. In Table 12b, Carnegie Classifications, which allowed a more careful adjustment for the size of the schools, were used to estimate nursing faculty populations from non-respondent schools. See details on methodology on p. 17. Again, the total number of known FT and PT faculty (n=2,074) from respondent schools, was added to the numbers calculated in Table 12b. This methodology resulted in an estimate of the overall number of faculty from all 104 nursing schools in NYS to be 3,245. Both methods resulted in a median estimate of the number of total faculty ranging from 3,019 to 3,245. Page 38 of 50

39 Very Small Two Year Small Two Year Medium - Two Year Large Two Year Very Large Two Year Very Small Four Year Small Four Year Medium Four Year Large Four Year Very Large Four Year Unclassified School Overall Total Table 12b: Estimated number of nursing faculty from non-respondent schools using Carnegie Classifications (weighted by size of school) Respondent Schools Number of schools Total FT & PT nursing faculty population ,074 from Faculty Survey Range nursing faculty population/school from Faculty Survey Weighted median for FT & PT nursing faculty x Non-Respondent Schools Number of schools y Estimated FT & PT nursing faculty population using weighted median z Key: FT full time; PT part-time Note: Estimation of the total number of nursing faculty at non-respondent schools z was calculated by taking the weighted median for Full-time and part-time nursing faculty from the survey for each of the Carnegie Classifications x multiplied by the number of non-respondent schools from each category y. 1 Missing faculty data on two respondent schools. 2 Two respondent schools with missing faculty data (Carnegie Classification of very small-two year) added to number of non-respondent schools in that category. 3 One respondent school with no Carnegie Classification had 12 faculty reported. 4 Median not weighted by size of school for total FT & PT faculty. 5 Estimated nursing faculty total from non-respondent schools based on median for the overall total (22.5) X number of non-respondent schools (42). 6 Estimated nursing faculty total from non-respondent schools based on sum of estimated FT & PT nursing faculty population using weighted median (row total). Median = ,171 6 Page 39 of 50

40 Future needs for faculty The number of current (as of October 2010) budgeted and vacant PT and FT positions is shown in Table 13. Of all schools reporting data on vacant positions (n=58), 27.4% reported FT vacant positions, with an average of 21.6 budgeted positions. PT or adjunct faculty were frequently (n=17, 29.3%) used to fill FT positions. Table 13: Budgeted and vacant full-time and part-time faculty positions by type of school, type of program, and overall (n=58) Budgeted and vacant positions (number of schools reporting data) CUNY (n=6) SUNY (n=26) Private (n=26) Prelicensure only (n=33) Postlicensure only (n=7) Pre- & postlicensure (n=18) All Schools (n=58) Number of FT budgeted faculty Number of vacant FT budgeted faculty FT faculty vacancy rate Number of PT budgeted faculty Number of vacant PT budgeted faculty PT faculty vacancy rate % 5.1% 2.4% 2.6% 6.8% 4.3% 3.6% % 9.4% 1.2% 8.4% 12.8% 0.3% 3.8% Key: FT full-time; PT part-time; CUNY City University of New York; SUNY State University of New York Page 40 of 50

41 About one third of the schools expected to hire faculty in (Table 14), however, the survey question did not ask schools to specify FT or PT faculty. Hiring was projected to be brisk in with 23 schools expected to hire 60 new faculty (Table 15). Twenty schools anticipate hiring fewer faculty in in compared to the prior year. Table 14: Anticipated hiring of faculty (n=61 schools responding) Did the school: Yes No Don t Know Use part-time or adjunct faculty to fill full-time positions they were unable to fill? Anticipate budgeting for new faculty positions in academic year Anticipate budgeting for new faculty positions in academic year Anticipate eliminating budgeted position in * Have trouble recruiting new faculty with specific clinical specialties for the academic year *Note: Five positions are expected to be eliminated; however 4 of those are from a program that is closing. Table 15: New positions anticipated Number of new positions anticipated (number of schools reporting) Number of positions Range Mean Median (n=23) (n=20) The most common clinical specialty positions open that schools reported having difficulty filling were maternal/ob (19), mental health (14), pediatrics (16), medical surgical areas, including subspecialties (11) and other (3) (data not shown). Between the 60 new positions anticipated in (Table 15) and the 77 FT and 73 PT faculty separated in (Table 16), there is considerable demand for faculty; about 6.6 to 7.0% of the estimated 3000 or more faculty needed to be filled in the 2011 academic year. Page 41 of 50

