1 Beyond The Magic Circle Marinka Copier Conclusions and Implications 196
2 Conclusions and Implications The aim of this thesis has been to lend scientific credibility to a networked understanding of online role-play, not only because this rather small, perhaps trivial, social world is interesting in itself, but also because the object and type of study tells us more about the interplay between collaborative play, game design, and research in the network society. A network perspective allows us to understand the role-play game mode as a highly contested and negotiated form of play. It s precisely these characteristics that make an analysis of role-play very useful in questioning the networked systems in which it operates. Following on my hypothesis, I argued in chapter 3 that we need to go beyond the magic circle in order to gain a networked understanding of play from a situated perspective in which play, design, and research are all ultimately part of the same experience. I present the conclusions of this thesis in relation to the three goals that I formulated in the introduction: 1) to contribute to an understanding of online role-playing games as networks that interact with daily life, Fantasy game culture and the broader technological and sociocultural developments over the last thirty years; 2) to describe and analyze role-play as a specific MMORPG play style that is characterized by its negotiation principles, and thus to understand the roles, conventions, identities, and interpersonal relationships that self-proclaimed role-players negotiate in and through the systems of a commercially distributed game; and 3) to show how collaborative play, design, and game research are closely intertwined and what the implications of this are for game research. Beyond the Magic Circle Currently, game research is characterized by the (re)construction of contested boundaries of the magic circle of the game experience and the ivory tower of academic game research. I proposed that we go beyond the concept of the magic circle because it refers to an preexisting artificiality of the game space, which, combined with the strong metaphor, creates a dichotomy between the real and the imaginary that hides the ambiguity and complexity of actual games and play. In a similar vein, I have 197
3 Beyond The Magic Circle Marinka Copier shown that we also need to go beyond the concept of the ivory tower, because it refers to a preexisting status of academia, again, which, combined with the strong metaphor, creates another dichotomy between inside and outside academia that hides the complexity of the actual relationship between the roles of researchers, designers, and players. A Network Perspective on MMORPGs In chapter 3 I argued that we need to understand Huizinga s definition of play in the context of the overarching argument that he makes in his book, Homo Ludens: civilizations arise and unfold in play and as play. Huizinga did not focus on games or the play element in culture, he set out to understand the play element of culture; how cultural practices such as law, war, science, poetry, philosophy, and art come into being through what he called in Dutch ludieke features, play-like processes. A focus on the play element of culture is crucial in understanding the paradox that lies in Huizinga s definition of play. He argued that play as a cultural phenomenon has boundaries of time and space, however, at the same time, it is an important part of daily life. Thus play is not disconnected or trivial in regard to other sectors of life, but serious business, as this is how we generate culture. Huizinga studied the playful processes through which culture and society are continually (re)negotiated. The network perspective of this thesis contributed to a further understanding of these processes. As I have shown in chapter 1, a network perspective gives us insight into the ways in which MMOR- PGs are connected with Fantasy game culture. The emergence of this culture ties in with the societal changes that Castells termed the network society. Analogue Fantasy role-playing games expressed many of the countercultural values that developed from the 1960s onwards and that greatly influenced 198
4 Conclusions and Implications the first wave of information technology designers who, in turn, digitalized their favorite games. A network perspective also makes it possible to understand how the tensions between instrumental play and role-play in MMORPGs go back to the code and culture of previous analogue and digital role-playing games. Even though Dungeons and Dragons emerged from a blend of wargames, educational roleplay, and Fantasy, most role-playing games are based on instrumental play. As I have shown, this is due to the fact that instrumental play lends itself to being captured in analogue and digital game systems, and because many designers of role-playing games have a preference for score-based play. Fantasy is built into the representational level of the game, whereas role-play, which is hard to capture into a system, mostly relies on meta-game rules. The result is that players have to negotiate role-play among themselves. Role-Play