MPLS overview. Wolfgang Riedel Systems Engineer ECSO Enterprise Manufacturing Cisco Systems GmbH

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1 MPLS overview Wolfgang Riedel Systems Engineer ECSO Enterprise Manufacturing Cisco Systems GmbH 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1

2 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 2

3 Evolution of MPLS From tag switching Proposed in IETF Later combined with other proposals from IBM (ARIS), Toshiba (CSR) Cisco Calls a BOF at IETF to Standardize Tag Switching MPLS Croup Formally Chartered by IETF Cisco Ships MPLS (Tag Switching) Cisco Ships MPLS TE MPLS VPN Deployed Traffic Engineering Deployed Large Scale Deployment Time , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 3

4 The Challenges Service Providers Generate new services Protect existing Infrastructure ATM/FR Combine private data services with Internet services Move into rapid deployment Cost saving Enterprise Lower cost of WAN connectivity Migration path Lower cost of managing separate Data and Voice networks Campus Service Provider multiple customers Replacement of campus wide vlan s 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 4

5 MPLS advanced services L2 VPN ATOM Any Transport over MPLS IP switching IP CoS (DiffServ) IPv6 6PE Traffic Engineering Carrier supporting Carrier Virtual Private Networks Fast Rerouting DiffServ aware TE Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) Multicast over VPN Per-Label Forwarding, Queuing, Multicast, Restoration Mechanisms Multicast Routing (PIM v2) BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM LDP RSVP CEF L2 protocols (PPP, POS, ATM, FR, Enet,, GRE,...) 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 5

6 MPLS Innovation & Standards L2 VPN ATOM 2702 Requirements for Any Transport over MPLS IP switching IP CoS (DiffServ) IPv6 6PE Traffic Engineering Over MPLS Traffic Engineering Carrier supporting Carrier Virtual Private Networks Fast Rerouting DiffServ aware TE Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) 2474 Definition of the Differentiated Services Per-Label Forwarding, Queuing, Multicast, Restoration Field in IP Headers * Mechanisms 2475 An Architecture for Differentiated Services 2597 Assured Forwarding PHB Group * 2598 An Expedited Forwarding PHB * 2697 A Single Rate Three Color Marker 2698 A Two Rate Three Color Marker L2 protocols (PPP, POS, ATM, FR, Enet,, GRE,...) Multicast over VPN 2547 BGP/MPLS VPNs * Multicast Routing (PIM v2) BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM LDP RSVP 3031 Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture * 3032 MPLS Label Stack Encoding * 3034 Label Switching on Frame CEF Relay Networks 3035 MPLS using LDP and ATM VC Switching * 3036 LDP Specification * 3037 LDP Applicability * 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 6

7 MPLS Innovation-in-Progress L2 VPN ATOM Any Transport over MPLS IP switching IP CoS (DiffServ) IPv6 6PE Traffic Engineering Carrier supporting Carrier Virtual Private Networks Fast Rerouting DiffServ aware TE Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) Per-Label Forwarding, Queuing, Multicast, Restoration Mechanisms L2 protocols (PPP, POS, ATM, FR, Enet,, GRE,...) [Martini Drafts] Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS * draft-martini-l2circuit-transmpls-06.txt Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS * draft-martini-l2circuit-encapmpls-02.txt [Draft Rosen] An Architecture for L2VPNs * draft-rosen-ppvpn-l2vpn-00.txt Multicast over VPN Multicast Routing (PIM v2) MPLS Support of Differentiated Services * draft-ietf-mpls-diff-ext-09.txt BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM LDP RSVP CEF 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 7

8 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 8

9 MPLS Concept At Edge: Classify packets Label them Edge Label Switch Router In Core: Forward using labels (as opposed to IP addr) Label indicates service class and destination Label Switch Router (LSR) Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 9

10 MPLS Operation 1a. Existing routing protocols (e.g. OSPF, IS-IS) establish reachability to destination networks 1b. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) establishes label to destination network mappings 4. Edge LSR at egress removes label and delivers packet 2. Ingress Edge LSR receives packet, performs Layer 3 value-added services, and labels packets 3. LSR switches packets using label swapping 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 10

11 Encapsulations ATM Cell Header GFC VPI VCI PTI CLP HEC DATA Label PPP Header (Packet over SONET/SDH) PPP Header Label Header Layer 3 Header LAN MAC Label Header MAC Header Label Header Layer 3 Header 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 11