42 Table 16: Separation of faculty for all reasons (full-time and part-time) (n=61 schools) Faculty separated in Full-time faculty Part-time faculty Total number of faculty from all schools Mean number of faculty per school Median number of faculty Range of faculty per school A total of 17 separations were due to retirement for all schools out of a total of 150 FT and PT separations for all schools, resulting in an 11.3% retirement rate. Only 5 retirements out of 17 (29.4%) were in response to incentives. Overall it is anticipated there will be 110 faculty retirements from 43 nursing schools in NYS within the next 3 academic years. Forty-three out of 61 schools (70.5%) anticipate at least one faculty retirement in the next 3 academic years. A variety of causes for separation was given (Figure 12).Out of 61 schools that responded to this question, 53 schools (86.9%) listed at least one reason for cause of faculty separation other than retirement. A range of 0 5 reasons per school were listed. Figure 12: Reasons for faculty separation other than retirement (n=61 schools) Career change outside of nursing Career change within nursing Accepted nursing faculty position elsewhere Workload or other working condition Salary issue Family obligation Continuing education Involuntary non-budget related Involuntary budget related Unknown Other - Did not reapply Other - Promotion Other - Relocation Other - Did not meet credential requirements Other - Terminated/Performance Related Other - Death Note: Schools could list more than one reason for faculty separation (range 0-5 reasons/school) Page 42 of 50

43 Schools used a variety of strategies to recruit for and fill full-time vacant budgeted positions in the last three years. Out of 61 schools that responded, 10 did not identify any strategies. The remaining 51 schools primarily used increased salaries to recruit faculty (Figure 13). Figure 13: Strategies used to recruit full-time nursing faculty (n=51 schools) No unfilled positions/not applicable Increased salaries Bonuses Housing assistance Reduced teaching load Research assistance Small research grant Other - Take BS faculty completing Master's Other - Convert part-time faculty to full-time Other - Encourage PT faculty to continue # Schools that use each strategy 21 Note: Schools could list more than one strategy for recruitment. Number of strategies used per school ranged from 0 4. Discussion Some limitations arising from the methods used for this survey should be mentioned. This survey is the first complete report on schools of nursing that examines NYS nursing faculty. Difficulties with analysis arose because schools were not consistent in reporting total faculty data across categories such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational levels, full and parttime designations and budgeted vacant positions. Missing data for part-time faculty was also a limitation. Improvement with future surveys will be needed to obtain more accurate response rates for each variable. Trend data are missing because there are no recent reports on NYS schools of nursing, which would help put this report in perspective. A discrepancy between the total number of NYS nursing schools reported in 2011 by CHWS (119 schools) and the number of schools included in this report (n=105 schools) may highlight the differences in methodologies used to define separate schools. Programs that have separate geographic campuses but are administratively one school may be counted twice in some instances for CHWS. Page 43 of 50

44 This report focused on schools and faculty, not students. These data do not include graduations, however, not all graduates will become licensed or stay in NYS. Thus graduations, per se are not an accurate estimate of the nurse supply in NYS. Nursing Schools and Programs A major policy discussion is underway in NYS with the publication of the Institute of Medicine s Report: Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health (2010). One recommendation is to have 80% of RNs have their BS by There are several challenges to achieving that recommendation in NYS. Geographically, a number of counties do not have nursing schools and their populations would have to travel some distance to attend one in person. However, numerous online courses and programs are now available nationwide. This report did not assess the degree to which any existing programs are available online as well as those available as satellite programs. Future educational assessments need to include the number, type, and enrollments of programs available online. The one respondent program we were not able to include in this analysis could then be included. Based on the data in this report, RN completion and master s programs are more common in the private schools. These programs do not require undergraduate clinical experiences, so may be more financially rewarding for schools to provide. A number of creative proposals have been made to increase the number of BS graduates. One is for AD programs to be allowed to offer BS programs. Others revolve around various improvements in articulation between programs and integration of AD and BS curriculums (e.g., 1+2+1) (Markowitz and Bastable, in press). Additionally, there is a growing trend for health care service and academic collaborations in which nursing programs provide courses to a cohort of nursing staff on-site in the health care facility (Niederhauser, MacIntyre, Garner, Teel & Murray, 2010). Future reports may be able to monitor this trend. Another IOM recommendation is to double the number of nurses with doctorates. More information about doctoral preparation will be available soon from the Future of Nursing NYS Action Coalition s Sub-Committee on Doubling the Doctorate. Preliminary results indicate a significant shortfall in NYS s capacity to produce doctorally prepared nurses. Only 15 doctoral programs in NYS currently exist, however, additional DNP programs may have opened since this survey or are close to enrolling new students. Graduations from graduate programs remain a gap in workforce information. More and/or expanded programs are likely to be needed to achieve the IOM recommendations of doubling the number of doctorates in nursing. Page 44 of 50

