Master Course Computer Networks IN2097

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1 Chair for Network Architectures and Services Prof. Carle Department for Computer Science TU München Master Course Computer Networks IN2097 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Georg Carle Christian Grothoff, Ph.D. Chair for Network Architectures and Services Institut für Informatik Technische Universität München

2 Outline q Project feedback q Internet Structure q Network virtualisation Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/2012 2

3 Chair for Network Architectures and Services Prof. Carle Department for Computer Science TU München Network Architectures Link virtualization: ATM, MPLS

4 ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) [more] Different versions of AAL layers, depending on ATM service class: q AAL1: for CBR (Constant Bit Rate) services, e.g. circuit emulation q AAL2: for VBR (Variable Bit Rate) services, e.g., MPEG video q AAL5: for data (e.g., IP datagrams) User data AAL PDU ATM cell Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/2012 4

5 ATM Layer Service: transport cells across ATM network q analogous to IP network layer q very different services than IP network layer q possible Quality of Service (QoS) Guarantees Network Architecture Service Model Bandwidth Guarantees? Loss Order Timing Congestion feedback Internet ATM ATM ATM ATM best effort CBR VBR ABR UBR none constant rate guaranteed rate guaranteed minimum none no yes yes no no no yes yes yes yes no yes yes no no no (inferred via loss) no congestion no congestion yes no Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/2012 5

6 ATM VCs q q Advantages of ATM VC approach: QoS performance guarantee for connection mapped to VC (bandwidth, delay, delay jitter) Drawbacks of ATM VC approach: Inefficient support of datagram traffic one PVC between each source/destination pair does not scale SVC introduces call setup latency, processing overhead for short lived connections Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/2012 6

7 ATM Layer: ATM cell q q 5-byte ATM cell header 48-byte payload (Why?) small payload short cell-creation delay for digitized voice halfway between 32 and 64 (compromise!) Cell header Cell format Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/2012 7

8 ATM cell header q VCI: virtual channel ID may change from link to link through network q PT: Payload type: RM (resource management) vs. data cell q CLP: Cell Loss Priority bit CLP = 1 implies low priority cell, can be discarded if congestion q HEC: Header Error Checksum cyclic redundancy check Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/2012 8

9 Virtual Circuit Switching Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/2012 9

10 Multiplexing of Variable vs. Fixed Size Packets q Multiplexing of variable size packets q ATM Multiplexing Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

11 ATM Identifiers q ATM Cell q Virtual Path Identifiers and Virtual Channel Identifiers (UNI: User-to-Network-Interface NNI: Network-to-Network-Interface) Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

12 ATM Virtual Connections Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

13 ATM Physical Layer Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) sublayer q SONET/SDH: transmission frame structure (like a container carrying bits); bit synchronization; bandwidth partitions (TDM); several speeds: OC3 = Mbps OC12 = Mbps OC48 = 2.45 Gbps OC192 = 9.6 Gbps q TI/T3: transmission frame structure (old telephone hierarchy): 1.5 Mbps/ 45 Mbps q unstructured: just cells (busy/idle) transmission of idle cells when no data cells to send Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

14 IP-Over-ATM Classic IP only q 3 networks (e.g., LAN segments) q MAC (802.3) and IP addresses IP over ATM q replace network (e.g., LAN segment) with ATM network q ATM addresses, IP addresses ATM network Ethernet LANs Ethernet LANs Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

15 IP-Over-ATM app transport IP Eth phy Eth phy IP AAL ATM phy ATM phy ATM phy app transport IP AAL ATM phy Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

16 Datagram Journey in IP-over-ATM Network q at Source Host: IP layer maps between IP, ATM destination address (using ARP) passes datagram to AAL5 AAL5 encapsulates data, segments cells, passes to ATM layer q ATM network: moves cell along VC to destination q at Destination Host: AAL5 reassembles cells into original datagram if CRC OK, datagram is passed to IP Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

17 IP-Over-ATM Issues: q q IP datagrams into ATM AAL5 PDUs from IP addresses to ATM addresses just like IP addresses to MAC addresses! ARP server Ethernet LANs ATM network Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

18 Chair for Network Architectures and Services Prof. Carle Department for Computer Science TU München MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching

19 Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) q Initial goal: speed up IP forwarding by using fixed length label (instead of IP address) to do forwarding borrowing ideas from Virtual Circuit (VC) approach IP datagram still keeps IP address RFC 3032 defines MPLS header Label: has role of Virtual Circuit Identifier Exp: experimental usage, may specify Class of Service (CoS) S: Bottom of Stack - end of series of stacked headers TTL: time to live PPP or Ethernet header MPLS header IP header remainder of link-layer frame label Exp. S TTL bit Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

