Using Clicker Technology in a Clinically-based Occupational Therapy Course: Comparing Student Perceptions of Participation and Learning

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1 Using Clicker Technology in a Clinically-based Occupational Therapy Course: Comparing Student Perceptions of Participation and Learning Thomas Mernar, PhD, OTR

2 Acknowledgements I would like to thank The Office of the Provost, the Teaching, Learning, Technology Center, and Drs. Michael Vigorito and Theresa Bartolotta for the support of this program assessment proposal Research assistants Danielle Dorsi, OTS; Michelle Merciadez, OTS, Jennifer Ostaszewski, OTS, Janine Petito, and OTS; Rachel Sellers, OTS

3 Background Student teacher interaction is ranked highly among the factors influencing learning performance (Bullock et al., 2002; Hake, 1998) Clicker technology has been changing how students and their instructor interact within the classroom by providing new opportunities to enhance in-class participation and learning in traditional, lecture hall classroom environments (Blasco-Arcas, et al., 2013).

4 Purpose Less is known about how clicker technology improves in-class participation and learning in more clinically content based courses The purpose of this program assessment was to examine how learning and in-class participation is effected by the use of clicker technology within a clinically based occupational therapy course

5 Research Design Nonequivalent pretest posttest control group design

6 Study Sample and Group Assignment Study sample 32 first year, first semester occupational therapy students 15 control group 17 experimental group All students enrolled into Occupational Therapy Practice Skills course; 2 sections (Monday and Thursday) Group assignment: Monday= Experimental group Thursday= Control group

7 Measurements Pretest and Posttest ordinal data Student Assessment of Learning Goals (SALG) Self Consciousness Scale revised (SCSR) Posttest only ordinal data Perceived Importance of Clicker Technology (PICT) Only given to experimental group at end of semester

8 Student Assessment of Learning Goals SALG instrument focuses exclusively on the degree to which a course has enabled student learning SALG asks students to assess and report on their own learning, and on the degree to which specific aspects of the course have contributed to that learning Instructor can customize questions The following 32 questions have been used in this program assessment: Understanding (6), Participation (5), Proficiency (8), Feelings about learning (4), Willingness to seek help (6), and Habits (3) Students rate questions as: strongly disagree (-2) disagree (-1) agree (1) strongly agree (2)

9 Self Consciousness Scale Revised SCSR is a 23- item questionnaire developed for the general public, which measures individual private self-consciousness, public self-consciousness, and social anxiety Students rate questions as: 3 = a lot like me 2= somewhat like me 1= a little like me 0= not like me at all

10 Perceived Importance of Clicker Technology Utilized SALG and reformatted all 32 questions to ask about how clickers have enhanced their understanding, participation, proficiency, feelings about learning, willingness to seek help, and habits of the content and skills learned throughout the course to create the PICT For example: Under the SALG, a question would read as: Presently, I am Able to demonstrate proficiency in exercising correct infection control techniques Under PICT, the same question would read as: Since using the clickers over the past few weeks, the use of clickers increased my Proficiency in exercising correct infection control techniques Students rate questions as: strongly disagree (-2) disagree (-1) agree (1) strongly agree (2)

11 Application of Independent Variable IV= use of clicker technology during class over 5 weeks during Fall 2013 semester to obtain polling of questions related to: Assigned readings Content of lecture Past experiences related to weekly topic Confidence in performing lab skills Feelings about the class Classes included: Transfer training Infection control Vital signs ADL Topics: Dressing, Toileting, and Bowel & Bladder ADL Topics: Eating & Feeding, Personal Hygiene, Bathing, and Sexuality

12

13 Which is the most common mode of infectious disease contamination? 1. Contact 2. Droplet 3. Airborne 4. Common vehicle 58% For example 32% 5% 5%

14 Statistical Analyses All pretest and posttest questionnaires scored twice for accuracy Independent samples t-test used to distinguish differences in outcome scores at baseline Independent samples t-test used to distinguish differences in outcome scores from posttest to pretest (change scores)