in MMORPGs Role-play in online role-playing games is often analyzed as a form of interactive narrative or performance. Although my study of role-play in World of Warcraft does not argue against the idea of role-play being a performance or consisting of narrative elements, I proposed consider role-playing games in the first place as systems of social interaction. In order to gain a better understanding of what drives this process in which performance and narrative are continually (re)constructed, I focused on the power structure of role-play; conflict and negotiation. As I have shown in the description and analysis of role-play on the European WoW server Argent Dawn (chapters 2 and 4), role-play in this commercial MMORPG consists of constructing a shared fantasy through the negotiation of instrumental and dramatic conflict between players (human actors) and the system of the game (nonhuman actors). This process is not confined by the so called magic circle of the game, but is negotiated over the imagined boundaries of game and nongame, real and imaginary, online and offline. What is being negotiated are not only in-character roles and narratives, but also out-of-character identities and interpersonal relationships as well as the conventions or rules of the conflict and negotiation process itself. 199
5 Beyond The Magic Circle Marinka Copier Collaborative Play and Research It is common practice in game research that scholars become players in order to gain an understanding of actual play. Whereas during play, scholars aim to be players just like everyone else, in the academic output of the research, they textually construct both a players-identity as well as a transcendental outside position. By othering other players, game researchers lend authority to their own voice over the discussions and theorizations of players and designers. Although I do not wish to argue against the reflective capabilities of scholars, I proposed to understand the researcher and his or her research as being situated both in networks of research and play. There is no outsider position possible. The thick description of my participation and research of the the Argent Archives caravan in chapter 2 illustrated how role-play and research are intertwined practices that influence each other. Besides the Fantasy characters, I enact, my role as a researcher is either implicitly or explicitly part of the negotiation processes in which I participate. Furthermore, I argued in chapter 3 that players actively discuss and theorize their own play experience. They theorize in order to understand and negotiate play, to improve play by modifying games and designing independent games, and also to construct collective identities. From the perspective that there is no outsider position possible in ethnographies of online role-play, I argued we should not think in terms of us observing and analyzing them. In the context of MMORPGs, the power structure between scholar and informer changed from hierarchical to networked. As academics become players, they can play both the traditional roles of scholar and informer. Chapter 4 showed how a blending of insights from scholars and players leads to understanding of the ambiguity and complexities of online role-play. In what follows, a discussion of the implications of my research, I will further consider the ways in which collaborative play, design and research are negotiated. 200
6 Conclusions and Implications Implications For the humanities, the implications of my research are that MMORPGs are important objects and cultures of study. They are cultural products that, in line with the practices of cultural studies, should be understood in the networked contexts in which they are negotiated. A network perspective allows for an understanding of the processes between human and nonhuman actors. Because code and culture interact, technological knowledge is required. The implications of my research for informatics or the computing sciences are that in order to understand the workings of technology we need to understand the interrelations between technology and actual use and play. Thus, interdisciplinarity should not only mean collaboration between the humanities and social sciences but also with information and computing sciences. However, collaboration between the humanities and sciences has been, and still is, contested. In his now classical formulation, Charles Percy Snow worded the tension between the humanities and science in terms of the two cultures problem. In his 1959 essay, The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, he argued that the breakdown of communication between the two cultures was a major hindrance in solving the world s problems. According to Snow, the right application of technology would be the solution to many problems. The mutual suspicion and incomprehension between the two cultures, which meant, for him, a polarization between literary intellectuals and the natural sciences, had damaging consequences. A few years later in a follow-up essay, he argued that a third culture should emerge in which the literary intellectuals were on speaking terms with the scientists. Science should let itself be informed by the knowledge of the humanities (Snow 1963). In the 1990s, John Brockman expanded on the idea of Snow in a very different direction. Snow also talked about science conversing with the general public. Snow argued that during the 1930s, literary scientists started referring to themselves as intellectuals, who brought 201
