Bisexuality: A Contemporary Paradox for Women

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Bisexuality: A Contemporary Paradox for Women"

Transcription

1 Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2000, pp Bisexuality: A Contemporary Paradox for Women Paula C. Rodríguez Rust* State University of New York at Geneseo The cultural construction of lesbian and heterosexual women in late-nineteenth-century European cultures created both the possibility of conceiving the bisexual woman and the belief that bisexuality cannot exist. Social scientists have suggested several alternatives to dichotomous constructions of sexuality to facilitate the conceptualization of, and therefore empirical research on, bisexuality. This article reviews these alternatives and summarizes the current state of research on bisexuality, including research on situational homosexuality (behavioral bisexuality), recent national probability studies on sexual behaviors and identities in the United States, the meanings of bisexual self-identities among women, masculinist biases in methods of assessing and theorizing sexual self-identities, and prejudice against bisexuals. The article concludes with suggestions for future social scientific research on bisexuality. As we end the second millennium and begin the third, bisexuality is both uniquely conceivable and uniquely inconceivable in Western culture. This paradoxical position is the result of larger social and cultural factors that have shaped not only modern bisexuality but modern sexuality in general. Understanding bisexuality, therefore, is a key to understanding the cultural and historical factors that have affected not only bisexual but also lesbian and heterosexual women. In this article, I briefly describe the historical changes that produced the contemporary bisexual paradox, and I show how contemporary attitudes toward bisexuality result from this paradox. I then review social scientific efforts to reconceptualize bisexuality for the purposes of scientific study and summarize empirical research pertinent to bisexuality among women, including research on situational homosexuality, the prevalence of bisexual behavior and identity in the United States, the meanings of bisexual self-identities and the ways in which women use sexual *Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Paula C. R. Rust, Department of Sociology, State University of New York Geneseo, 1 College Circle, Geneseo, NY The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues

2 206 Rust self-identities, racial and ethnic differences in patterns and meanings of bisexuality, and evidence of prejudice against bisexuals among heterosexuals and among lesbians and gay men (see also Rust, 1999, 2000). Historical Paradoxes Prior to the development of the concepts of the lesbian and the heterosexual woman as distinct types of people in the late nineteenth century, women in European and European-derived cultures were defined primarily by their familial relationships with husbands and children (Katz, 1995). Marriage served primarily economic and procreative functions rather than emotional functions, and women were expected to form their closest emotional bonds with other women (Smith-Rosenberg, 1975). Even if and when these bonds became sexual, women were not seen as lesbians because of their same-sex activities nor as a bisexual because of their simultaneous marriages to men, but as women because of their familial relationships with husbands and children. Thus, the tacit practice of bisexuality coexisted with the nonexistence of a concept of a (bi)sexual individual. The late-nineteenth-century shift toward viewing women and men as eroticized individuals produced not only lesbians and heterosexual women, but also the possibility of conceptualizing bisexuality as a combination of lesbianism and heterosexuality. The gendered nature of the distinction between lesbianism and heterosexuality was critical in producing this possibility. If the newly eroticized individual had not been classified according to the gender to which she was attracted, the idea that she could be attracted to both genders would be unnecessary and nonsensical. The paradox lies in the fact that the same nineteenth-century beliefs in the mutual exclusivity of womanhood and manhood and in the inescapable importance of gender that produced concepts of gendered eroticism also produced the belief that sexual attraction must be directed toward either men or women. If men and women are opposite genders, then attractions toward women and men must also be opposite attractions that cannot coexist simultaneously within a single individual. If one is attracted to a man, how can one simultaneously be attracted to a woman who is everything a man is not and nothing that he is? Ironically, therefore, the construction of lesbianism and heterosexuality pulled the rug out from under bisexuality. Whereas women in the nineteenth century might have enjoyed some freedom of bisexual expression in a culture that did not conceive of lesbians or heterosexuals, let alone bisexuals, the contemporary belief that lesbians and heterosexuals do exist has led to the possibility of conceptualizing bisexuality while also producing the belief that bisexuality cannot exist and thereby eroding the cultural space available for women s bisexual expression. The factors that have created this bisexual paradox are the same factors that have created contemporary lesbianism and heterosexuality. Understanding bisexuality

3 Bisexuality Paradox 207 among women, therefore, has the potential to shed light not only on the sexuality of bisexual women but also on the sexuality of lesbian and heterosexual women. Contemporary Cultural Attitudes Toward Bisexuality One of the greatest challenges facing bisexual women in contemporary Western culture is the belief that bisexuality does not exist. Women who claim to be bisexual are often told that they are denying their true sexuality, which must be either lesbian or heterosexual. Some young women who seek sexual experiences with other women are pegged as heterosexuals who are merely experimenting with women because lesbianism is chic. Other women, especially women who participate in lesbian communities but identify themselves as bisexual, are told that they are really lesbians who have not yet realized it because they are still coming out. If they continue to claim they are bisexuals, they are often accused of knowing they are really lesbians but purposefully denying it to avoid others prejudices or to avoid sharing the burden of struggling against heterosexism. Bisexuality is sometimes seen as a cop-out or a way to get the best of both worlds without having to commit oneself to a particular lifestyle or a particular partner (e.g., Esterberg, 1997; Rust, 1993). In addition to disbelief, bisexuals encounter many stereotypes about their sexuality. Because attractions to women and men are culturally constructed as contrary to each other, bisexuals are thought to be internally conflicted, emotionally or psychologically immature, or otherwise unstable. Bisexuals are also stereotyped as needing both male and female sex partners, as incapable of monogamy because they cannot be satisfied by only one partner, and as very sexually active. The cultural logic is as follows: A heterosexual s partner must be other-sex because s/he cannot be satisfied by a same-sex partner, and a lesbian or gay man s partner must be same-sex because s/he cannot be satisfied by an other-sex partner. Therefore, bisexuals must need both other-sex and same-sex partners to satisfy, respectively, the heterosexual side and the lesbian/gay side of their sexualities. In truth, few bisexuals have both female and male partners simultaneously (Rust, 2000), and even fewer feel that they need both female and male partners to be bisexual (Rust, in press). Just as an individual who appreciates both blue and brown eyes might be satisfied with either a blue-eyed or a brown-eyed lover without feeling a need for both, many bisexuals do not feel that their bisexuality requires them to be sexually active with both women and men simultaneously. Reconceptualizing Sexuality to Create Space for Bisexuality How, then, might we conceptualize bisexuality? Social scientists, pointing out that dichotomous conceptions of sexuality have led to a neglect of bisexuality in sex research, have offered numerous alternative models of sexuality. As noted by

