Formal, Analytical Essay Writing. Review: Literary Analysis Format; Plagiarism (page # s refer to Writers Inc.)

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1 Formal, Analytical Essay Writing Review: Literary Analysis Format; Plagiarism (page # s refer to Writers Inc.)

2 What is an Literary Analysis Essay? (pg ) An essay is essentially an argument, based on logic and evidence; you present your understanding or interpretation of a literary work; critical thinking The argument is developed through explanation, and the evidence, in the form of examples, quotations from expert sources, and illustrations, is explained in relationship to the argument. Made up of certain parts: Introduction (with strong thesis); Body Paragraphs (with transitional devices), Parenthetical Citations; Conclusion, Works Cited Page

3 Essay vs. Report An ESSAY means a persuasive argument must be present. Often students are asked to write a REPORT, this is, a summary of research findings without a specifically expressed argument. Arguments and reports differ in PURPOSE and in ORGANIZATION. Thus, a REPORT tends to be explanatory, whereas an ESSAY is persuasive or argumentative. A report may require a point of view or argument to be presented only if recommendations are required; and essay always requires a point of view or argument.

4 Essay vs. Report PURPOSE ESSAY To be subjective: to argue a specific POV To provide evidence to support this POV REPORT To be objective: to present findings from research To provide examples from the research ORGANIZATION Statement of thesis: overall argument and supporting arguments Explanation of each argument in turn, followed by presentation of evidence and examples conclusion Statement of scope and purpose of the report Summary of findings, citing examples and sources Conclusion and recommendations if required

5 Review: Parts of an Essay Introduction (with strong thesis) Body Paragraphs including Parenthetical Citations; (with transitional devices) How to Avoid Plagiarism Conclusion (restatement of thesis, final analysis, tie entire essay together) Works Cited Page

6 Proper Essay Format Format: Paragraph 1: Introduction (thesis statement with 3 main topics to be discussed) Paragraph 2: Topic One with textual support (quote) Paragraph 3:Topic Two with textual support (quote) Paragraph 4: Topic Three with textual support (quote) Paragraph 5: Conclusion (restate thesis, tie it all together; final analysis) **Use transitional devices

7 Introduction: Step 1 Step 1: Begin with a sentence which catches the reader s interest. This sentence should not be the thesis for the essay, but should be somewhat related to the topic. The idea of the opening sentence may be developed or explained in several sentences to follow.

8 Introduction: Step 2 Step 2: In a literary essay it is necessary to state the title and author of the work on which the essay is based (ex. Jane Austen s Pride and Prejudice). This statement may be included in the thesis statement.

9 Introduction: Step 3 Step 3: State the thesis (could be one or more sentences). Do not explain it, just state it. Following this pattern ensures that the arguments are clear to the reader or evaluator of the essay. By the end of the first paragraph, the reader knows what will be argued (thesis) and how this argument will be developed (the issues).

10 Thesis (pg 51) The argument of an essay is expressed in what writers call the THESIS A thesis is the expression of the overall argument or issue and the developing arguments of an essay. A thesis is a general statement or presentation of an argument or issue followed by the details that will support the argument or issue.

11 Evidence The thesis is based on evidence. EVIDENCE consists of examples, quotations, appeals to authority of any kind, statistics, logic anything which will prove the validity of an issue. Examples Quotations (this is what we focus on; parenthetical citations for the text) Appeals to authority Statistics and illustrations Logic

12 Explanation of Evidence This thesis Is true because Issue 1 Issue 2 Issue 3 Are true.

13 Review of Thesis Your thesis will guide you as you write; it states the reason why your essay was written, and everything else in the essay is designed to support it. When writing a thesis, it is crucial that the sentence be clear and logical. Your point should be stated strongly. A vague thesis can lead you off-track. Answers the question What is your point? It states YOUR thoughts and ideas: It is not necessary to use words such as IN MY OPINION, I THINK or IN THIS ESSAY I WILL DISCUSS.because you are the one doing the writing, the reader can assume that anything you write is your opinion. Includes 3 main pts to be discussed and supported throughout paper As you write your paper, you may find you need to tweak your sentence to sound better or to better reflect the facts you discover in your research. Doesn t have to be last sentence of intro; can be more than one sentence No bold or underlined

14 Body Paragraphs At least (could be more) 3 body paragraphs (three issues) and explanations including parenthetical citations (quotes) One idea (including evidence to support) per paragraph The next (at least) 3 paragraphs; each explains one of the points the author is making to back up his or her thesis statement These explanations are presented in the same order in which they are presented in the introduction Each body paragraph contains evidence explanations, examples, quotations, and other information that shows that each point is correct The evidence proves that each point is true, and each point proves that the thesis is true.