7 Beyond The Magic Circle Marinka Copier their work to the general public. Brockman borrowed Snow s third culture phrase to start a counter-organization of scientists who communicate directly with the general public. The Edge Foundation was established in 1988 as an outgrowth of a group known as The Reality Club. Literary intellectuals are not communicating with scientists. Scientists are communicating directly with the general public Brockman stated, thus only limiting the gap between science and society and not between the different disciplines (Brockman 1991). We need to understand the concept of the two cultures in the context of its time, however; as Brockman s bracketing off of science and society versus the humanities shows, Snow s main concern is still relevant: The polarisation is a sheer loss to us all. To us as people, and to our society. It is at the same time practical and intellectual and creative loss, and I repeat that it is false to imagine that those three considerations are clearly separable (Snow 1959, 11). Nowadays we see more subdisciplines as well as an increase in interdisciplinary endeavors, and there are more and more academics working in categories that could not be defined as either humanities or sciences. Through specialization is necessary in order to gather data and bring out the details of the field and to shape a collective identity for scholars, I believe we simultaneously need to go beyond a breakdown of knowledge into departments and specializations. Furthermore, we need to bypass the idea that technology alone is what changes our society. It time to understand that technology has always been a tool or, as Castells stated, Of course technology does not determine society. Neither does society script the course of technological change, since many factors, including individual inventiveness and entrepreneurialism, intervene in the process of scientific discovery, technological innovation, and social applications, so that the final outcome depends on a complex pattern of interaction (Castells 1996, 5). Maybe, as Bateson wrote, we should surrender to the belief that our knowing is only a small part of a wider integrated knowing that knits us all together (Bateson, 1979, 88). A network perspective helps us to understand that reality is far more complex than the categories we design. Not being able to communicate with those outside of our bonding networks, whatever they 202
8 Conclusions and Implications may be, might have the most damaging effects. Each form of innovative scientific discovery, design, research, and play revolves around imagination and intuition, which enables us to create unexpected conceptual blends. In whatever we do, building bridges helps conceptual blending and forces the researcher to acknowledge his or her own situatedness in society as a whole. Like the role-players in World of Warcraft, scholars should dare to create and negotiate conflict, to take risks, to improvise. Keeping in mind that sometimes failure can lead to more success, as failure can widen our networks and broadens our mind. 203
9 Beyond The Magic Circle Marinka Copier Concluding Remarks What does this mean for society? Snow considered how the curricula of schools and universities should be arranged to give people an adequate education in the different branches of knowledge. According Castells, one of the major challenges of the information age (the network society) is the installation of information processing and knowledge generation capacity in everyone of us. I mean education. But in its broader, fundamental sense; that is, to acquire the intellectual capacity of learning to learn throughout one s whole life, retrieving the information that is digitally stored, recombining it, and using it to produce knowledge for whatever purpose we want. [...] before we start changing the technology, rebuilding the schools, and re-training the teachers, we need a new pedagogy, based on interactivity, personalization, and the development of autonomous capacity of learning and thinking. While, at the same time, strengthening the character and securing the personality. (Castells 2001, 278) Castells call for a pedagogy which is based on interactivity and the development of lifelong learning and thinking which not only generates knowledge but strengthens character, in many ways echoes the ideas of developmental psychologist and educational theorist Jean Piaget. Piaget observed that education for most people means teaching the children and students to resemble the typical adult of his or her society. He advocated something counter to this to him, education meant making creators: You have to make innovators, innovators not conformists (Conversations with Jean Piaget, Bringuier 1980, 132). Six years down the road from Castells statement on education, we are mostly preoccupied with integrating new technologies into education, of which games and especially online games are but the latest incarnation. However, the innovative communities of practice that online gamers build are not only the result of the technological characteristics of MMORPGs, they are also the interplay between technology, different cultures, and play. I would like to emphasize that we don t just learn in online games; we can also, perhaps even more importantly, learn from online games. 204