4 208 Rust Rothblum (this issue), the best known of these alternatives is the 7-point scale proposed by Alfred Kinsey and his colleagues (Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948), which ranges from exclusive heterosexuality, through degrees of bisexuality, to exclusive homosexuality. Other theorists have proposed using multiple Kinsey-type scales to represent, respectively, sexual attractions, sexual behaviors, sexual identity, and other aspects of sexuality (e.g., Bell & Weinberg, 1978; Shively, Rudolph, & De Cecco, 1978; Weinberg, Williams, & Pryor, 1994). The best-known modification of the Kinsey scale is the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid, in which individuals rate themselves three times on each of seven dimensions of sexuality; the three ratings reflect the individual s past, present, and ideal selves (Klein, 1993; Klein, Sepekoff, & Wolf, 1985). Some theorists object to Kinsey-type scalar models because they construct homosexuality and heterosexuality as opposites. Shively and De Cecco (1977) suggested that the strength of one s desires for members of one s own and members of the other gender need not vary conversely to each other and that separate scales should be used to assess the strengths of an individual s homo- and heterosexuality. Storms (1978; see also Diamond, 1998) similarly suggested separate continua representing gynoeroticism and androeroticism, thus emphasizing the gender to which one is attracted rather than the relationship (same, other) of that gender to one s own gender. The Sell Scale of Sexual Orientation (Gonsiorek, Sell, & Weinrich, 1995) assesses homosexuality, heterosexuality (or androphilia, gynephilia), and bisexuality, thus recognizing bisexuality as a form of sexuality that might vary independently of homosexuality and heterosexuality rather than as a description of varying combinations of homosexuality and heterosexuality. Zinik (1985), drawing on Freud s concept of inherent bisexuality, proposed thinking of bisexuality as adaptive flexibility rather than as a sexuality composed of conflicting homosexual and heterosexual desires. As Coleman (1987; see also Coleman, 1998) pointed out, all these models define sexual orientation in terms of dichotomous biological sex or gender because they define sexuality in terms of attractions to men (who are assumed male) and/or to women (who are assumed female). Many theorists have questioned the central role of gender, particularly dichotomously constructed oppositional gender, in defining sexual orientation. Gender is neither oppositional, nor unidimensional, nor dichotomous and bears no necessary relationship to biological sex, which is itself not necessarily dichotomous (e.g., Fausto-Sterling, 1993; Freimuth & Hornstein, 1982; Lorber, 1996). First, women and men are not opposites; the genders share many human traits and coexisting attractions to women and men are, therefore, no more inherently contradictory than coexisting attractions to blue and brown eyes. Second, some people do not fall neatly into culturally constructed categories of womanhood and manhood (e.g., cross-dressers, gender blenders, and transgenderists) nor biological sex (intersexed individuals), and not all men are male and not all women are female (e.g., transgenderists and preoperative

5 Bisexuality Paradox 209 transsexuals). Given that gender is not dichotomous and not related simply to biological sex, a sexual classification system based on a simplistic dichotomous distinction between male men and female women is not viable; what, for example, are we to call a male-to-female transsexual who is attracted to men both before and after surgery? What should we call a male cross-dresser who approaches his female sex partner dressed in a teddy? What should we call his female partner? Furthermore, biological sex and gender are not the only characteristics that might be relevant to sexuality. As Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick argued, it is amazing that of the very many dimensions along which the genital activity of one person can be differentiated from that of another... precisely one, the gender of object choice, emerged from the turn of the century, and has remained, as the dimension denoted by the now ubiquitous category of sexual orientation (1990, p. 8). Few heterosexuals are attracted to all members of the other gender; nongender characteristics play a role in determining which members of the other gender a given heterosexual will find attractive. For heterosexuals and homosexuals that is, monosexuals biological sex and gender are deal breakers, but any given monosexual might also have other nonnegotiable requirements: intelligence, muscularity, libido strength, or compassion, for examples. Why should biological sex and gender be privileged in our conceptions of sexuality to the exclusion of other possibly relevant characteristics? This question is doubly incisive with regard to bisexuality. For bisexuals, gender is not a deal breaker; other personal characteristics might be more important. Yet, conceptualized within a genderbased dichotomous sexual classification system as a combination of heterosexuality and homosexuality, bisexuality is constructed in terms of the one characteristic that does not define it: gender. Ross and Paul (1992) have suggested replacing or supplementing the Kinsey scale with a scale representing degrees of importance of gender, with gender-exclusive forms of sexuality (heterosexuality and homosexuality) at one end of the scale and bisexuality at the other end of the scale. Social Scientific Research on Bisexuality Disbelief in the existence of bisexuality has led to neglect of bisexuality in scientific research (MacDonald, 1983). Researchers have usually either ignored bisexuality altogether, lumped bisexual subjects with lesbian and gay male subjects, or excluded them from study. Many researchers fail to discuss their conceptualizations of sexual orientation or to actually assess any dimensions of their subjects sexualities, relying on subjects self-reported identities or recruitment settings to classify subjects into sexual orientation categories (Sell & Petrulio, 1996). As Rothblum (this issue) points out, even researchers who acknowledge the complexity of sexuality and use multidimensional scalar models for assessing the sexualities of their subjects often thwart the purpose of these scalar models by using scale scores only to classify their subjects into heterosexual and lesbian/gay

