The potential of cloud slicing to derive profile information from Nadir looking instruments

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1 The potential of cloud slicing to derive profile information from Nadir looking instruments Thomas Wagner, Steffen Beirle, Cheng Liu MPI for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany Pioneering studies (trop. O 3 from TOMS) Applications to CO and NO 2 from SCIAMACHY Potential of future missions (better spatial coverage and resolution)

2 Ziemke et al., 1998: High Clouds Shield the Troposphere Monthly Distribution of Tropospheric O 3

3 Ziemke et al., 1998: Time series of tropospheric O 3 at different stations, comparison with ozone sondes

4 Cloud slicing: use of cloudy measurements with different cloud heights => upper troposphere mixing ratios Ziemke et al., 2001

5 Ensemble cloud slicing: use of cloudy measurements with different cloud heights => upper troposphere mixing ratios Ziemke et al., 2001

6 Cloud slicing: use of cloudy measurements with different cloud heights => upper troposphere mixing ratios Scatter plot for area over the Atlantic Ziemke et al., 2001

7 Cloud Very successful Slicing: use method of cloudy - measurements but: with different cloud heights => upper troposphere mixing ratios -average values for extended time periods (typically monthly mean values) and large areas -lifetime of trace gas has to be long and its abundance should not systemtically depend on the actinic flux -both cloud heights and trace gas profiles probably systematically depend on meteorology => cloud slicing profiles do not represent true average Ziemke profiles et al., 2001 solution: comparison with model results sampled in the same way as the mesurements => Cloud slicing for CO from SCIAMACHY

8 Cloud slicing for SCIAMACH CO measurements Partial columns for 1 km resolution height grid CO VCD above 2.5km Jan. to Mar. of CO CO VCD VCD above 4.5km 3.5km CO VCD above 2.5km above 0.5km CO VCD above 4.5km CO VCD above 2.5km above 2.5km CO CO VCD VCD above above 6.5km 5.5km CO CO VCD VCD above above 4.5km 3.5km above 4.5km above 6.5km CO VCD above 6.5km Cheng Liu, MPIC Mainz, ACPD, 2013 CO VCD above 7.5km

9 Jan - Mar Apr - Jun Jul - Sep Oct - Dec Biomass burning CO partical VCDs from SCIAMACHY observations and model simulations for selected regions. The dark green lines indicate EMAC results without cloud slicing. Cheng Liu, MPIC Mainz, ACPD, 2013

10 Jan to Mar 2003~ 2005 CO total column 0-20 N 0-20 E Longitude Latitude ITCZ is in the south => CO is transported upwards and to the north Cheng Liu, MPIC Mainz, ACPD, 2013

11 Transport patterns are not well represented by the models 0-20 N Cheng Liu, MPIC Mainz, ACPD, E

12 Jan to Mar 2003~ N CO total column Cheng Liu, MPIC Mainz, ACPD, E

13 What about short lived species? => Cloud slicing for NO 2 from SCIAMACHY Additional complications - lifetime is of the order of hours - partitioning between NO and NO 2 depends on actinic flux - potential interference with NO x produced by lightning

14 Dependency of the tropospheric NO 2 SCD on cloud top height (cloud fraction > 50 %) in Eastern Asia partial NO 2 columns Mean NO 2 TSCD (10 15 molec/cm 2 ) Mean NO 2 TSCD - 1 < T < 2-2 < T < 3-3 < T < 5-5 < T *10 15 molec/cm 2 Cloud top height (km) For CTH > 6 km the mean TSCD increases, probably due to convection and lightning NO x.

15 Dependency of the tropospheric NO 2 SCD on cloud top height (cloud fraction > 50 %) in Eastern Asia partial NO 2 columns derived NO 2 profiles Mean NO 2 TSCD (10 15 molec/cm 2 ) Mean NO 2 TSCD - 1 < T < 2-2 < T < 3-3 < T < 5-5 < T *10 15 molec/cm 2 Mean NO 2 mixing ratio (ppt) Cloud top height (km) Cloud top height (km) For CTH > 6 km the mean TSCD increases, probably due to convection and lightning NO x.

16 Dependency of the tropospheric NO 2 SCD on cloud fraction (CF) SCD(CF) = SCD trop CF SCD clear clear part cloudy part TSCD (arbitrary units) 1 CF I clear SCD clear CF I cloudy 1 CF I clear CF I cloudy SCD SCD cloudy cloudy Cloud fraction

17 Fit of the model function to OMI measurements (over Europe) With this method, SCD clear can be determined (also SCD cloudy ) Mean NO 2 TSCD - 1< S <2-2< S <3-3< S <5-5< S *10 15 molec/cm 2

18 From the derived SCD clear and SCD cloudy partial NO 2 SDCs for selected height ranges can be determined NO 2 VCD for the < 3 km (summer )

19 From the derived SCD clear and SCD cloudy partial NO 2 SDCs for selected height ranges can be determined NO 2 VCD for the > 3 km (summer )

20 From the derived SCD clear and SCD cloudy partial NO 2 SDCs for selected height ranges can be determined Cloudy skies typically occur for westerly winds Clear skies typically occur for easterly winds => For quantitative interpretation, comparison with models is necessary (including photo-chemistry NO 2 VCD and for the high > 3 spatial km (summer resolution) )

21 What can new sensors offer? - TROPOMI (S5p): daily global coverage and high spatial resolution (7 * 7 km²) => more neighbouring measurements in megacity emission plumes => higher probability for completely clear and cloudy pixels => cloud slicing on a daily basis?

22 Probability of cloud contamination depending on pixel size Krijger, J. M., van Weele, M., Aben, I., and Frey, R, ACP, ~20% Sentinels (~2015) OMI (2004) SCIA (2002) GOME-2 (2006)

23 Average trop. NO 2 from OMI Bremen Ruhr area 7 * 7 km² Tropomi spatial sampling Mainz Frankfurt Mannheim New sensors allow cloud slicing on daily basis

24 Example: OMI observations over Paris, => often lower NO 2 VCDs are observed for larger cloud fractions NO 2 VCDs Cloud fraction

25 Which clouds are most useful? => probably completely clear pixels should be avoided, because: a) relative uncertainty of cloud properties is large b) vertical mixing might differ strongly for completely clear and cloudy pixels => low clouds are needed to sample the surface-near profile => maybe H 2 O observations should be used to derive cloud top height (scale height ~ 2 km) => what about man made clouds?

26 Artificial clouds can cover large parts of a TROPOMI ground pixel no combustion power plant should be used...

27 Summary - cloud slicing from novel sensors has the potential to derive profile information on daily basis - neighbouring pixels covering central parts of the megacity plumes should be used - completely clear pixels should be avoided - cloud top height needs to be retrieved with improved accuracy (use H 2 O observations?) - photochemical corrections might be needed (simple parameterisations or regional models?) - dependence of vertical transport on cloud cover should be investigated (simple parameterisations or regional models?)

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