45 Since this faculty survey was conducted, four new nursing schools have been recognized by the State Board of Nursing, while one nursing school has closed. Out of the 42 private schools in the faculty survey, only 2 were private for-profit. Interestingly, all four new schools are private for-profit, while the one that closed was a SUNY school. This may demonstrate a future trend, where for-profit schools will help fill the gap in supply of available nursing school slots. Students Unfortunately, due to resource constraints and because the main focus of this survey was on faculty, information about student graduations and enrollments was not collected. Currently, data are collected for undergraduates by CHWS. In addition, no data are presently collected on admissions, stopout, or dropout rates of enrolled nursing students. Other relevant information about undergraduate students includes graduations, which in 2010 were 9,530 (CHWS). There is no information on graduations from graduate programs. The Office of the Professions granted 13,572 licenses in 2010 (NYSED, 2011). The latter includes nurses not practicing in NYS. Thus a complete picture of the NYS nursing education pipeline is still lacking that would include all the elements of the Minimum Data Set for Education (Forum of State Nursing Workforce Centers (2009). Estimates of the high and low of all enrolled students varied by 6,078 students in this report due to the variation in estimates of students in non-respondent schools. There were only about 3,000 fewer PT students than FT in respondent schools. The large number of PT students is important because PT students are generally not eligible for scholarships. Overall, 37.0% of all students are enrolled in public schools versus private schools, indicating that private enrollment plays a major role in producing nurses in NYS. Adequate funding for NYS nursing students must be explored further, including tuition reimbursement programs, federal and state aid, private scholarships and out of pocket expenses. Faculty The number of faculty in NYS, including both PT and FT, is estimated to be from 2990 to 3193 faculty. Some smaller schools did not report PT faculty, making it difficult to calculate estimates for the missing data. The 2008 NSSRN report for NYS estimated a faculty size of 6,618, but this was a weighted estimate from a very small sample. The survey s definition of PT faculty did not include unpaid adjuncts, or faculty paid from other sources (e.g., hospitals), so may underestimate the overall number of PT faculty. Schools reported 998 FT faculty (Table 7) and 890 budgeted FT faculty (Table 14). This discrepancy may be because four fewer schools reported FT faculty, or because PT faculty were working in FT positions, which was reported as a strategy in Table 15. Thus the number of PT faculty needed would be less. Possibly, schools are simply not able to forecast faculty needs very well. Since nursing schools Page 45 of 50

46 have a critical dependence on PT faculty, more complete data are needed on the characteristics and role of PT faculty, including unpaid adjuncts and clinical preceptors. The ethnic/racial diversity among nursing faculty is also of great interest. NYS s population (2010) is 15.9% Black/African American and 17.6% Hispanic/Latino, compared to national figures of 12.6% and 16.3%, respectively (US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration [US DHHS HRSA], 2010 ). As shown in Figures 6-8, diversity among NYS faculty varies considerably by type of school. In NYS where CUNY schools are located in metropolitan New York City, diversity is better with 37.6% African- American faculty, although there are only 3.6% Hispanic/Latino faculty in the respondent CUNY schools. Private schools faculty are 9.5% African American and 2.2% Hispanic, and SUNY schools are only 4.9% and 1.6% respectively. To some degree these schools are representative of their locations. For example, there are a number of SUNY schools, especially associate degree programs, located in rural areas that are predominately white. Lack of diversity among faculty is still a considerable challenge for nursing schools. NYS schools have, in common with other states, an aging faculty. An overall average age of nursing faculty could not be calculated since individual level faculty data were not collected. But it is evident that if 24.2% of respondent schools have faculty over 70 and more than half of all faculty were 51 or over, increasing the number of doctorally prepared faculty is needed just to replace retiring faculty. Faculty over age 51 were over 50% in all the types of schools, but those schools offering post-licensure only programs had almost two-thirds of their faculty over 51. In the 2008 NSSRN 19% of faculty were 60 or older, and 60% were over age 50 (US DHHS HRSA, 2010). The average ages of doctorally-prepared nurse faculty holding the ranks of professor, associate professor, and assistant professor were 60.5, 57.1, and 51.5 years, respectively, with slightly younger ages for those with master s degrees (57.7, 56.4 and 50.9 years, respectively) (AACN, 2011). Almost 70% of all NYS faculty have as their highest degree a master s degree, 18.2% of nursing faculty currently have a doctorate. Thus, in spite of the doctorate being considered a terminal degree in academia for many years, NYS is far from achieving that goal. US DHHS HRSA (2010) reported nationally faculty average salaries in 2008 were $63,985, close to the $65,000 median salaries reported here for 2011, and nurses with master s or doctorates earned $87,363 nationally. Salaries in NYS thus may be comparable to national salaries in 2008; if accurate, this is of considerable concern for faculty retention, particularly for schools reporting salary as a reason for separation and problems with recruitment of faculty. Page 46 of 50