6 210 Rust groups or to exclude those falling in the middle range. The result is a paucity of information about bisexuals and poor-quality information about lesbians and gay men, among whom have been included many bisexuals (MacDonald, 1983). But It s Not Bisexuality Research on sexuality, especially during the 1960s through the 1980s, sometimes included bisexuality under the guise of situational homosexuality. For example, some studies have documented the family-style relationships, sometimes including sexual activity, that occur among female prison inmates (e.g., Giallombardo, 1966; Ward & Kassebaum, 1965). Women s prison subculture distinguishes between the lesbian and the jailhouse turnout ; the turnout is a woman who was heterosexual prior to incarceration and became involved in sexual activity with another woman while in prison. The turnout s sexual activity is typically explained as a reaction to the single-sex environment; thus, she is cast as really a heterosexual who engages in situation-specific lesbian behavior, using her female partner as a substitute for the male partner she would prefer. Critics have argued that it is only the dichotomous belief that there are only two essential sexualities that make the assertion that the turnout is truly heterosexual seem reasonable (Rust, 2000; see also De Cecco & Shively, 1983/1984). Rust (2000) pointed out that the reasons turnouts engage in sex with other women in prison the search for familiar family-type relationships, a sense of identity and self-worth, affection, and connection to others are similar to the reasons women engage in heterosexual activity outside prison. Outside prison, the fact that women s heterosexual activities might be motivated in part by such needs does not detract from the belief that these women are, indeed, heterosexual; why then should it be used to dismiss women s same-sex activities in prison? Similarly, among female prostitutes whose clients are male, recreational (unpaid) sex with female partners has been constructed by previous researchers as situational homosexuality. For example, James (1976), noting that the prevalence of same-gender activity appeared to be higher among prostitutes than among nonprostitute women, argued that the asymmetry of prostitutes working relationships with men might encourage them to seek the mutuality of a lesbian relationship in their nonworking lives. Conversely, heterosexually married women and men who desire or engage in same-gender sexual activity have been conceptualized by many researchers as married lesbians and gay men, a descriptor that implies that the individual is really a lesbian or gay man who became involved in heterosexual marriage or sexual activity as a result of social pressures toward heterosexuality (e.g., Green & Clunis, 1989; Maddox, 1982). Many such studies were published in the 1980s, in response to the growing visibility of lesbians and gay men and fears that AIDS would spread to the heterosexual population through married gay men. Very few

7 Bisexuality Paradox 211 researchers recognized same-gender activity among married women as a form of bisexuality; for example, Coleman (1985) studied bisexual women in marriages, and Dixon (1985) studied bisexual activity among women who engaged in swinging, that is, partner swapping, with their heterosexual partners. How Common Is Bisexuality Among Women? For decades, the best data available regarding the prevalence of various forms of sexual behavior in the United States were the findings from the Kinsey reports published in 1948 and 1953 (Kinsey et al., 1948; Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953), the source of the misunderstood and highly inaccurate statistic 10% of the population is gay. However, beginning in the late 1980s sexologists and social scientists succeeded in collecting reliable, representative data on sexual behavior in the United States. Since 1988, the annual national General Social Survey (GSS) has included questions on sexual behavior, and national surveys focusing specifically on sexual behavior, including the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) and the National AIDS Behavioral Survey (NABS), have been conducted (Fay, Turner, Klassen, & Gagnon, 1989; Rogers & Turner, 1991; and Smith, 1991, on GSS; Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994, on NHSLS; Binson et al., 1995, on NABS and GSS). In general, the results of these studies indicate that bisexual behavior is more common than exclusively same-sex behavior, especially if longer periods of time are considered (see also Rothblum, this issue). For example, the NHSLS found that since puberty, 3.3% of all women had had both female and male sex partners, whereas only 0.2% of women had had only female partners. In contrast, during the previous year, 0.3% of all women had had both female and male partners, whereas 1.0% had had only female partners (Laumann et al., 1994). GSS findings indicate that 5.6% of adults have been behaviorally bisexual since age 18 (Smith, 1991). National surveys have also found that, among women, bisexual attractions are much more common than exclusive attractions to women, that women are more likely to feel that they are capable of attraction to both women and men than to have had sexual contacts with both women and men, and that bisexual self-identity is much less common than bisexual feelings of attraction and bisexual behavior. For example, the NHSLS found that 4.1% of women reported some degree of attraction to both women and men, with about two thirds of these reporting they were more attracted to men than to women. Only 0.3% reported feeling attracted only to women. In comparison, 3.9% of men reported some degree of attraction to both women and men, and 2.4% of men reported being exclusively attracted to men, indicating that the preponderance of bisexual over exclusive same-gender attractions is much more pronounced among women than among men. Only 0.5% of women and 0.8% of men identified themselves as bisexual, far less than the