15 Transitions pg 109 Coherence is a logical flow of ideas and relies on connective words and phrases to create this flow. These connective words and phrases are called transitions. Transitions are used to mainly to connect issues and ideas. The most obvious transition words list issues in the order in which they appear (number words) such as (these are obvious and should be avoided): First (to begin) Secondly Thirdly (etc)

16 Transitions (pg 109): Better transitions: In addition Similarly Also Likewise On the other hand On the contrary However Therefore Thus, etc

17 Citing Sources (pg ) Writers should cite sources when they: Use quotes or copy word-for-word from a source Paraphrase or rewrite materials from another source Use ideas expressed by someone else Create ideas that are based on someone else s material or ideas

18 Parenthetical Citations (Short Quotes) Three lines or less are incorporated into the normal sentence structure (keep quotes, keep double spaced) Example: The main subject of this novel is courtship and marriage. Jane Austen, the author of Pride and Prejudice, shows and indirectly criticizes the 18th century England's rural society and the pride of high class through several people's marriages who are in different social position. To set the tone of the novel as well as to illustrate the important themes, author Austen states It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife (Austen 1). This statement is both ironic yet humorously true.

19 Parenthetical Citations (Long Quotes) Long quotations (four lines or more) are indented and single-spaced; quotation marks are omitted. Example: Elizabeth s intelligence, comprehension and independence is what attracts Darcy to her. His attitudes towards her even begins to change and he begins to humble himself and bask in her very presence. In chapter six, Austen states the following in reference to Darcy s change of heart: But no sooner had he made it to clear to himself and his friends that she had hardly a good feature in her face, than he began to find it was rendered uncommonly intelligent by the beautiful expression of her dark eye He began to wish to know more of her, and as a step towards conversing with her himself, attended to her conversation with others. (Austen 15) From this point, Darcy's prejudice against Elizabeth begins to fade while her prejudice towards him still remains because he refused to dance with her at the ball. Her prejudice spreads throughout the novel, and that prejudice is an outcome of her wounded pride.

20 Plagiarism Plagiarism is simply the act of claiming someone else s work or ideas as your own. It is quite easy to accidentally commit plagiarism. Writers Inc, pages

21 Conclusion Final paragraph Wraps up the essay by briefly reminding the reader how the evidence supports the thesis statement Signals to the reader that the essay s argument has been completed by providing consequences, a call to action, or some other final thought related to the essay's topic. Includes: restatement of thesis, final analysis, tie entire essay together

22 Works Cited/Bibliography Page (pg ) MLA Citations The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature. Alphabetical order according to the first word of the reference Author, Title, Publication Date Last Name, First Name. Title Underlined. City: Publisher, Date.

23 Final Checklist DO: Have an AWESOME thesis Have adequate support for thesis Include insightful observations (critical thinking, analysis) Stay formal (tone) Use transitions Reread and revise to insure your paper is grammatically error free DO NOT: Use contractions Summarize the plot Say A LOT (get out a thesaurus) Use colloquial (conversational) language Use slang

24 Final Reminders Introduction: Should include title and author You should assume that your audience has not read the novel or know anything about the characters or relationships-tell them everything-formally! STAY FORMAL! Thesis Statement: Should tell everything that you will discuss in your paper Can be more than one sentence Would be good to have title and author in thesis; but doesn t have to What three main topics will you support in your paper-introduce in thesis You should not discuss anything in your thesis that you aren t willing to analyze in your paper; if you need to add something that you discussed or take something out that you didn t-tweak it Body Paragraphs: Should be divided into 3 general sections (each with a different topic)-the same ones you presented in your thesis-now is the time to analyze ANALYZE, ANALYZE, ANALYZE!!!! Show off your critical thinking skills Don t summarize the plot-the reader doesn t want to hear the story-they want to hear why the issues in the story are important Conclusion: Restate thesis Tie everything together Final analysis

25 Writers Inc. (page # s) Literary Analysis essays: pg Thesis Info: pg 51 MLA documentation style: pg Plagiarism: pg Transitional Devices: pg 109

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