Oklahoma Master Gardeners

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1 Oklahoma Basic Entomology for the Home and Landscape Eric J. Rebek Dept. of Entomology and Plant Pathology

2 MG Questions and Answers How can I manage insect pests without insecticides? How do I stop ants from getting in my house? Do some plants repel mosquitoes? Why doesn t this insecticide work?

3 Keys to Insect Management Know your landscape Know your adversary Know your tools for control

4 Know Your Landscape Preemptive gardening is a good first step in keeping many problems from ever occurring (i.e., preventative maintenance) Includes selecting proper plant material, site identification, smart landscaping, proper fertility, proper watering, and overall good horticultural practices

5 Know Your Landscape Some insects are commonly associated with certain plants

6 Know Your Landscape Some of these close associations create a nuisance for the home or landscape

7 Know Your Landscape Location of plant materials in the landscape can affect potential pest problems

8 Know Your Adversary Why Study BUG Science? Proper ID Associate injury symptoms with pest Selection of proper control strategy

9 The Arthropods Phylum Arthropoda (ahr thrŏ pod a) The most abundant, diverse life form on the planet (3/4 of known animal species) Our chief competitor for food, and a major source of potential health problems and annoyance Most are NOT a problem for us

10 What Is an Arthropod? All arthropods have: Skeleton on the outside of the body Distinct body segmentation Paired, jointed appendages Dorsal, tubular heart valves Double, ventral nerve chord Open circulatory system

11 Classification of Japanese Beetle Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Coleoptera Family Scarabaeidae Genus Popillia Species japonica

12 Classes of Arthropods Malacostraca (crayfish, lobsters, sowbugs pillbugs) crustaceans Arachnida (spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions) Chilopoda (centipedes) Diplopoda (millipedes) Insecta (true bugs, beetles, butterflies, wasps, fleas, grasshoppers, silverfish, etc.)

13 The Arachnids Class Arachnida (a-rach -nid-a) Two body regions (cephalothorax + abdomen) No antennae, never winged 4 pairs of legs Harvestman Mite Tick Spider Scorpion

14 Two main body regions Laterally flattened 30 to 340 legs (1 pair per body segment) 1 pair antennae The Chilopods Class Chilopoda (chi lo po da) Centipedes Predaceous, can be venomous

15 2 body regions Body generally rounded 1 pair of antennae The Diplopods Class Diplopoda (dip lo po da) Millipedes legs (2 pair per apparent body segment) Feed on decaying organic matter Often coil when disturbed

16 The Insects Class Insecta (in sec ta) Beetles, wasps, butterflies, cicadas, grasshoppers, roaches 3 body regions (head + thorax + abdomen) 3 pairs of legs 1 pair of antennae 0, 1 or 2 pair of wings

17 Insect Physiology 101 The insect body is made of a substance called chitin; it must be shed for the insect to grow

18 Insect Growth Metamorphosis Series of changes an insect passes through in its growth and development Growth and development occur through the process of ecdysis (shedding its exoskeleton) Each molt allows insect to get bigger, change shape, and mature May reduce competition between young and adults for food and shelter

19 Insect Growth Ametabolous Growth Increase in size, but no changes in characteristics of the insect

20 Insect Growth Ametabolous Growth Protura (Proturans) Diplura (Diplurans) Thysanura (Silverfish) Collembola (Springtails)

21 Insect Growth Paurometabolous Development = gradual metamorphosis Three life stages (egg, nymph, adult) Change in size, and addition of adult structures, such as reproductive organs, wings.

22 Insect Growth Gradual Metamorphosis - Orthoptera (Grasshoppers Roaches, Walkingsticks, Mantids) - Isoptera (Termites) - Dermaptera (Earwigs) - Psocoptera (Booklice) - Zoraptera (Angel insects)

23 Insect Growth Gradual Metamorphosis - Thysanoptera (Thrips) - Mallophaga (Chewing Lice) - Anoplura (Lice) - Hemiptera (True Bugs) - Homoptera (Aphids, Scales, Leafhoppers, Plant Hoppers, Whiteflies)

24 Insect Growth Hemimetabolous Development = simple (incomplete) metamorphosis Three life stages (egg, naiad, adult) Immature stage is aquatic

25 Insect Growth Incomplete Metamorphosis - Ephemeroptera (Mayfly) - Odonata (Dragonfly) - Plecoptera (Stonefly)

26 Insect Growth Holometabolous Development = complete metamorphosis Four life stages (egg, larva, pupa, adult)

27 Insect Growth Complete Metamorphosis - Neuroptera (Lacewings) - Coleoptera (Beetles) - Mecoptera (Scorpionfly) - Lepidoptera (Butterfly) - Diptera (True Fly) - Siphonaptera (Flea) - Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps)

28 Insect Orders Insects can be grouped into orders quite easily with a bit of practice. Key in on the following: Wing type and number Mouthparts Type of development Other body structures (legs, antennae, etc.)

29 Chewing Insect Mouthparts

30 Insect Mouthparts Chewing-lapping Sponging Honeybee House fly

31 Insect Mouthparts Piercing-sucking Leafhopper Stable Fly Mosquito Louse Flea

32 Insect Mouthparts Siphoning Rasping Butterfly Thrips

33 Insect Wings True bug - hemelytra Grasshopper - tegmina Thrips fringed Beetle - elytra Wasp membranous

34 Antennae

35 Legs

36 Major Groups of Insects Coleoptera Beetles (sheath-winged) Complete metamorphosis Chewing mouthparts Hardened wing covers (elytra) on adults, antennae are various

37 Major Groups of Insects Diptera - Flies, gnats, mosquitoes (two-winged) Complete metamorphosis Mouthparts various 1 pair of membranous wings, and 1 pair of little knobs called halteres (= hindwings)

38 Major Groups of Insects Hemiptera - True bugs (half-winged) Gradual metamorphosis Piercing-sucking mouthparts 2 pairs of wings with hemelytra (outer wings) half membranous and half leathery

39 Major Groups of Insects Hymenoptera - Ants, bees, wasps (membrane-winged or marriage-winged) Complete metamorphosis Chewing mouthparts Membranous wings

40 Major Groups of Insects Lepidoptera - Butterflies, moths, skippers (scale-winged) Complete metamorphosis Siphoning mouthparts (adult), chewing mouthparts (larva) 2 pair wings with colored scales

41 Major Groups of Insects Orthoptera - Grasshopper, cricket, praying mantis, walkingstick, cockroach (straight-winged) Gradual metamorphosis Chewing mouthparts Outer wings leathery, inner ones membranous

42 Major Groups of Insects Neuroptera - Lacewings, antlions, snakeflies, mantispids, dobsonflies, alderflies (nerve-winged) Complete metamorphosis Chewing mouthparts (adults), piercing mouthparts (larva) Membranous wings with many veins Most are predaceous

43 Major Groups of Insects Homoptera - Aphids, scales, whiteflies, leafhoppers, cicadas (alike- or uniform-winged) Gradual metamorphosis Piercing-sucking mouthparts 2 pairs of clear wings, some wingless Some reproduce without males

44 Major Groups of Insects Thysanoptera thrips (fringe-winged) Gradual metamorphosis Rasping-sucking mouthparts 2 pairs of feathery wings

45 Know Your Adversary Why Study This Stuff? Proper ID Associate injury symptoms with pest Selection of proper control strategy

46 Relate Damage to Insect Chewing Damage Internal External

47 Relate Damage to Insect Piercing-Sucking Damage Wilting Discoloration Distorted Growth

48 Relate Damage to Insect Rasping-Sucking Damage Flower Leaf

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