8 212 Rust percentage of each gender who reported feeling attracted to both women and men (Laumann et al., 1994). The Meaning of Bisexual Identity If scientific models of sexuality posit multiple independently varying dimensions of sexuality, how do individuals distill their own multidimensional and complex sexualities into sexual self-identities? This is a particular problem for bisexual individuals, whose feelings or experiences with both women and men make the development of a singular identity especially complex in a cultural milieu that privileges heterosexual and lesbian/gay identities. Do individuals who identify as bisexual do so on the basis of their behaviors, their feelings of attraction, or some other component of sexuality? For most women and men who identify as bisexual, bisexual identity reflects primarily their feelings of sexual attraction or capacities to fall in love with either women or men or both, regardless of whether these feelings are ever expressed through sexual behavior and regardless of the relative strength of these feelings for women and men (Rust, in press). For some self-identified bisexuals, the mere potential to feel attracted to either a man or a woman is enough to merit a bisexual identity; for others, bisexual identity reflects not only their potential to feel attracted to both women and men but also their willingness to act on these attractions by becoming sexually or romantically involved with either a woman or a man or their expectation that their lifetime monogamous partner could be either a woman or a man. Furthermore, the vast majority do not believe that one must be equally or identically attracted to women and men to identify as bisexual; some self-identified bisexuals describe themselves as more attracted to one gender than the other, and many describe their attractions to women and men as different from each other. For example, Rust (in press) quoted three self-identified bisexual women who wrote, [My] attractions/experiences are not balanced 50-50, but then again most of us know that s mostly a stereotype, I feel a greater physical attraction to men, but a greater spiritual/emotional attraction to women, and I am sexually attracted to both men and women. My more profound romantic feelings have occurred only with men. These individuals see no reason to fit themselves into a lesbian, gay, or heterosexual identity that would reflect only their feelings of attraction for one gender, thereby denying their feelings for the other gender altogether simply because those feelings are different or not as strong. Some individuals use bisexual identity to reflect their sexual behavior, that is, the fact that they have had sexual or romantic relations with both women and men, but many of these individuals assert that having sex with both women and men is not necessary for one to be bisexual (Rust, in press). They explain that their experiences with both women and men are an expression or evidence of their bisexuality, but that they would be bisexual even if they had not had sex with both women and

9 Bisexuality Paradox 213 men. Several of Rust s respondents pointed out that bisexuality is compatible with monogamy; those who reported that they had had sexual experiences with both women and men also generally reported that they had had these experiences serially over a period of time, often including lengthy monogamous relationships. They asserted that they did not cease being bisexual when they became monogamously involved with either a woman or a man any more than a heterosexual ceases being heterosexual during periods of celibacy. Some individuals adopt bisexual identities to reflect their political views, in particular their views on gender politics (Rust, in press). For example, some see bisexuality as a challenge to the importance of gender in defining sexuality, asserting that their bisexual identity is not a combination of attractions to women and to men but an attraction to people regardless of their gender. Others see their bisexuality as a refusal to participate in gender discrimination by refusing to eliminate half the members of the human race as potential sexual or romantic partners on the basis of their gender. A few see their bisexuality as a challenge to dichotomous thinking about sexuality and gender, that is, the view that one must be either lesbian/gay or heterosexual and that each individual person including oneself and one s partners must be either a woman or man. Women Use Sexual Self-Identity Differently Than Men: Findings of Inconsistencies Reconceptualized Research on women s and men s sexualities suggests that women s sexuality is more flexible than men s sexuality, that women s sexuality varies more over the life course, and that women are more likely than men to identify themselves in ways that are inconsistent with their sexual behaviors or feelings (see articles in this issue by Peplau & Garnets; Diamond & Savin-Williams). For example, high rates of previous and recent heterosexual behavior have been found among self-identified lesbians. Einhorn and Polgar (1994) reported that 53% of self-identified lesbians had had heterosexual contact since 1978, and a San Francisco Department of Public Health study (SFDPH, 1993) found that 25% of self-identified lesbians had had sex with a man during the previous 3 years. My own research (Rust, 1992) indicates that 90% of self-identified lesbians have had romantic or sexual relationships with men in the past, 44% have had serious heterosexual relationships or marriages, and 43% have been heterosexually involved since they came out as lesbians. Weinberg et al. (1994) found that one half of homosexual women compared to one third of homosexual men described their feelings as not exclusively homosexual. I also found that two thirds of self-identified lesbian women reported that 5% to 50% of their feelings of sexual attraction were toward men (Rust, 1992). Rothblum (this issue) reviews findings from several studies, including the NHSLS and her own research with Jessica Morris, showing a lower rate of