12 Label Header for Packet Media Tag COS S TTL Label = 20 bits S = Bottom of Stack, 1 bit COS/EXP = Class of Service, 3 bits TTL = Time to Live, 8 bits Can be used over Ethernet, 802.3, or PPP links Uses two new Ethertypes/PPP PIDs Contains everything needed at forwarding time 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12

13 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 13

14 Label Distribution Protocol Defined in RFC 3036 and 3037 Used to distribute labels in a MPLS network Forwarding equivalence class How packets are mapped to LSPs (Label Switched Paths) Advertise labels per FEC Reach destination a.b.c.d with label x Neighbor discovery Basic and extended discovery 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 14

15 TDP and LDP Tag Distribution Protocol Pre-cursor to LDP Used for Cisco tag switching TDP and LDP supported on the same box Per neighbor/link basis Per target basis 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 15

16 RSVP and Label Distribution Used in MPLS traffic engineering Additions to RSVP signaling protocol Leverage the admission control mechanism of RSVP Label requests are sent in PATH messages and binding is done with RESV messages EXPLICT-ROUTE object defines the path over which setup messages should be routed Using RSVP has several advantages 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 16

17 BGP-Based Label Distribution Used in the context of MPLS VPNs Need multi-protocol extensions to BGP Routers need to be BGP peers Works in both RR and non-rr environment Label mapping info carried as part of NLRI (Network Layer Reachability Information) 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 17

18 MPLS Example: Routing Information In Lbl Address Prefix Out I face Out Lbl In Lbl Address Prefix Out I face Out Lbl In Lbl Address Prefix Out I face Out Lbl You can reach and through me 1 You can reach through me Routing Updates (OSPF, EIGRP, ) You can reach through me 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 18

19 MPLS Example: Assigning Labels In Lbl Address Prefix Out I face Out Lbl In Lbl Address Prefix Out I face Out Lbl In Lbl Address Prefix Out I face Out Lbl Use Lbl 4 for and Use Lbl 5 for Use Lbl 9 for Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) (Downstream Allocation) Use Lbl 7 for , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 19

20 MPLS Example: Forwarding Packets In Lbl Address Prefix Out I face Out TLbl In Lbl Address Prefix Out I face Out Lbl In Lbl Address Prefix Out I face Out Lbl Data Data Data Data Label Switch Forwards Based on Label , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 20

21 Label Stacking Arrange labels in a stack Inner labels can be used to designate services/fecs, etc. E.g. VPNs, fast re-route Outer label used to route/switch the MPLS packets in the network Allows building services such as MPLS VPNs Traffic engineering and fast re-route VPNs over traffic engineered core Any transport over MPLS Inner Label Outer Label TE Label IGP Label VPN Label IP Header 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 21

22 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 22

23 MPLS Features... That s all nice but... How can you make money with it? 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 23

24 Metro Solutions Architectural flexibility, service transparency Storage TDM PL GigE PL Residential Data/Voice/Video Wavelength Enterprise VoIP L3 VPN L2 VPN Internet Access L2 VPN Internet Access L3 VPN 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 24

25 with enough fiber you could do anything? In what room do you want me to put it? 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 25

26 MPLS IP-VPN The L3 generation of core backbone Regional Site Remote Sites TDM MUX LL INTERNET Branch Home Travel Frame-Relay ATM INTERNET IPSec MPLS IP-VPN Central Site Branch Home PSTN ISDN ADSL/Cable Services Travel Branch Home 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 26

27 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 28

28 MPLS L2-VPN The L3 generation of core backbone Regional Sites Regional Site Remote Sites Ethernet Remote Sites Frame-Relay ATM Frame-Relay ATM Central Site Ethernet MPLS IP-VPN L2 VPN Ethernet Regional Site Ethernet Frame-Relay ATM Central Site 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 29

29 What Is a VPN? VPN is a set of sites which are allowed to communicate with each other VPN is defined by a set of administrative policies Policies determine both connectivity and QoS among sites Policies established by VPN customers Policies could be implemented completely by VPN service providers Using BGP/MPLS VPN mechanisms 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 30

