2 McGraw-Hill 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 The General Journal and the General Ledger Section 1: The General Journal Section Objectives 1. Record transactions in the general journal. 2. Prepare compound journal entries.
3 4-3 The Accounting Cycle Step 1 Analyze transactions Step 2 Journalize the data about transactions Step 3 Post the data about transactions Step 4 Prepare a worksheet Step 5 Prepare financial statements Step 9 Interpret the financial information Step 8 Prepare a postclosing trial balance Step 7 Record closing entries Step 6 Record adjusting entries
4 4-4 Objective 1 Record transactions in the general journal Journal A journal is a diary of business activities. There are different types of journals. Transactions are entered in the journal in chronological order.
5 GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Nov. 6 Cash Jason Taylor, Capital 90, , Enter the account to be debited. Enter the amount on the same line in the Debit column. Enter the account to be credited. Enter the amount on the same line in the Credit column. 4-5
6 GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Nov. 6 Cash 90, Jason Taylor, Capital 90, Investment by owner, Memo 01 Then enter a complete but concise description of the transaction. Whenever possible, the journal entry should refer to the source of the information. Document numbers are part of the audit trail. 4-6
7 4-7 Recording a Business Transaction 1. Analyze the financial event. Identify the accounts affected. Classify the accounts affected. Determine the amount of increase or decrease for each account affected. 2. Apply the rules of debit and credit. a. Which account is debited? For what amount? b. Which account is credited? For what amount? 3. Make the entry in T-account form. 4. Record the complete entry in general journal form.
8 4-8 GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Cash Investment by Owner On November 6 Jason Taylor withdrew $90,000 from personal savings and deposited it in a new business checking account for JT s Consulting Services. Nov. 6 Cash 90, Jason Taylor, Capital 90, (Investment by owner)
9 4-9 Cash Purchase of Equipment On November 7 JT s Consulting Services issued Check 1001 for $10,000 to purchase a computer and other equipment. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE 1 Nov. 7 Equipment 10, Cash 10, (Purchased equip., Check 1001)
10 Credit Purchase of Equipment On November 10, JT s Consulting Services purchased office equipment on account for $12,000. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE 1 Nov. 10 Equipment 12, Accounts Payable 12, Purchased equipment on account from Office Plus, Inv. 2223, due in 60 days 4-10
11 4-11 Cash Purchase of Supplies On November 28, JT s Consulting Services purchased supplies for $3,000, Check GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE 1 Nov. 28 Supplies 3, Cash 3, (Purchased supplies, Ck. 1002)
12 4-12 Payment to a Creditor On November 30 JT s Consulting Services paid Office Plus $5,000 in partial payment of Invoice 2223, Check GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE 1 Nov. 30 Accounts Payable 5, Cash 5, Paid on account, Office Plus, Invoice 2223, Check 1003
13 4-13 Recording Prepaid Rent On November 30, JT s Consulting Services wrote Check 1004 for $7,000 to prepay rent for December and January. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE 1 Nov. 30 Prepaid Rent 7, Cash 7, Paid Dec. and Jan. rent in advance; Check 1004
14 Services performed for cash. JT s Consulting performed services for $26,000 in cash. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Dec. 31 Cash 26, Fees Income 26, Performed services for cash 4-14
15 4-15 Performed services on account. JT s Consulting performed services on account for $9,000. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE 2 Dec. 31 Accounts Receivable 9, Fees Income 9, Performed services on credit
16 4-16 Received Cash From Credit Clients Received $4,000 in cash from a credit client on account. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE 2 Dec. 31 Cash 4, Accounts Receivable 4, Received cash from credit clients on account
17 4-17 Paid Salaries Paid $7,000 for salaries. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE 2 Dec. 31 Salaries Expense 7, Cash 7, Paid monthly salaries to employees, Check
18 4-18 Paid Utility Bill JT s consulting paid $500 in cash for a utility bill. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE 2 Dec. 31 Utilities Expense Cash Paid monthly bill for utilities, Check 1007
19 4-19 Owner s Withdrawal The owner, Jason Taylor, withdrew $4,000 from the company. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE 2 Dec. 31 Jason Taylor, Drawing 4, Cash 4, Owner withdrew cash for personal expenses, Check 1008
20 McGraw-Hill 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 The General Journal and the General Ledger Section 2: The General Ledger Section Objectives 3. Post journal entries to general ledger accounts. 4. Correct errors made in the journal or ledger.
21 4-21 Ledgers The ledger contains a separate form for each account. The third step of the accounting cycle is posting to the ledger.
22 4-22 QUESTION: What is posting? ANSWER: Posting is the process of transferring data from a journal to a ledger.