10 214 Rust intercorrelation among the dimensions of sexuality among women than among men. Additional findings are provided by Ellis, Burke, and Ames (1987), who found that rates of same-gender sexual behavior and rates of same-gender sexual fantasy were similar to each other among men (27% and 28%) but dissimilar among women (7% vs. 27%). Storms (1978) assessed gynoeroticism and androeroticism among college students, finding that women were less likely than men to score above the mean on both scales (23% versus 30%) but that among ambierotics women showed greater diversity than men in their choices of sexual identities, with 33.3% identifying as bisexual and 45.5% and 21.2%, respectively, identifying as heterosexual or gay (see also Golden, 1987; Schwartz & Blumstein, 1998). The greater flexibility and internal inconsistencies in women s sexualities are usually attributed by social scientists to gender socialization in several ways. One explanation is that Western culture allows women to be more emotionally expressive and intimate than men in their relationships both with other women and with men. Therefore, among women, sexual intimacy can be an outgrowth of socially acceptable emotional intimacy; this might give women greater freedom than men in exploring their affectionate feelings for members of their own gender and thereby contribute to the greater flexibility of women s sexuality. It might also enable women to become involved in sexual intimacy without adopting a lesbian identity I m not a lesbian, I m just in love with my best friend who happens to be a woman. In contrast, among men same-sex activity has greater and more immediate consequences because greater importance is attached to men s sexuality, to the role of active sexual desire in male sexual activity, and to active heterosexual desire as a component of masculinity, thus producing greater consistency between men s sexual behaviors and identities. Conversely, the greater social repression of women s sexuality might inhibit women from expressing their sexual desires through outright sexual behavior, thus leading to greater discrepancies between sexual feelings and sexual behaviors among women than among men. Discrepancies among sexual feelings, behaviors, and identities might also result from the ways in which women construct their sexual identities. Many theorists argue that men base their identities directly on the evidence of their sexual feelings and experiences, whereas women s identities are influenced by a myriad of social and political factors. The situational dependence of women s identities might be due to socialization that teaches women to draw their identities from their relationships with others and to seek sex in the context of emotional involvement, thus leading to greater variability in women s identities as these relationships change. Within sexual-minority communities, antipathy toward bisexuality and the politicization and desexualization of lesbian identity by the lesbian feminist movement of the 1970s means that for many women, the choice to identify as a lesbian or as a bisexual reflects one s personal politics at least as much as it reflects one s sexual feelings and behaviors. One s identity might, therefore, be inconsistent with one s actual sexual experiences.

11 Bisexuality Paradox 215 An alternative to these explanations, however, is that the difference between women and men lies not in the degree of flexibility or internal inconsistency in women s and men s identities, but in the definition of consistency or stability for women and men and in the ways in which women and men use self-identity. If sexual self-identity is understood as a reflection of one s individual self essential or otherwise then an individual whose sexual identity does not reflect her or his sexual behavior, such as a married person who identifies as heterosexual but also engages in same-gender sexual activity, is seen as lacking psychological integration. Often, this lack of psychological integration is attributed to lack of maturity (s/he s not out yet) or to psychological distress or pathology (denial resulting from internalized homophobia). But this understanding of sexual self-identity reflects men s, more than women s, ways of using sexual self-identity. If women are less likely than men to treat sexual identity as a unitary reflection of individual essence and more likely to use sexual self-identity to reflect their romantic, social, and political relationships with others as well as their sexual feelings and behaviors, then that which appears to be inconsistency from a masculinist point of view is, in fact, a different form of consistency. In other words, the allegedly greater flexibility and internal inconsistencies of women s sexualities are not a symptom of weaker psychological integration, greater tolerance of ambiguity, or women s socialization, but rather a symptom of masculinist definitions of sexuality that have been imposed on our understandings of women s sexualities. The methods typically used to assess sexual self-identities reflect this masculinist bias. In most research studies, respondents are asked to indicate their sexual self-identities by choosing one term (lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual) from a list of response options. Consistent with research findings that women use their sexual self-identities to reflect more varied aspects of themselves than men do, Rust (1999) found that women are more likely than men to use multiple self-identities concurrently. When asked about their current sexual identity and allowed to choose all that apply from a list of 21 identity terms, women with bisexual experiences or feelings chose, on average, 2.7 sexual identity terms compared to 2.4 among men. In the same study, 27% of women, compared to 20% of men, chose four or more identity terms. Among self-identified bisexual women, 27% simultaneously maintain a lesbian or gay identity, compared to only 13% of self-identified bisexual men. The usual method of asking respondents to choose which of the following forces a respondent with multiple sexual self-identities to fit herself into a masculinist framework by choosing only one of her identities to report. Not surprisingly, therefore, her answers to questions about other aspects of her sexuality her sexual feelings and behaviors, for example will appear inconsistent with her stated sexual self-identity, not because she lacks self-identities that reflect her attractions and experiences but because, forced to choose, she chose an identity that reflects a different aspect of herself.