15 Dependent Variables Dependent Variable Learning Gains Total Learning Gains in Understanding Learning Gains in Participation Learning Gains in Proficiency Learning Gains in Feelings Towards Learning Learning Gains in Willingness to Seek Help Learning in Habits Self-consciousness Total Private self-consciousness Public self-consciousness Social Anxiety Total Perceived importance of clicker technology * DVs have pretest, posttest, and change score values, except for Total PICT*, as it was given only to experimental group at posttest

16 Descriptive Comparison of Groups at Baseline type of group control group experimental group Total Learning Gains Total Learning Gains in Understan ding Learning Gains in Participation Learning Gains in Proficiency Learning Gains in Feelings Learning Gains in Willingness Learning Gains in Habits Selfconscious ness Total Private Selfconscious ness Public Selfconscious ness Social Anxiety Mean N Std Deviation Mean N Std Deviation Mean N Std. Deviation Descriptive Statistics of Control and Experimental Group

17 . Learning Gains Total Inferential Comparison of Groups at Baseline not Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances F Sig. t df t-test for Equality of Means Sig. (2- tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Lower Upper Learning Gains in Understanding not Learning Gains in Participation not Learning Gains in Proficiency not Learning Gains in Feelings not Learning Gains in Willingness not

18 Inferential Comparison of Groups at Baseline Learning Gains in Habits not Selfconsciousness Total not Private Selfconsciousness not Public Selfconsciousness not Social Anxiety not

19 Discussion of Groups at Baseline A statistically significant difference was found between control group and experimental group at baseline for one dependent variable Private self-consciousness (p=0.034)

20 Inferential Comparison of Groups from Posttest - Pretest.

21 Inferential Comparison of Groups from Posttest - Pretest Learning Gains in Habits Public Selfconsciousness Selfconsciousness Total SCSRprivateSC change Social Anxiety Equal variances Equal variances not Equal variances Equal variances not Equal variances Equal variances not Equal variances Equal variances not Equal variances Equal variances not

22 Discussion of DV Group Comparisons A marginally statistically significant difference was found between control group and experimental group in change scores for one dependent variable Learning gains in habits (p=0.085) Presently, I am in the habit of Connecting key ideas I learn in class with other topics covered in this class Connecting key skills I learn in class with other skills covered in this class Connecting key ideas I learn in class with other classes in the curriculum Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

23 Descriptive Statistics for Perceived Importance of Clicker Technology 17 participants in experimental group scored the PICT at the end of the semester 32 questions were scored on an ordinal scale of strongly disagree (-2) disagree (-1) agree (1) strongly agree (2) Descriptive Statistics Perceived Importance of Clicker Technology Total Score N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Valid N (listwise) 17

24 Discussion of Perceived Importance of Clicker Technology A mean score of was obtained from this DV A mean score of 31 would suggest average agreement (1=agree) on items, conversely, a mean score of -31 would suggest average disagreement (-1=disagree)

25 Limitations Effect of IV was 5 weeks, a longer duration may have yielded different results Some classes were out of classroom, such as the community where clickers could not be used Participants themselves were not randomized into groups but class section instead Small sample size

26 Conclusion Clicker technology was trialed in a clinical (lab) occupational therapy course Although statistical significance (p 0.05) was not obtained for DVs between control and experimental groups, the experimental group rated clicker technology has having agreeable importance Clicker technology may be better suited for lecture style instruction compared to laboratory style instruction Qualitative inquiry may be useful Utilization of clickers was reliable due to radio frequency Students using clickers typically display enthusiasm during inclass polling

27

28 References Blasco-Arcas, L., Buil, I., Hernández-Ortega, B., & Sese, F. J. (2013). Using clickers in class: The role of interactivity, active collaborative learning and engagement in learning performance. Computers and Education, 62, Bullock, D.W., LaBella, V. P., Clingan, T., Ding, Z., Stewart, G., & Thibado, P. M. (2002). Enhancing the student-instructor interaction frequency. Physics Teacher, 40, Hake, R. R. (1998). Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six- thousand student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. American Journal of Physics, 66,

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