AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment A Joint ESA-NASA Mission. Joint ESA NASA AIDA Team

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1 AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment A Joint ESA-NASA Mission Joint ESA NASA AIDA Team Chelyabinsk Meteor on 15 February 2013

2 AIDA Asteroid Deflection Test AIDA international cooperation First test of asteroid deflection by kinetic impact DART kinetic impactor (NASA) AIM rendezvous and impact monitoring (ESA) AIM Radar Telescopes DART Didymos Binary 1

3 AIDA = AIM + DART ESA AIM rendezvous spacecraft Orbiter payload to characterize Didymos dynamical system and study impact results characterisation Asteroid proximity operations, lander release on secondary asteroid, deep-interior analysis Deep-space optical communication demonstration NASA DART interceptor and Earth-based observing Measure asteroid deflection to within 10% Return high resolution images of target prior to impact Autonomous guidance with proportional navigation to hit center of 150 meter target body Leverage space-based missile technology 2

4 AIDA Relevance Science Conduct a visit to a binary near-earth asteroid Detect possible mass transfer between primary & secondary bodies Measure crater formation and redistribution of material Estimate internal structure and composition Planetary Defense Understand kinetic impact effects for future deflection technologies Estimate momentum transfer by impact and by enhancement of ejecta Exploration Coordinate international deep space mission operations Develop flight techniques and experience for small body missions Optical navigation and acquisition Rendezvous Proximity Operations Plan and perform detailed characterization Resources investigation 3

5 2022 Didymos Intercept DART trajectory remains near 1 AU from Sun, Earth distance < 0.11 AU. DART launch energy 3.74 km 2 /s 2 Impact velocity 6.27 km/s Impact event in Oct, 2022 occurs under excellent Earth-based viewing conditions including radar Co-manifest launch under study DART launches Dec 20, 2021 and intercepts Didymos on Oct 1,

6 AIDA Target Properties The target is the Near-Earth Asteroid (1996 GT) Didymos: a YORP spin-up binary with an equatorial ridge on the primary Binary 1999 KW4 radar model Ostro et al EV5 Busch et al Bennu NASA/NSF/Cornell/Nolan Radar image of Didymos From L. Benner, Arecibo, Nov

7 DART Payload Objectives DART payload is an imager based on New Horizons LORRI 20 cm telescope, 1 arc sec/px, CCD camera Support autonomous guiding to impact target body through center Determine impact point within 1% of target diameter Characterize pre-impact surface morphology and geology of target (goal <20 cm/px) and companion body 5/29/2012 6

8 AIM mission objectives Primary objectives 1 Determine the binary asteroid orbital and rotation dynamics, as well as the mass, geolophysical properties, and surface and subsurface structure; 2 to carry out a Telecommunication Engineering experiment (TEX), a Moonlet Engineering experiment (MEX) deploying the MASCOT-2 asteroid lander; 3 to test inter-satellite network link with COPINS (Cubesat Opportunity Payload Intersatellite Network Sensors) and the MASCOT-2 lander. Secondary objectives 4 to determine the momentum transfer resulting from the impact of the DART, by measuring the variation of the asteroid s period, its rotation state and by imaging of the resulting impact crater. An optional extension of this primary objective is the imaging the asteroid ejecta resulting from the impact. 5 to characterise the asteroid deep interior structure.

9 AIM main elements Technology Payload Mass OPTEL-D (Optical terminal) 39.3 MASCOT-2 (incl. low-frequency radar) 13 COPINS 13.2 Asteroid Research Payload Mass Thermal Infrared Imager 3.6 Monostatic High Frequency Radar 1.7 Bistatic Low Frequency Radar (Orbiter) 1.2 Visual Imaging Camera 2.4

10 AIM mission scenario DSM: 03/01/2021 Launch by Soyuz from Kourou: ~22/10/ Arrival 29/5/2022 ~35 km 6 2 ~100 km DART impact 6/10/ Launch 4 Rendezvous burn 7 DART impact observation 2 Departure burn 5 Co-flying / Characterisation 8 Co-flying / Characterisation 3 Deep space manoeuvre 6 Lander deployment 9 Post-impact characterisation

11 Close proximity Asteroid Operations: 29 May December 2022 P1 Rendezvous with Didymos Transition to 35 km P2 co-flying position. 35 km P2 Early characterization: - High-resolution images - Optical comm experiment ~1 km 10 km P3 First detailed characterization: Thermal Infrared imaging High-frequency radar sounding of surface and shallow-subsurface ~100 km P5 DART impact observation P4 Lander phase: Deploy MASCOT2 lander 10 km P6 Second detailed characterization: - High-frequency radar - Low-frequency radar - Crater imaging

12 CubeSats Opportunity Payloads (COPINS) Intersatellite link demonstration in deep space ESA AIM mothercraft AO in 1 st quarter 2015

13 AIM schedule Pre-phase A (ESA CDF) May - Sept 14 AIM AO Oct 14 Jan Phase-A (9 months) KO End of February 15 Preliminary requirements review Dec 15 Phase-B1 (6 months) Intermediate system requirements review June 16

14 DART Baseline Schedule May 2015 Feb 2016 Apr 2016 Jul 2016 Feb 2017 Jan 2018 Sep 2018 Apr 2019 Aug 2019 Jan 2020 MCR SRR/CoDR Instrument Phase B starts Bus/ground Phase B starts PDR CDR SIR PER PSR/ORR Launch 13

15 AIDA Since we last met. DART Pre-phase A study efforts continue Focus on modeling and simulation, algorithm development, AutoNav development, and primary sensor detector trades Continue to mature the integrated mission design: multiple launch opportunities available to support an October 2022 intercept of the Didymos binary system AIM Advisory Group report on Environmental and Instrumentation Requirements, issued April, 2014 Participated in the ESA AIM mission engineering (CDF) study (past summer) at ESTEC Multiple community interactions both in the US and Europe, including the.. 1 st International Community Workshop was held at APL October Formalizing the NASA-ESA partnership Telecon, and official NASA visit (November 17, 18) of Franco Ongaro, Head of ESA/ESTEC and Director of Technology Formalizing Letter of Intent to pursue Phase A/B1 in parallel 14

16 AIDA Next 6 months. DART will complete Pre-phase A study and transition to Phase A late Spring/early summer Next iteration design run in mid-march Co-manifest launch study continues MCR tentatively scheduled for late May 2015 Exploring teaming with other NASA directorates (stakeholders) Expand on community involvement and how to leverage other relevant efforts funded by both US and European NEO Programs Align joint milestone dates between DART and AIM (best effort) Our next AIDA international community forum will be during the Planetary Defense Conference in April 2015 ESA will down-select up to 3 industry system studies in late January 2015 European payload studies and early development will start in early 2015 ESA COPINS AO to be released Jan 2015 Joint US payload contributions to an ESA surface package will be studied 15

17 16

18 DART Impact Results Parameter β defined as orbital momentum change divided by momentum input Perfectly inelastic collision: β = 1 Ejecta enhances momentum transfer, β > 1 Assuming β = 1, the v is ~0.3 mm/s for Didymos satellite after DART impact; period change of ~200 s (out of ~12 hours) Period change detectable from Earth Imparted Δv, mm/s Δ semi-major axis, m Δ period, sec Δ period, % 0.48% 0.64% 0.80% 2.43% Δ eccentricity Δ inclination, deg Δ longitude of pericenter, ῶ = Ω+ω, deg

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