Assumptions of Instructional Systems Design

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1 Assumptions of Instructional Systems Design 1

2 The ISD Model Design Analysis Development Evaluation Implementation 2

3 ISD is Empirical Science 4 In its classical sense, ISD is a systematic method for designing instruction 4 It is especially important in instructional technology 4 There are several assumptions that guide the ISD model. 4 All quotes from Merrill, et al (1996). Reclaiming Instructional Design. Educational Technology.. 36(5). pp5-7. 3

4 Science 4 There is a scientific discipline of instruction and a technology of instructional design founded on this science. 4Instruction is systematic 4

5 Assumptions 4 Like all science, the science of instruction is based on specific assumptions about the real world. 4What are these? 5

6 Technology 4 The technology of instructional design is founded on scientific principles verified by empirical data 4All that can be taught can be measured in some way. 6

7 Verification 4 Like other sciences, instruction is verified by discovery, and instructional design is extended by invention. 4Man-made tools developed through scientific work and improved through research. 7

8 Discovery 4 Instructional science is concerned with the discovery of the natural principles involved in instructional strategies; instructional design is the use of these scientific principles to invent instructional design procedures and tools. 4People who do not adhere to these principles have left the discipline. 8

9 Instruction and Learning 4Acquisition of specific knowledge and skill by students 4Uses verified learning strategies to make this acquisition more efficient, effective, and appealing 4Only concerned with providing proper learning experiences and environments 9

10 Students and Learners 4 Students submit themselves to instruction 4 Learners derive meaning and change their behavior based on experiences 4 Learners and learning mechanisms have remained constant for at least a century. 4 The principles of biology do not change with the changes in society; neither do the principles of learning and instruction. 10

11 Individual Learning 4 Groups don t t learn, individuals learn 4While learners may be a part of a group and learn from one another, the change in cognitive structure and the acquisition of knowledge and skill is an individual event. 4Students cannot learn without individual practice. 11

12 Knowledge and Skill 4There is a body of knowledge and skill that has been developed and archived by generations of scholars, scientists, technologists, artists, and others. The purpose of instruction is to enable students (novices) to acquire this knowledge and skill. 4Instructional design facilitates the student s s acquisition of this knowledge and skill. 12

13 Instructional Principles 4There are known instructional strategies; if the instruction does not include strategies required for the desired learning, the desired outcome will not occur. 4These instructional strategies (conditions of learning) can be verified by empirical test. 13

14 Instructional Principles 4Appropriate instructional strategies are not arrived at by collaborative agreement among instructional designers or learners. 4They are natural principles which do exist, and which nature will reveal as a result of careful scientific inquiry. 14

15 Dissenting Views 4Jonassen, D. H. (1992). Objectivism Versus Constructivism: Do We Need a New Philosophical Paradigm? Educational Technology Research & Development, 39(3), Cites influences of the Cognitive Revolution on ISD 15

16 Reality 4 External to knower 4 Structure determined by entities, properties, and relations 4 Structure can be modeled 4 Determined by knower 4 Project of mind Symbolic procedures construct reality 4 Structure relies on experiences/interpr etations 16

17 Mind 4 Processor of symbols 4 Mirror of nature 4 Abstract machine for manipulating symbols 4 Builder of symbols 4 Perceiver/interpreter of nature 4 Conceptual system for constructing reality 17

18 Thought 4 Disembodied: independent of human experience 4 Governed by external reality 4 Reflects external reality 4 Embodied: grows out of bodily experience 4 Grounded in perception/ construction 4 Grows out of physical and social experience 18

19 Symbols 4 Represent Reality 4 Internal representations of external reality ( building blocks ) 4 Tools for constructing reality 4 Representations of internal reality 19

20 Conclusion 4ISD is currently contested ground 4Objectivist thinking still dominates 4Constructivist thinking challenges it 4Your convictions greatly effect your instructional choices in distance education 20

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