30 MPLS-based IP-VPN Architecture Scalable VPNs IP QoS and traffic engineering Easy to manage and No VC provisioning required Provides a level of Security equivalent to Frame-relay and ATM Supports the deployment of new value-added applications Customer IP address freedom VPN A Site 2 Corp A Site 1 Corp B Site 3 VPN Membership- Based on Logical Port MPLS Network MPLS VPN Renault MPLS VPN Bankcorp Traffic Separation at Layer 3 Each VPN Has Unique RD VPN A Site 3 Corp B Site 2 Corp B Site , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 31

31 Using Labels to Build an IP VPN Cust A A A Cust A Cust B B B MPLS Network Cust A Cust B The network distributes labels to each VPN Only labels for other VPN members are distributed Each VPN is provisioned automatically by IP routing Privacy and QoS of ATM without tunnels or encryption Each network is as secure as a Frame Relay connection One mechanism (labels) for QoS and VPNs no tradeoffs 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 32

32 Service Provider Benefits of MPLS-Based VPNs VPN B VPN A VPN C VPN C VPN B Multicast Hosting Intranet VPN A VPN A VoIP Extranet VPN B VPN C VPN A VPN B VPN C Overlay VPN Pushes content outside the network Costs scale exponentially Transport dependent Groups endpoints, not groups Complex overlay with QoS, tunnels, IP MPLS-based VPNs Enables content hosting inside the network Flat cost curve Transport independent Easy grouping of users and services Enables QoS inside the VPNs 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 33

33 MPLS Based IP-VPN Security Cisco MPLS based VPNs: Equivalent to the Security of Frame Relay and ATM Miercom, March 30, 2001 Security , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 35

34 Validating Cisco MPLS Based IP-VPN as a Secure Network Miercom independent testing confirmed Cisco MPLS VPN is secure: Customers network topology is not revealed to the outside world Customers can maintain own addressing plans and the freedom to use either public or private address space Attackers cannot gain access into VPNs or Service Provider s network Impossible for attacker to insert spoofed label into a Cisco MPLS network and thus gain access to a VPN or the MPLS core RED-Glascow Security 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 36 POS 1/ SER 5/0: Si T1 FR dlci 104 RIP v2 SER 1/0: ATM 1/ pvc 1/1 OS PF BLUE-Glascow OC3 POS GLASCOW ATM1/ BLUE-Dover DOVER T1 FR dlci 110 Static SER 1/0/1: Ser 1/ POS 2/ POS 1/ Si SER 1/0/0: T1 FR dlci 109 RIP v2 Ser OC3 POS RED-Dover POS 2/1/ LONDON GSR POS 1/ POS 1/ ATM2/0/ ATM1/ pvc 0/11 ebgp AS OC3 POS YELLOW-Dover OXFORD POS 2/ Ser 5/0: Ser T1 FR dlci 101 OSPF BLUE-Oxford Test Network Topology Si Ser 0/ Ser 3/ T1 FR dlci 102 ebgp AS YELLOW-Oxford

35 Key Features (Cont.) Connectivity to the Internet: VPN service providers may also provide connectivity to the Internet to its VPN customers Common infrastructure is used for both VPN and the Internet connectivity services Simplifies operations and management for VPN service providers: No need for VPN service providers to set up and manage a separate backbone or virtual backbone for each VPN 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 38

36 BGP/MPLS VPN Summary Supports large scale VPN service Increases value add by the VPN service provider Decreases service provider cost of providing VPN services Mechanisms are general enough to enable VPN service provider to support a wide range of VPN customers 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 39

37 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 40

38 Ethernet Virtual Circuit EoMPLS Access (L2) Ethernet Core MPLS Access (L2) Ethernet MPLS PE Cisco 7600 MPLS MPLS PE Cisco /100/Gigabit Ethernet 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet Enterprise Campus A Ethernet Circuit EoMPLS Tunnel in Core Ethernet Mapped Circuit Enterprise Campus B To the Enterprise this network is a pair of Pt to Pt 10/100/Gbit Bridged Ethernet Links A 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 41 B

39 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 42

40 VPLS ( Transparent LAN Services) Point to Multipoint Service Multipoint to Multipoint Service The network will simulate a L2 switch 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 43