10 Conclusions and Implications Cultural practices, social networks, and knowledge economies that develop in and around MMORPGs should inspire us to discuss pedagogies for the twenty-first century. These pedagogies should allow for the development of humans who master the art of conceptual blending and an awareness of context. Education should enable us to see the world not as a collection of things, but a network of relationship, that network bound together by communication, to use Bateson s quote from my introduction again. Culture is a perpetual motion machine that continually reinvents itself by making new blends or networks of what already exists. There are no new territories to discover, only new blends to be made. Culture arises from playfulness and imagination. Our fetishism should not be in the technology but in how to play, how to learn, how to live. 205
J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature
Essay Towards a new paradigm of science in scientific policy advising 2007 Eva Kunseler Kansanterveyslaitos Environment and Health Department Methods of Scientific Thought Prof. Lindqvist Introduction:
Guidelines for Integrative Core Curriculum Themes and Perspectives Designations The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for faculty wishing to have new or existing courses carry Themes and
Research into competency models in arts education Paper presented at the BMBF Workshop International Perspectives of Research in Arts Education, Nov. 4 th and 5 th, 2013. Folkert Haanstra, Amsterdam School
Assumptions of Instructional Systems Design 1 The ISD Model Design Analysis Development Evaluation Implementation 2 ISD is Empirical Science 4 In its classical sense, ISD is a systematic method for designing
Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology Demonstrate familiarity with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, and historical
1 2 3 4 5 Specialized Knowledge Broad and Integrative Knowledge Intellectual Skills Applied and Collaborative Learning Civic and Global Learning The Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP) provides a baseline
KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION Gabi Reinmann Germany email@example.com Synonyms Information organization, information classification, knowledge representation, knowledge structuring Definition The term
Assessment Plan Department of Psychology Park University The approach adopted by the Department of Psychology stems from the mission of Park University to prepare learners to think, communicate effectively
The American College of Greece: Academic Vision David G. Horner, Ph.D. President The American College of Greece April 14, 2011 (Edited July 2013) Before presenting my recommendation for ACG s future academic
Interdisciplinary Understanding: What Counts as Quality Work? Veronica Boix-Mansilla, Interdisciplinary Studies Project, Harvard University Interdisciplinary understanding I. Definitions Individuals demonstrate
Objectives of Occupational Therapy in Mental Health I) To help establish an atmosphere conductive to recovery (containing minimal anxiety & maximum support) by utilizing individual & group activity program.
INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROCESS AND THEORY ALLEN F. REPKO The University of Texas at Arlington SAGE Los Angeles London New Delhi Singapore Washington DC Detailed Contents Preface Acknowledgments About
How to Teach Serbian History Students about School Failure and Cultural Diversity Lidija Radulović and Vera Rajović Abstract History teaching in Serbia has a clearly identified political role. Paramount
INTERMEDIATE TASKS BUILDING A BUSINESS GAMES AND TOYS E Sc M So INTERDISCIPLINARY 3 GRADE 3 This guide links the Building a Business unit to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for third graders.
Approaches to learning (ATL) across the IB continuum Through approaches to learning in IB programmes, students develop skills that have relevance across the curriculum that help them learn how to learn.
The Bennington College Plan Process April 23, 2012 INTRODUCTION OF THE PLAN PROCESS Central to Bennington s founding vision was the belief that a dynamic, relevant education could best be achieved when
School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership/information Systems And Technology The mission of the Information Systems and Technology specialization of the Doctor of Management
GIVING WINGS TO NEW IDEAS Wingspread Journal, Summer 1996 CHAOS, COMPLEXITY, AND FLOCKING BEHAVIOR: METAPHORS FOR LEARNING by Stephanie Pace Marshall Sir Isaac Newton saw the universe as an orderly clock.