20 MPLS capable routers q a.k.a. label-switched router q forwards packets to outgoing interface based only on label value (don t inspect IP address) MPLS forwarding table distinct from IP forwarding tables q signaling protocol needed to set up forwarding Label Distribution Protocol LDP (RFC 3036 obsoleted by RFC 5036) RSVP-TE (RFC 3209 updated by RFCs 3936, 4420, 4874, 5151, 5420, 5711) q forwarding possible along paths that IP alone would not allow (e.g., source-specific routing) q MPLS supports traffic engineering q must co-exist with IP-only routers Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

21 MPLS forwarding tables in out out label label dest interface 10 A 0 12 D 0 8 A 1 in out out label label dest interface 10 6 A D 0 R6 R5 R4 0 R2 in out out label label dest interface A 0 R D 0 A in out R1 out label label dest interface 6 - A 0 Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

22 MPLS q Label Switched Path (LSP) set up by signalling protocol has sequence of labels q Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC) specification of packets treated the same way by a router forwarded over same LSP can be specified by destination prefix, e.g. FEC /24 q Label Switching Router MPLS-capable IP router; may bind labels to FEC q MPLS node does not need IP stack q stacked labels label push; label pop Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

23 Benefits of MPLS q High Speed Switching facilitates construction of nodes with wire-line speed q Simplifying packet forwarding Routing decision can be limited to edge of AS q Traffic Engineering MPLS may control paths taken by different flows, e.g. to avoid congestion points for certain flows q Quality of Service (QoS) support resources may be specified for specific flows, isolation among flows q Network scalability label stacking allows to arrange MPLS domains in a hierarchy q Supporting VPNs tunneling of packets from an ingress point to an egress point Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

24 Traffic Engineering q Traffic engineering: process of mapping traffic demand onto a network B C Demand A D Network Topology q Purpose of traffic engineering: Maximize utilization of links and nodes throughout the network Engineer links to achieve required delay, grade-of-service Spread network traffic across network links, reduce impact of failure Ensure available spare link capacity for re-routing traffic on failure Meet policy requirements imposed by the network operator ð Traffic engineering key to optimizing cost/performance Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

25 Chair for Network Architectures and Services Prof. Carle Department for Computer Science TU München Virtual Private Networks

26 Virtual Private Networks (VPN) VPNs Networks perceived as being private networks by customers using them, but built over shared infrastructure owned by service provider (SP) q Service provider infrastructure: backbone provider edge devices q Customer: customer edge devices (communicating over shared backbone) Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

27 VPN Reference Architecture customer edge device provider edge device Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

28 q Privacy VPNs: Why? q Security q Works well with mobility (looks like you are always at home) q Cost many forms of newer VPNs are cheaper than leased line VPNs ability to share at lower layers even though logically separate means lower cost exploit multiple paths, redundancy, fault-recovery in lower layers need isolation mechanisms to ensure resources shared appropriately q Abstraction and manageability all machines with addresses that are in are trusted no matter where they are Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

29 VPN: logical view virtual private network customer edge device provider edge device Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

30 Leased-Line VPN customer sites interconnected via static virtual channels (e.g., ATM VCs), leased lines customer site connects to provider edge Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

31 Customer Premise VPN q all VPN functions implemented by customer customer sites interconnected via tunnels q tunnels typically encrypted q Service provider treats VPN packets like all other packets Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

32 Variants of VPNs q Leased-line VPN configuration costs and maintenance by service provider: long time to set up, manpower q CPE-based VPN expertise by customer to acquire, configure, manage VPN q Network-based VPN Customer routers connect to service provider routers Service provider routers maintain separate (independent) IP contexts for each VPN sites can use private addressing traffic from one VPN cannot be injected into another Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

33 Network-based Layer 3 VPNs multiple virtual routers in single provider edge device Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

34 Tunneling Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

35 MPLS-based VPN T-PE CE CE MPLS S-PE MPLS CE T-PE S-PE MPLS tunnel T-PE CE Terminating-PE MPLS Aggregation Network MPLS Backbone Network S-PE Switching-PE MPLS T-PE CE CE T-PE/S-PE MPLS Aggregation Networks CE Network IN Master Security, Course WS 2008/09, Computer Chapter Networks, 9 WS 2011/

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