41 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 44

42 L2 Transport: AToM Site1A < ES:FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC > <-- FR --> < PW:Emulated VC > <-- --FR --> Ethernet ATM/PPP/HDLC Ethernet ATM/PPP/HDLC CE 1A Attachment VC / L2 circuit PE1 PSN Tunnel: MPLS Tunnel MPLS (LSP or RSVP-TE) MPLS Core PE2 Attachment VC / L2 circuit CE 1B Site1B Site 2B Site 2A CE 2A Attachment VC / L2 circuit IP Network Attachment VC / L2 circuit CE 2B AToM Reference Model ES Emulated Services: FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC Attachment VC (AVC): FR DLCI/Ethernet VLAN/ATM PVC/PPP/HDLC PW Pseudo-Wire: Emulated VC (EVC): MPLS LSP PSN Packet Switched Network (Tunnel): MPLS LSP or RSVP-TE 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 45

43 Any Transport over MPLS AToM FR Cust DLCI 101 IPoFR cust Edge-LSR LSR DLCI 202 Service Provider Example: Frame Relay over MPLS 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 46

44 Transports over MPLS AToM draft-martini-l2circuit-trans-mpls-05.txt draft-martini-l2circuit-encap-mpls-01.txt Ethernet 802.1Q (Ethernet VLAN) Frame Relay PDU ATM AAL5 PDU ATM cells (non AAL5 mode) Cisco HDLC PPP 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 47

45 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 48

46 Why Traffic Engineering? Congestion in the network due to changing traffic patterns Election news, online trading, major sports events Better utilization of available bandwidth Route on the non-shortest path Route around failed links/nodes Fast rerouting around failures, transparently to users Like SONET APS (Automatic Protection Switching) Build new services Virtual leased line services VoIP toll-bypass applications, point-to-point bandwidth guarantees Capacity planning TE improves aggregate availability of the network 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 49

47 IP Routing and the Fish R3 R8 R2 R4 R5 R1 R6 R7 IP (Mostly) Uses Destination-Based Least-Cost Routing Flows from R8 and R1 Merge at R2 and Become Indistinguishable From R2, Traffic to R3, R4, R5 Use Upper Route Alternate Path Under-Utilized 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 50

48 Solution: Toll Bypass with Voice/Data Converged Network PBX with Circuit Emulation Interface PSTN Traditional TDM Network Class 5 legacy switches CE Fast Reroute in the core CE Enterprise LAN Toll Bypass Enterprise LAN PE GB Tunnel PE Solution Requirements QoS on CE Router Mapping QoS on QoS on PE + + Router Traffic to + = Core Tunnels Routers DiffServ-Aware Traffic Engineering 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 52

49 DiffServ Aware TE Virtual Leased Line Traditional Telephony Central Office PSTN Traditional TDM Network Class 5 Legacy switches Central Office Traditional Telephony MPLS Network Voice Trunking Enterprise LAN VPN Service VoIP Gateway CE PE PE Toll Bypass Regular TE Tunnel PE GB Tunnel PE PE PE VoIP Gateway CE Enterprise LAN GB-TE Tunnel Regular TE Tunnel Physical Link Internet Service Enterprise LAN Internet Access Router Internet Access Router Enterprise LAN 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 53

50 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 55

51 What Is Fast Reroute? Definition Fast ReRoute (FRR) is a link or node protection feature, allowing for temporary bypassing of the failed link or node over a preestablished tunnel, while the head-end is rerouting the failed LSP 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 56

52 What is Fast Re-route? (cont.) Head-end Router 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 57

53 Link Resilience (Next-hop Backup Tunnel) 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 58

54 Node Resilience (Next-next Hop Backup Tunnel) 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 59

55 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 60

56 Carrier Supporting Carrier & Inter-Provider Access Carrier Supporting Carrier Hierarchical relationship Opportunity: Offer backbone services to peer or smaller carriers Inter-Provider Access Peer relationship Opportunity: Provide carrier services on behalf of other carriers Backbone Carrier Carrier A Customer Carriers Carrier B 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 61

57 Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.) VRF-to-VRF Connections Between AS Border Routers ASBRs collect the client VPN routes through configured VRFs. Adjacent ASBR is seen as a CE through separate logical interface. Dedicated IPv4 routing session per VRF usually ebgp. 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 62

58 Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.) VPN Routing Distribution Between MPLS VPN Backbones VPN routing information distributed across inter-as network 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 63