Theoretical Sensitivity Theoretical sensitivity is a term frequently associated with grounded theory. t is in fact, the title of the book written on this method by Glaser (1978). But, just what is theoretical
03-Montello-4862.qxd 1/30/2006 12:17 PM Page 35 CHAPTER 3 Data Collection in Geography Overview Learning Objectives: What is the distinction between primary and secondary data sources? What are the five
Game Design From Concepts To Implementation Game Structure Different (?) games Different (?) games They are all different, but they are all games! hence which are the common traits? Formal el.: 1. Players
Psychology Learning Goals and Outcomes UNDERGRADUATE PSYCHOLOGY MAJOR LEARNING GOALS AND OUTCOMES: A Report (March 2002) American Psychological Association, Task Force Members: Jane S. Halonen, Drew C.
AITSL is funded by the Australian Government Australian Professional Standard for Principals July 2011 Formerly the National Professional Standard for Principals 2011 Education Services Australia as the
The Double Helix: WAC and Critical Thinking, A History D R. R O B E R T S M A R T Q U I N N I P I A C U N I V E R S I T Y 3 J U N E 2 0 1 0 S O U T H E R N C O N N E C T I C U T S T A T E U N I V. Critical
LEARNING THEORIES Ausubel's Learning Theory David Paul Ausubel was an American psychologist whose most significant contribution to the fields of educational psychology, cognitive science, and science education.
ACM Courses Management and Organization Department Ramon V. del Rosario College of Business De La Salle University 2011 ACM-P003-4 Page 0 1.0 COURSE OVERVIEW 1.1 Human Resources Management. The heart of
Orit Hazzan's Column Abstraction in Computer Science & Software Engineering: A Pedagogical Perspective This column is coauthored with Jeff Kramer, Department of Computing, Imperial College, London ABSTRACT
BA Psychology (2014 2015) Program Information Point of Contact Marianna Linz (firstname.lastname@example.org) Support for University and College Missions Marshall University is a multi campus public university providing
IB position paper Holistic education: An interpretation for teachers in the IB programmes John Hare International International Baccalaureate Baccalaureate Organization Organization 2010 2010 1 Language
Philosophy 110W - 3: Introduction to Philosophy, Hamilton College, Fall 2007 Russell Marcus, Instructor email: email@example.com website: http://thatmarcusfamily.org/philosophy/intro_f07/course_home.htm
Chapter 2 Thesis Structure Karen was undertaking a PhD in engineering to investigate whether a new type of plastic was safe to use as cookware. When she started her lab work, she decided to begin writing
Storytelling as a Pedagogical Tool by PLATON Introduction The recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the storytelling method. More specifically, the narrative as art and technique as well
How Psychology Needs to Change Lois Holzman, Talk given at Vygotsky Today Symposium, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Banja Luka, Bosnia-Herzegovina, November 2004. I am a psychologist and I am proud
10. BUILDING AN EFFECTIVE ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM This chapter discusses issues involved in building and managing enforcement programs. While program structure and resources depend greatly on the roles, responsibilities,
Subject Benchmark Statement Early Childhood Studies October 2014 UK Quality Code for Higher Education Part A: Setting and maintaining academic standards Contents How can I use this document?... 1 About
INTRODUCTION This Declaration, prepared within the framework of the Belgian Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, is addressed to the Member States of the Council of Europe,
Whitnall School District Report Card Content Area Domains In order to align curricula kindergarten through twelfth grade, Whitnall teachers have designed a system of reporting to reflect a seamless K 12
New Metrics Briefing 2: Feedback to the GELP Metrics co-design group Simon Breakspear, Cambridge University The paper was prepared by Simon for the new metrics co-design group. We share it with the community
LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR THE PSYCHOLOGY MAJOR Goal 1. Knowledge Base of Psychology Demonstrate familiarity with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, and historical trends in psychology.
