Virtual Private Networks. Juha Heinänen Song Networks

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1 Virtual Private Networks Juha Heinänen Song Networks

2 What is an IP VPN? an emulation of private (wide area) network facility using provider IP facilities provides permanent connectivity between multiple customer sites implementation can be either customer or provider based can span multiple providers Juha Heinänen 2

3 VPN Example SP1 SP2 SP3 PE PE PE PE PE P P PE RAS P PE CEs Two VPNs spanning three SPs Juha Heinänen 3

4 VPN Requirements support for customer addressing non-unique, overlapping address spaces support for data security authenticity, privacy, integrity support for QoS assurances bandwidth, latency Juha Heinänen 4

5 VPN Classification Who implements the VPN CE or PE based at which layer the VPN operates Layer 2 or Layer 3 how the VPN is implemented membership discovery, signaling, tunneling protocol,... Juha Heinänen 5

6 CE Based VPNs integrate VPN capabilities in CE devices CEs are connected via IPSec tunnels over the Internet (available everywhere) provide site-to-site security require networking skills and a key management system the only choice if security of the VPN service is a concern Juha Heinänen 6

7 A CE Based VPN Telecommuter Internet RAS IPSec Tunnel Juha Heinänen 7

8 PE Based VPNs Outsource the VPN operation to SPs PEs appear as router peers or bridges to CEs works with conventional access routers simplified CE operation brings new revenue sources to SPs suitable when the SPs and local loops can be trusted Juha Heinänen 8

9 A Network Based VPN Telecommuter Internet Virtual RAS VPN Tunnel Virtual Router or Bridge Juha Heinänen 9

10 Layer 2 vs. Layer 3 VPNs Layer 2 VPNs provide Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS) or Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) PEs not aware of customer s Layer 3 protocols, addresses, or routing Layer 3 VPNs provide Virtual Routing Service PEs participate as routing peers in customers Layer 3 protocols Juha Heinänen 10

11 Virtual Private Wire Service VPN Tunnel Internet Access Connection AC can be physical PPP or Ethernet link, FR or ATM VC, VLAN, MPLS LSP, etc. Juha Heinänen 11

12 Virtual Private LAN Service Virtual Learning Bridge Internet AC can be physical Ethernet link or VLAN Juha Heinänen 12

13 Layer 3 VPN Virtual Router Internet Dynamic or or Static Routing AC can be physical PPP or Ethernet link, FR or ATM VC, VLAN, MPLS LSP, etc. Juha Heinänen 13

14 Generic VPN Problems how to discover which other CEs or PEs belong to the same VPN how to setup VPN tunnels and which tunneling protocols to use how to advertise end-point reachability within a VPN Juha Heinänen 14

15 VPN Membership Discovery a CE or a PE port is configured to belong to a given VPN CE or PE learns about other members via configuration (CEs) BGP piggy packing (PEs) DNS (CEs and PEs) DNS vs. BGP for discovery is currently a hot issue Juha Heinänen 15

16 VPN Tunneling choices for VPN tunneling protocols MPLS (over MPLS or GRE), L2TPv3, IPSec choices for tunnel setup protocols LDP, BGP piggy packing, L2TPv3, IPSec tunneling protocol can be chosen independently of discovery protocol Juha Heinänen 16

17 Advertising Reachability Layer 2 VPNs VPLS has no need to advertise reachability VPWS can piggy pack Layer 3 reachability into tunnel setup Layer 3 VPNs via IGP over VPN tunnels between VRs via BGP extended with VPN addresses Juha Heinänen 17

18 BGP Piggy Packing Assumes that each PE runs (extended) BGP difficulties with multiprovider VPNs all transit SPs need to be trusted VPN information visible at boarder routers advertisement scope is difficult to control OK for single SP VPNs where customer sites can be backhauled to BGP speaking PEs Juha Heinänen 18

19 BGP/MPLS Model SP1 SP2 SP3 MPLS LSPs for for the VPN Juha Heinänen 19

20 DNS/GRE/MPLS Model SP1 SP2 SP3 IP IP tunnels for for the VPN Juha Heinänen 20

21 DNS Based VPLS Example xyz.vpn.sp.net IN IN A PE1 IN IN A PE2 IN IN A PE3 <xyz.vpn.sp.net> <xyz.vpn.sp.net> PE1 PE2 PE3 <xyz.vpn.sp.net> <xyz.vpn.sp.net> Juha Heinänen 21

22 Summary Frame Relay and ATM based VPNs are migrating to IP based VPNs a secure VPN can only be implementing using IPSec between CEs Layer 2 VPNs (especially VPLS) is becoming an alternative to Layer 3 VPNs jury is still out regarding the discovery and tunneling protocols Juha Heinänen 22

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