59 Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.) Data Flow Label Switching and IP Forwarding Data flow: Label switching within AS and IP forwarding on Inter- AS link 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 64

60 MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected Across Standard Carrier (Cont.) Customer Carrier is Not Running MPLS (Cont.) 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 65

61 MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected Across Standard Carrier (Cont.) Customer Carrier is Running MPLS (Cont.) IBGP 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 66

62 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 67

63 Multicast VPN (MVPN) CE CE Receiver 4 B1 San Francisco PE Default MDT For low Bandwidth & control traffic only. Los Angeles D PE CE B D B2 Receiver 3 Join high bandwidth source Receiver 1 MPLS VPN Core A PE C A PE CE New York PE E Data MDT For High Bandwidth traffic only. Dallas C CE CE E F CE Customer CE devices joins the MPLS Core through provider s PE devices A Default MDT is created connecting all the PE s within a VPN for signaling and low bandwidth flows A High-bandwidth source for that customer starts sending traffic Interested receivers 1 & 2 join that High Bandwidth source Data-MDT is formed for this High-Bandwidth source High bandwidth multicast source Join high bandwidth source Receiver , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 68

64 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 69

65 Backbone and Edge QoS Design Scope Loss rate Latency Jitter Throughput Loss rate Latency Jitter Availability Subsecond Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) convergence Sub-100 ms Fast Reroute (FRR) High availability 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 70

66 Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.) QoS Transparency An MPLS packet carries two (or more) DiffServ markings. Three modes of interaction are defined between markings: Uniform, Pipe, and Short Pipe. Modes are only relevant when a label is popped/pushed. 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 71

67 Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.) QoS Transparency: Uniform Mode 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 72

68 Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.) QoS Transparency: Pipe Mode 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 75

69 Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.) QoS Transparency: Short Pipe Mode 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 78

70 Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN s 4.9 QoS 5. Summary 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 81

71 MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery ATM Services PNNI IP Services IP MPLS IP+ATM: MPLS brings IP and ATM together Eliminates IP over ATM overhead and complexity One network for Internet, Business IP VPNs, and transport IP+ATM Switch Network-based VPNs with MPLS: a foundation for value-added service delivery Flexible user and service grouping (biz-to-biz) Flexibility of IP and the QoS and privacy of ATM Enables application and content hosting inside each VPN Transport independent Low provisioning costs enable affordable managed services 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 82

72 MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery MPLS traffic engineering Provides routing on diverse paths to avoid congestion Better utilization of the network Better availability using protection solution (FRR) Guaranteed bandwidth services Combine MPLS traffic engineering and QoS Deliver point-to-point bandwidth guaranteed pipes Leverage the capability of traffic engineering Build solution like virtual leased line and toll trunking 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 83

73 MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery Optical Services O-UNI IP Services IP MPLS IP+Optical Switch IP+Optical: MPLS brings IP and Optical together Eliminates IP over optical complexity Uses MPLS as a control plane for setting up lightpaths (wavelengths) One control plane for Internet (GMPLS), business IP VPNs, and Optical transport Frame Relay ATM Frame Relay Any transport over MPLS Transport ATM, FR, Ethernet, PPP over MPLS Provide services to existing installed base Protect Investment in the installed gear Leverage capabilities of the packet core Combine with other packet-based services such as MPLS VPNs 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 84

74 Literature MPLS and VPN Architectures Ivan Pepelnjak Jim Guichard ISBN , Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 85

75 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 86

76 MPLS Features... That s all nice but... How does this help me for my datacenter? 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 87

77 Customer Strategies Mapping Customer Problems to Cisco Solutions Strategies Server, Application and DC consolidation Migration to Web Apps Comprehensive Security Services Model Storage Consolidation Business Continuance & Disaster Recovery Data Center Solution Set Data Center Networking Distributed Data Centers Data Center Data Security Application/Server Optimization Highly Availability Infrastructure Storage Network Inter-Data Center Connectivity 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 88

78 Data Center Networking Internet ISP A ISP B IP Network Primary Data Center Distributed Data Center Internet SP A SP B Campus Core Intranet IP Network External protection Internal protection Primary Data Center Distributed Data Center Data Center Infrastructure Server & Application Optimization Server farm protection Data Center Security Storage Networking Distributed Data Centers 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 89

79 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 101

80 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 187

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