674 Kata Ivić KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION Kata Ivić, Ph.D. Faculty of Economics in Osijek SUMMARY Significant changes are happening daily at all levels of society. Profit-based
Characteristics for secondary Montessori education in the Netherlands 1. Head, heart and hands In The Montessori education of the 21st century, working with head, heart and hands is translated into a wide
THE CULTURE OF INNOVATION AND THE BUILDING OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETIES - Issue Paper - UNESCO, Bureau of Strategic Planning September 2003 1 I. The past and present scope of innovation During the last two decades,
College of Arts and Sciences: Social Science and Humanities Outcomes Communication Information Mgt/ Quantitative Skills Valuing/Ethics/ Integrity Critical Thinking Content Knowledge Application/ Internship
Two Axes of Domains for Domain Analysis Joseph T. Tennis Information School University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-2840 ABSTRACT This paper adds two analytical devices to domain analysis. It claims
1 Human Aspects of Software Engineering: The Case of Extreme Programming Orit Hazzan 1 and Jim Tomayko 2 1 Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion - IIT, Haifa 32000, Israel firstname.lastname@example.org
Religious and moral education Principles and practice Why is religious and moral education important for all children and young people? 1 What do children and young people achieve through learning in religious
ACADEMIC POLICY AND PLANNING COMMITTEE REQUEST FOR AHC GENERAL EDUCATION CONSIDERATION Allan Hancock College General Education Philosophy General education is a pattern of courses designed to develop in
Developing Teacher Leadership and its Impact in Schools M. Snoek SUMMARY DEVELOPING TEACHER LEADERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT IN SCHOOLS Introduction Successful school improvement is dependent on schools capacities
Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 Professor Jay M. Harris
Convention: An interdisciplinary study Luca Tummolini Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies Via San Martino della Battaglia 44 00185 Roma Italy email@example.com In our lives we are
Neomancer: An Exercise in Interdisciplinary Academic Game Development Michael Katchabaw Department of Computer Science The University of Western Ontario London, Ontario, Canada Tel: +1 519-661-4059 firstname.lastname@example.org
PhD in Information Studies Goals The goals of the PhD Program in Information Studies are to produce highly qualified graduates for careers in research, teaching, and leadership in the field; to contribute
Curriculum Bachelor of Science in Library and Information Science / Librarian DB Curriculum The Royal School of Library and Information Science (RSLIS), Denmark 2004 TABLE OF CONTENTS: Foreword...3 The
Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Middle and High School Science This document is based on the Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical
Table of Contents Title 28 EDUCATION Part LI. Bulletin 1963 Louisiana Arts Content Standards Chapter 1. General Provisions...1 101. Introduction...1 103. Standards of Arts Education...1 105. Definitions...1
Mission English 2 - Journalism Mitch Martin: email@example.com To educate students to be self-directed learners, collaborative workers, complex thinkers, quality producers, and community contributors
CREATING THEATRE Anchor Standard 1: Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and Enduring Understanding: Theatre artists rely on intuition, curiosity, and critical inquiry. Essential Question(s): What
Master List, Student Competencies (Learning Outcomes), Goal Areas 1-10 and WSU Intensive Courses/Additional Graduation Requirements (compiled from current WSU undergraduate catalog at http://catalog.winona.edu/preview_program.php?catoid=7&poid=884)
By Judy Hunter Grinnell College A citation is both a signpost and an acknowledgement. As a signpost, it signals the location of your source. As an acknowledgement, it reveals that you are indebted to that
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A VISION FOR SAUDI SCIENCE TEACHERS Hiya Almazroa Pringcess Noura Bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Professional development is a significant mechanism for maintaining
THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION M.A. Honours in Psychology and Business Studies1 1) Awarding Institution: University of Edinburgh 2) Teaching Institution: University of Edinburgh 3)
THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK MAY 2015 Political Science Objectives 1. To study the structure and functions of government. 2. To understand political