23 4-23 The Accounting Cycle Step 1 Analyze transactions Step 2 Journalize the data about transactions Step 3 Post the data about transactions Step 4 Prepare a worksheet Step 5 Prepare financial statements Step 9 Interpret the financial information Step 8 Prepare a postclosing trial balance Step 7 Record closing entries Step 6 Record adjusting entries
24 4-24 Ledger Account Forms On the ledger account form shown below, notice the: Account name and number Columns for date, description, and posting reference Columns for debit, credit, debit balance, and credit balance ACCOUNT CASH ACCOUNT NO. 101 POST. BALANCE DATE DESCRIPTION DEBIT CREDIT DEBIT CREDIT 2010 Nov. 6 J1 90, ,000.00
25 4-25 Objective 3 Post journal entries to general ledger accounts Five Steps for Posting 1. On the ledger form, enter the date of the transaction. Enter a description of the entry, if necessary. Usually, routine entries do not require descriptions. 2. On the ledger form, enter the general journal page in the Posting Reference column. 3. On the ledger form, enter the debit amount in the Debit column or the credit amount in the Credit column. 4. On the ledger form, compute the balance and enter it in the Debit Balance column or the Credit Balance column. 5. On the general journal, enter the ledger account number in the Posting Reference column.
26 4-26 Step 1: On the ledger form, enter the date of the transaction. Enter a description of the entry, if necessary. Usually, routine entries do not require descriptions. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Nov. 7 Equipment 10, Cash 10, Purchased equipment Check 1001 ACCOUNT Equipment ACCOUNT NO. 141 POST. BALANCE DATE DESCRIPTION DEBIT CREDIT DEBIT CREDIT 2010 Nov. 7 J1 10, ,000.00
27 4-27 Step 2: On the ledger form, enter the general journal page in the Posting Reference column. The letter J refers to the general journal. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Nov. 7 Equipment 10, Cash 10, Purchased equipment Check 1001 ACCOUNT Equipment ACCOUNT NO. 141 POST. BALANCE DATE DESCRIPTION DEBIT CREDIT DEBIT CREDIT 2010 Nov. 7 J1 10, ,000.00
28 4-28 Step 3: On the ledger form, enter the debit amount in the Debit column or the credit amount in the Credit column. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Nov. 7 Equipment 10, Cash 10, Purchased equipment Check 1001 ACCOUNT Equipment ACCOUNT NO. 141 POST. BALANCE DATE DESCRIPTION DEBIT CREDIT DEBIT CREDIT 2010 Nov. 7 J1 10, ,000.00
29 4-29 Step 4: On the ledger form, compute the balance and enter it in the Debit Balance column or the Credit Balance column. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Nov. 7 Equipment 10, Cash 10, Purchased equipment Check 1001 ACCOUNT Equipment ACCOUNT NO. 141 POST. BALANCE DATE DESCRIPTION DEBIT CREDIT DEBIT CREDIT 2010 Nov. 7 J1 10, ,000.00
30 4-30 Step 5: On the general journal, enter the ledger account number in the Posting Reference column. GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Nov. 7 Equipment , Cash 10, Purchased equipment Check 1001 ACCOUNT Equipment ACCOUNT NO. 141 POST. BALANCE DATE DESCRIPTION DEBIT CREDIT DEBIT CREDIT 2010 Nov. 7 J1 10, ,000.00
31 General Ledger Accounts In the general ledger accounts, the balance sheet accounts appear first and are followed by the income statement accounts. The order is: Assets Liabilities Owner s equity Revenue Expenses This order of accounts speeds the preparation of the trial balance and the financial statements. 4-31
32 Objective 4 Correct errors made in the journal or ledger 4-32 Journal and Ledger Errors Sometimes errors are made when recording transactions in the journal. The method used to correct an error depends on whether or not the journal entry has been posted to the ledger.
33 4-33 Correcting Journal and Ledger Errors If an error is discovered before the entry is posted, neatly cross out the incorrect item and write the correct data above it. To ensure honesty and provide a clear audit trail, erasures are not made in the journal.
34 4-34 Before Posting On September 1 an automobile repair shop purchased some shop equipment for $9,000 in cash. By mistake the journal entry debited the Office Equipment account rather than the Shop Equipment account.
35 4-35 Before Posting GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Shop Equipment Sept. 1 Office Equipment 9, Cash 9, Purchased equipment Check 2141 The accountant would neatly cross out Office Equipment and write Shop Equipment above it. The correct account Shop Equipment would be posted to the ledger in the usual manner.
36 4-36 Correcting Journal and Ledger Errors If the error is discovered after posting, a correcting entry a journal entry made to correct the erroneous entry is journalized and posted. Do not erase or change the journal entry or the postings in the ledger accounts. Note that erasures are never permitted in the journal or ledger.
37 4-37 After Posting On September 1 an automobile repair shop debited Office Equipment rather than Shop Equipment for $9,000 by mistake. The debit was posted to the Office Equipment account in the general ledger. A correcting journal entry must be journalized and posted.
38 After Posting GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Sept. 1 Office Equipment 141 9, Cash 101 9, Purchased equipment Check 2141 This erroneous journal entry was posted to the general ledger. 4-38
39 After Posting GENERAL JOURNAL PAGE Oct. 1 Shop Equipment 151 9, Office Equipment 141 9, To correct error made on Sept. 1 when a purchase of shop equipment was recorded as office equipment The correcting journal entry debits Shop Equipment and credits Office Equipment for $9,000. The entry transfers $9,000 out of the Office Equipment and into the Shop Equipment account. 4-39
40 4-40 Thank You for using College Accounting, 12 th Edition Price Haddock Farina
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