47 A complete picture of faculty salaries is not possible until a system for comparing the wide variety of payment methods can be devised. Private schools reported the widest salary range by program type. The median was lowest in SUNY schools, but very similar across both preand post-licensure programs. Almost half (48.3%) of faculty were paid by semester. While this corresponds to the high number of PT faculty, it may also contribute to significant career insecurity for faculty. Revising curriculums to use faculty more evenly across semesters may be a strategy to allow hiring of more FT faculty. On average every school lost one faculty member the previous year; one quarter of schools had vacant FT position(s) with an estimated 3.6% FT vacancy rate. While a third of schools anticipated hiring new faculty (99 new positions over the next two years), faculty hiring into new positions was expected to slow in It is possible respondents simply did not feel comfortable making predictions about hiring three years out, so estimated conservatively, or may be responding to enrollment or application changes based on the school s data. About one third of the schools responded that the reason faculty left was unknown (more than one reason could be checked), indicating faculty turnover is not well understood. Career changes and changing faculty positions were the next most common reasons to leave other than retirement. Exit interviews with departing faculty may assist schools in targeting retention strategies. Summary This report shows the size and variety of nursing education programs in NYS. The physical distribution of schools across the state probably does not reflect availability of RN-BS programs due to availability of online and satellite programs, but may impact access to generic programs. In addition, the high proportion of faculty with master s degrees needs to be better understood. Lack of diversity, age of faculty, and salaries are also of concern. This report provides new but basic information about programs and faculty, and includes some minimal information about student enrollments. An improvement in response rates is needed to improve the accuracy of the data. Another gap in the data are the number and kind of online programs, which will inform nursing education policy about access to nursing education. Overall, significant gaps remain in the amount of information we have on the NYS education system for nurses. Page 47 of 50

48 References American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2004,).Nursing faculty shortage fact sheet. Retrieved from American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (2011) Salaries of instructional and administrative nursing faculty in baccalaureate and graduate programs in nursing. Retrieved from Brewer, C.S. & Watkins, R. (2011). New York State Nurses: A Regional analysis of the 2008 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. Retrieved from Bykofsky, M. (2010, November 30). Governor Paterson orders $90M SUNY budget cut. Pipedream. Retrieved from Buerhaus, P.I., Auerbach, D.I. & Staiger.D.O. (2009). The recent surge in nurse employment: causes and implications. Health Affairs, 28(4), doi: /hlthaff.28.4.w657 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. (2012). The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Retrieved from Center for Health Workforce Studies (CHWS). (2011). Trends in NYS registered nurse graduations, Retrieved from Committee for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing at the Institute of Medicine. (2010). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Page 48 of 50

49 Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from Fang, D., Li, Y. (2011). Special Survey on Vacant Faculty Positions. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Retrieved from Forum of State Nursing Workforce Centers. (2009). National Nursing Workforce Minimum Datasets (Supply, Demand, Education). Retrieved from Healthcare Association of New York State. (2011). Nurses and allied health professionals New York s growing demand. Retrieved from workforce_survey_results_2011.pdf Markowitz, M. & Bastable, S. (2012). Dual degree partnership in nursing: The first five years of success. Manuscript submitted for publication. National League for Nursing. (2006). NLN s 2006 Faculty census survey shows increased vacancy rates. Retrieved from Niederhauser, V., MacIntyre, R. C., Garner, C., Teel, C. & Murray, T. A. (2010). Transformational partnerships in nursing education. Nursing Educ. Perspect, 31, NYS Education Department. (2011). Nursecounts. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources Services Administration. (2010). HRSA Databases. Retrieved from Page 49 of 50

50 New York State Nursing Programs and Faculty Report Institute for Nursing: New York State Nursing Workforce Center Page 50 of 50

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