1 11.1 Definitions and Motivation Lot of research and papers in this emerging field: Visual Analytics: Scope and Challenges of Keim et al. Illuminating the path of Thomas and Cook 2 11.1 Definitions and
University of Cambridge: Programme Specifications Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this programme specification. Programme specifications are produced and then reviewed
Challenging the Scientist Practitioner Model: Questions About I-O Education and Training Rosemary Hays-Thomas The University of West Florida Editor s Note: The following paper resulted from an Education
DISTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP 1 Richard Bolden University of Exeter Discussion Papers in Management Paper number 07/02 ISSN 1472 2939 1 Due to be published in Marturano, A. and Gosling, J. (eds) (2007) Leadership,
Phenomenological Research Methods Clark Moustakas, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks California, 1994 I Human Science Perspectives and Models Moustakas starts with discussing different human science perspectives
Writing Academic Essays at University Philip Seaton, Hokkaido University Writing Academic Essays at University Page 2/ What is Research? Video 1 In this video series, I will be introducing you to the basics
Curriculum Handbook 7. General Education Requirements Overview This section outlines the standards for courses proposed to meet General Education Requirements for: Napa Valley College General Education
CHANCE ENCOUNTERS Making Sense of Hypothesis Tests Howard Fincher Learning Development Tutor Upgrade Study Advice Service Oxford Brookes University Howard Fincher 2008 PREFACE This guide has a restricted
Recommendations to the Higher Arts Education Institutions, the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education and the Ministry of education and Science, Lithuania Overview Report of the Applied Arts Accreditation
Key Principles for Promoting Quality in Inclusive Education Key Principles for Promoting Quality in Inclusive Education European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...3
for the Sunshine State Standards FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION www.myfloridaeducation.com The fourth grade student: Reading uses text features to predict content and monitor comprehension (for example,
master s degree Philosophy of Science, Technology and Society Welcome to the Faculty of Behavioural Sciences! The Faculty of Behavioural Sciences provides specialized Master s programmes in the disciplines
1 Criminal Justice Program Standards Aligned with College Standards 5.00 COLLEGE STANDARDS FOR FACULTY EVALUATION The additional Criminal Justice Program Standards, where relevant, appear in italics. This
ARCHIVE PhD IN THE SPOTLIGHT Gwenda van der Vaart Gwenda van der Vaart is a PhD researcher at the Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen (http://www.rug.nl/staff/g.van.der.vaart/).
Position Statement Scholarship among Nursing Faculty As the national voice for nursing education in Canada, the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing (CASN) has a mandate to promote high standards
Units of Study 9th Grade First Semester Theme: The Journey Second Semester Theme: Choices The Big Ideas in English Language Arts that drive instruction: Independent thinkers construct meaning through language.
S WORKING DRAFT FOR PILOT ACROSS GRADUATE PROGRAMS Approved by GASCC; Revised by the Assessment Council, Spring 2013 April 2 nd, 2013 Notre Dame de Namur University Note: Most rubrics adapted from AAC&U
COMM 104 COMM 130 COMM 238 Introduction to Communications This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of communication studies. Students will examine the components of human communication
Commentary Shifting Teacher Education From Skilling Up to Sustaining Beginning Teachers C. Aiden Downey, Lee Schaefer, and D. Jean Clandinin ABSTRACT Early career teacher attrition is a serious concern.
Graduate Courses 700 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH AND THEORY IN COMMUNICATION STUDIES I (3). Prerequisite, admission to graduate program or permission of the chair. Considers theory and philosophy in the study
Guide to Using Simulations Introduction This guide introduces instructors to United States Institute of Peace (USIP) simulations, as well as acts as a how to guide to using USIP simulations in the classroom.
Azusa Pacific University 1 Department of Leadership and Organizational Psychology Department Overview The Department of Leadership and Organizational Psychology (http://www.apu.edu/bas/leadershippsych)
HOME COLLEGES RANKINGS ASK OUR ADVISOR EDU NEWS BLOG ABOUT US START BUILDING YOUR BEST FUTURE COLLEGE GUIDE CAREER GUIDE ASK OUR ADVISOR NEWS & BLOG POST ARCHIVES Like Tweet 4,816 10 3 28 Creative Ways
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.