Rhetorical Modes. Argumentation

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1 Rhetorical Modes Argumentation

2 Modes of Discourse Classical: Narrative relate a sequence of events Descriptive shows how something looks, sounds, tastes, smells, feels, or acts. Expository explains and informs Argumentative proves the validity of an idea

3 Modes of Discourse Modern: Characterize Reminisce Respond Inform Define Analyze Classify Compare-Contrast Summarize Interpret Evaluate

4 Argumentation The rhetorical mode in which a writer appeals to the reader s intellect on complex and debatable issues. The writer seeks to prove the validity of an idea. Direct argumentation analytical and persuasive essays Indirect argumentation satires, fictional works *Everything is an argument!

5 Everything s an Argument.. Well Almost Identify an argument from the following: How to Mark a Book

6 Occasion What motivated Adler to write How to Mark a Book? What moved Douglass to write Learning to Read and Write?

7 Purpose/Thesis Thesis the writer s opinion on the subject the main point he is trying to achieve (subject + opinion) Purpose a writer s reason for trying to convey a particular idea (thesis) about a particular subject to a particular audience of readers --should govern every element of a piece of writing --express using an in order to statement

8 Purpose What is the purpose of Adler s How to Mark a Book? of Learning to Read and Write?

9 Aristotle s Rhetorical Triangle In determining rhetorical mode, language, strategies and appeals, the writer must consider the interdependence of: Subject Speaker Audience

10 Audience Who is the audience for How to Mark a Book?...for Learning to Read and Write? How are the modes, language, strategies used appropriate for the target audience?

11 Persuasion The purpose for writing the argument, persuasion is a type of argumentative writing. The writer tries to convince the reader to think, act, or behave in a certain way *Persuasion and argumentation are often used interchangeably

12 Persuasive Appeals Logos: an author s appeal to one s reasoning or logic Ethos: an appeal based on the author s character/reputation Pathos: an author s appeal to emotion, usually sorrow/pity

13 Persuasive Essay Components Proposition/thesis states belief Logical appeal appeals to the reader s reason (logos) Provides evidence & commentary to support the belief anticipates & refutes counter-arguments

14 Other Persuasive Appeals Emotional appeal attempts to appeal to reader s emotions (often through pathos) to excite and involve reader into argument may tap into reader s to reader s fears, love, patriotism, family, religion, etc Ethical appeal attempts to appeal to reader based on the character of the writer the writer appeals to reader through his knowledge, expertise, objectivity, and moral competence Appeals to science, religion, the common man

15 Persuasive Devices/ Strategies These may be used to enhance the logic of an argument: Concession respectful acknowledgement of opposition Loaded words words with strong positive or negative connotations Rhetorical questions answer to question is obvious, and therefore the question itself is inherently persuasive (yet writer may still answer it for emphasis) Negation anticipating and nullifying potential counter arguments (e.g. No man can ; No policy will

16 Persuasive Devices/ Strategies (cont d) Hyperbole deliberate exaggeration Repetition emphasizes key points, statements, or words Analogies/figures of speech draws comparisons to illustrate points Anecdotes related stories that bring argument to life Parallel structure emphasizes key points **Used without effective, logical reasoning, these devices lead to fallacies!

17 Organizing Persuasive Essays Organize in same manner as the analytical essay Introduction thesis statement Main body paragraphs topic sentence-evidencecommentary If audience is inclined to agree with proposition, state strongest point first If audience is inclined to disagree, lead up to strongest point

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