12 216 Rust Rust (1999) has shown how methods of assessing sexual self-identity that reflect the ways in which women use sexual self-identities dramatically reduces the degree of inconsistency found among women. For example, among women who would answer yes to the question Do you identify as a lesbian? yes/no only 9% reported that their feelings of sexual attraction were exclusively toward women, whereas among women who would choose lesbian if given a choice between lesbian or bisexual identity, 20% reported exclusive attractions toward women, and among women who identify as lesbian and do not simultaneously identify as bisexual a population identifiable only if respondents are allowed to indicate multiple identities rather than being forced to select one 75% reported exclusive attractions to women. With regard to behavior, the three different methods of assessing sexual self-identity identified lesbian populations who reported, respectively, 25%, 12%, and 0% current heterosexual activity. In other words, methods of assessing sexual self-identity that reflect women s rather than men s use of sexual identity reduced findings of inconsistencies between women s sexual identities and sexual attractions from 91% to 25% and inconsistencies between women s sexual identities and sexual behaviors from 25% to 0%. Racial and Ethnic Differences Research on racial and ethnic differences among bisexual women is virtually nonexistent. The notion of an identity based on one s sexual preferences is a culturally specific idea, and the experiences of women from cultural backgrounds in which this idea is foreign will necessarily be different from the experiences of European American women who are, at this point in history, expected to develop identities based on their personal sexual preferences. Different racial and ethnic cultures also have different constructions of sexuality, different norms for sexual behavior, different attitudes toward women as autonomous sexual beings, and different levels of tolerance for sexual diversity that affect the experiences of individuals in those cultures. For example, cultures that place a strong emphasis on the family and the individual s responsibility to the family tend to conceptualize individuals in terms of their familial roles and memberships rather than their individual desires; adopting any sexual identity in such a context implies a rejection of one s family and, possibly, a rejection of one s ethnic culture and ethnic identity. For a woman in such a culture, the adoption of a lesbian or gay identity means risking loss of support from her ethnic community; the adoption of a bisexual identity would be doubly difficult. On the other hand, the same strong family ties that inhibit the development of individualized identities also help ensure that an individual who does transgress will not be rejected by her family. Thus, individuals from different racial or ethnic cultural backgrounds have different difficulties to confront and different resources with which to confront them (see, for example,

13 Bisexuality Paradox 217 Dworkin & Gutiérrez, 1992; Lim-Hing, 1994; Mason-John, 1995; Roscoe, 1988; Trujillo, 1991). On the other hand, some women of color find that the marginalization of their racial or ethnic identities in a society dominated by European American culture especially if they are bi- or multiracial prepares them for the marginalization of their bisexuality. As expressed by a bisexual woman of Asian and European ancestry, being multiracial, multicultural has always made me aware of nonbipolar thinking. I have always been outside people s categories, and so it wasn t such a big leap to come out as bi, after spending years explaining my [racial and cultural] identity rather than attaching a single label [to it] (Rust, 1996, pp ). Prejudice and Discrimination Against Bisexuals Discrimination against lesbians and gay men is well documented (see Herek, this issue); far less is known about the experiences of bisexuals. Ochs has argued that bisexuals experience both homophobia and biphobia. She asserted that [w]e don t lose only half our children in custody battles. When homophobia hits, we don t get just half fired from our jobs.... We, too, get discriminated against because we are gay (Ochs, 1990, p. 2) in other words, because of homophobia or, more accurately, heterosexism. In addition, Ochs (1996) argued the bisexuals experience an oppression as bisexuals, that is, biphobia or, more accurately, monosexism. Examples of monosexism include the belief that bisexuality does not exist and the pressure that bisexuals experience to identify as either heterosexual or lesbian/gay. Numerous books by and for bisexuals provide anecdotal evidence of these experiences (e.g., Geller, 1990; Hutchins & Ka ahumanu, 1991; Weise, 1992). There is also some social scientific documentation of prejudice against bisexuals. Istvan (1983) found that the degree of one s bisexuality is a factor in prejudice. When presented with descriptions of individuals with varying degrees of bisexuality, Istvan s subjects expressed as much dislike for bisexuals who were described as more than 50% homosexual as they did for exclusive homosexuals, but only slightly more dislike for bisexuals described as less than 50% homosexual than they did for exclusive heterosexuals. Eliason (1997) found that heterosexual college students rated bisexual women and men as less acceptable than lesbians and gay men, and Spalding and Peplau (1997) reported that heterosexuals believe that bisexuals are more likely to spread sexually transmitted diseases than heterosexuals, lesbians, or gays. Several researchers have documented the attitudes of lesbians and gay men, particularly lesbians, toward bisexuality. Among lesbians, the lesbian feminist construction of lesbian identity as a political identity cast bisexuality as a political cop-out. Blumstein and Schwartz (1977) presented some of the earliest descriptions of antagonism toward bisexuality in lesbian and gay communities, as did Ponse (1978). More recently, lesbians attitudes toward bisexual women have been

14 218 Rust studied and analyzed in historical context by Esterberg (1997) and Rust (1993; see also Bristow & Wilson, 1993; Gamson, 1995). Directions for Future Research Given the scarcity of research on bisexuality, the opportunities for future research on bisexuality are abundant. Areas that have been extensively studied with respect to lesbians and gay men social attitudes, legal rights, the experience and effects of prejudice and discrimination, coming out, issues among youth, issues within married couples, alternative relationships such as polyfidelity, partner preferences, personality traits including gender traits and cognitive styles, racial and ethnic differences, the development of political consciousness and the development of communities and subcultures need to be explored with respect to bisexuals. Regardless of which research topics are explored in future research, this research must avoid simplistic assumptions about sexual orientation. The complexity of sexuality, with its multiple dimensions and gender differences, requires more than hollow acknowledgment in introductory paragraphs. Researchers can no longer afford to assume subjects sexual orientations based on their recruitment strategies or even based on the measurement of only one or two dimensions of sexuality. An understanding of the complexity of sexuality must inform all stages of empirical research on sexuality, including research design, sample recruitment, assessment, data analysis, and above all theoretical conclusions. References Bell, A. P., & Weinberg, M. S. (1978). Homosexualities: A study of diversity among men and women. New York: Simon & Schuster. Binson, D., Michaels, S., Stall, R., Coates, T. J., Gagnon, J. H., & Catania, J. A. (1995). Prevalence and social distribution of men who have sex with men: United States and its urban centers. Journal of Sex Research, 32(3), Blumstein, P. W., & Schwartz, P. (1977). Bisexuality: Some social psychological issues. Journal of Social Issues, 33(2), Bristow, J., & Wilson, A. R. (Eds.). (1993). Activating theory: Lesbian, gay, bisexual politics. London: Lawrence & Wishart. Coleman, E. (1985). Bisexual women in marriages. Journal of Homosexuality, 11(1/2). Coleman, E. (1987). Assessment of sexual orientation. Journal of Homosexuality, 14(1/2), Coleman, E. (1998). Paradigmatic changes in the understanding of bisexuality. In E. J. Haeberle & R. Gindorf (Eds.), Bisexualities: The ideology and practice of sexual contact with both men and women (pp ). New York: Continuum. De Cecco, J. P., & Shively, M. G. (1983/1984). From sexual identity to sexual relationships: A contextual shift. Journal of Homosexuality, 9(2/3, Winter/Spring), Diamond, M. (1998). Bisexuality: A biological perspective. In E. J. Haeberle & R. Gindorf (Eds.), Bisexualities: The ideology and practice of sexual contact with both men and women (pp ). New York: Continuum. Dixon, J. K. (1985). Sexuality and relationship changes in married females following the commencement of bisexual activity. Journal of Homosexuality, 11(1/2),

15 Bisexuality Paradox 219 Dworkin, S. H., & Gutiérrez, F. J. (Eds.). (1992). Counseling gay men and lesbians: Journey to the end of the rainbow. Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development. Einhorn, L., & Polgar, M. (1994). HIV-risk behavior among lesbians and bisexual women. AIDS Education & Prevention, 6(6), Eliason, M. J. (1997). The prevalence and nature of biphobia in heterosexual undergraduate students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26(3), Ellis, L., Burke, D., & Ames, M. A. (1987). Sexual orientation as a continuous variable: A comparison between the sexes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16(6), Esterberg, K. G. (1997). Lesbian and bisexual identities: Constructing communities, constructing selves. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Fausto-Sterling, A. (1993). The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough. The Sciences (March/April), Fay, R. E., Turner, C. F., Klassen, A. D., & Gagnon, J. (1989). Prevalence and patterns of same-gender sexual contact among men. Science, 243 (January 20), Freimuth, M. J., & Hornstein, G. A. (1982). A critical examination of the concept of gender. Sex Roles, 8(5), Gamson, J. (1995). Must identity movements self-destruct? A queer dilemma. Social Problems, 42(3), Geller, T. (Ed.). (1990). Bisexuality: A reader and sourcebook. Ojai, CA: Times Change Press. Giallombardo, R. (1966). Society of women: A study of a women s prison. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Golden, C. (1987). Diversity and variability in women s sexual identities. In the Boston Lesbian Psychologies Collective (Ed.), Lesbian psychologies: Explorations and challenges (pp ). Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Gonsiorek, J. C., Sell, R. L., & Weinrich, J. D. (1995). Definition and measurement of sexual orientation. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 25(Suppl.), Green, G. D., & Clunis, D. M. (1989). Married lesbians. Women & Therapy [Special issue. Lesbianism: Affirming Nontraditional Roles], 8(1/2), Hutchins, L., & Ka ahumanu, L. (Eds.). (1991). Bi any other name: Bisexual people speak out. Boston: Alyson Publications. Istvan, J. (1983). Effects of sexual orientation on interpersonal judgment. Journal of Sex Research, 19(2), James, J. (1976). Motivations for entrance into prostitution. In L. Crites (Ed.), The female offender (pp ). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Katz, J. N. (1995). The invention of heterosexuality. New York: Dutton. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., Martin, C. E., & Gebhard, P. H. (1953). Sexual behavior in the human female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company. Klein, F. (1993). The bisexual option (2nd ed.). New York: Harrington Park Press. Klein, F., Sepekoff, B., & Wolf, T. J. (1985). Sexual orientation: A multi-variable dynamic process. Journal of Homosexuality, 11(1/2), Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lim-Hing, S. (Ed.). (1994). The very inside: An anthology of writing by Asian and Pacific Islander lesbian and bisexual women. Toronto, Ontario: Sister Vision Press. Lorber, J. (1996). Beyond the binaries: Depolarizing the categories of sex, sexuality, and gender. Sociological Inquiry, 66(2), MacDonald, A. P. Jr. (1983). A little bit of lavender goes a long way: A critique of research on sexual orientation. Journal of Sex Research, 9(1, February), Maddox, B. (1982). Married and gay: An intimate look at a different relationship. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Mason-John, V. (Ed.). (1995). Talking Black: Lesbians of African and Asian descent speak out. New York: Cassell. Ochs, R. (1990). Gay liberation is our liberation. In Thomas Geller (Ed.), Bisexuality: A reader and sourcebook (p. 2). Ojai, CA: Times Change Press.

16 220 Rust Ochs, R. (1996). Biphobia: It goes more than two ways. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.), Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ponse, B. (1978). Identities in the lesbian world: The social construction of self. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Rogers, S. M., & Turner, C. F. (1991). Male-male sexual contact in the U.S.A.: Findings from five sample surveys, Journal of Sex Research, 28(4), Roscoe, W. (Ed.). (1988). Living the spirit: A gay American Indian anthology. New York: St. Martin s Press. Ross, M. W., & Paul, J. P. (1992). Beyond gender: The basis of sexual attraction in bisexual men and women. Psychological Reports, 71, Rust, P. C. (1992). The politics of sexual identity: Sexual attraction and behavior among lesbian and bisexual women. Social Problems, 39(4), Rust, P. C. (1993). Neutralizing the political threat of the marginal woman: Lesbians beliefs about bisexual women. Journal of Sex Research, 30(3), Rust, P. C. (1996). Managing multiple identities: Diversity among bisexual women and men. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.), Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Rust, P. C. (1999, June). Lesbianism and bisexuality: Cultural categories and the distortion of human sexual experience. Paper presented at the 25th International Academy of Sex Researchers annual meeting, Stony Brook, New York. Rust, P. C. (2000). Bisexuality in the United States: A social science reader. New York: Columbia University Press. Rust, P. C. (in press). Two many and not enough: The meanings of bisexual identities. Journal of Bisexuality 1(1). San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH). (1993). Health behaviors among lesbian and bisexual women: A community-based women s health survey. SFDPH, Prevention Services Branch, AIDS Office, San Francisco, CA. Schwartz, P., & Blumstein, P. (1998). The acquisition of sexual identity: Bisexuality. In E. J. Haeberle & R. Gindorf (Eds.), Bisexualities: The ideology and practice of sexual contact with both men and women (pp ). New York: Continuum. Sedgwick, E. K. (1990). Epistemology of the closet. Berkeley: University of California Press. Sell, R. L., & Petrulio, C. (1996). Sampling homosexuals, bisexuals, gays, and lesbians for public health research: A review of the literature from 1990 to Journal of Homosexuality, 30(4), Shively, M. G., & De Cecco, J. P. (1977). Components of sexual identity. Journal of Homosexuality, 3(1), Shively, M. G., Rudolph, J. R., & De Cecco, J. P. (1978). The identification of the social sex-role stereotypes. Journal of Homosexuality, 3(3, Spring), Smith, T. W. (1991). Adult sexual behavior in 1989: Number of partners, frequency of intercourse and risk of AIDS. Family Planning Perspectives, 23(3), Smith-Rosenberg, C. (1975). The female world of love and ritual: Relations between women in nineteenth-century America. Signs, 1(1), Spalding, L. R., & Peplau, L. A. (1997). The unfaithful lover: Heterosexuals perceptions of bisexuals and their relationships. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, Storms, M. D. (1978). Sexual orientation and self-perception. In P. Pilner, K. Blankstein, & I. Spiegel (Eds.), Advances in the study of communication and affect: Perception of emotion in self and others (pp ). New York: Plenum. Trujillo, C. (Ed.). (1991). Chicana lesbians: The girls our mothers warned us about. Berkeley, CA: Third Woman Press. Ward, D. A., & Kassebaum, G. G. (1965). Women s prison: Sex and social structure. Chicago: Aldine. Weinberg, M. S., Williams, C. J., & Pryor, D. W. (1994). Dual attraction: Understanding bisexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. Weise, E. R. (1992). Closer to home: Bisexuality & feminism. Seattle, WA: Seal Press. Zinik, G. A. (1985). Identity conflict or adaptive flexibility? Bisexuality reconsidered. Journal of Homosexuality, 11(1/2), 7 19.

Sexual Orientation. p Sexual Orientation. By Joan Buccigrossi and Delyte Frost wetware, Inc. Rochester, NY.

Sexual Orientation. p Sexual Orientation. By Joan Buccigrossi and Delyte Frost wetware, Inc. Rochester, NY. Sexual Orientation In inclusive organizations, individuals who are gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender are able to be themselves, without fear of discrimination or recrimination. They bring their full

More information

KPU Positive Space Working Group Terms of Reference

KPU Positive Space Working Group Terms of Reference KPU Positive Space Working Group Terms of Reference Background Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, two-spirited, queer, pansexual, asexual, questioning and intersex individuals (queer and trans*)

More information

SAME SEX PARTNER ABUSE DR GINNA BABCOCK

SAME SEX PARTNER ABUSE DR GINNA BABCOCK SAME SEX PARTNER ABUSE DR GINNA BABCOCK INTRODUCTION LGBT populations vulnerable to marginalization and devaluation in society LGBT same-sex relationships fall within the category of intimate partnerships

More information

What s the difference?

What s the difference? SOCIAL JUSTICE 101 What s the difference? Diversity & Multiculturalism Tolerance Acceptance Celebration Awareness Social justice Privilege Oppression Inequity Action Oriented What is social justice? "The

More information

Key Concepts for Understanding LGBT Identity Development

Key Concepts for Understanding LGBT Identity Development Key Concepts for Understanding LGBT Identity Development Please see the complete Terminology handout for more definitions. Ally Someone who confronts heterosexism, homophobia, biphobia, transphobia, heterosexual

More information

Overview In this lecture we will focus on the difference between sex and gender, and review the emergence of the study of gender as a discipline.

Overview In this lecture we will focus on the difference between sex and gender, and review the emergence of the study of gender as a discipline. 3. Gender Theory Overview In this lecture we will focus on the difference between sex and gender, and review the emergence of the study of gender as a discipline. Objectives By the end of this topic you

More information

Chapter 11. Unobtrusive Research. What are the topics appropriate for content analysis? What are the procedures for content analysis?

Chapter 11. Unobtrusive Research. What are the topics appropriate for content analysis? What are the procedures for content analysis? Chapter 11. Unobtrusive Research In unobtrusive research, researchers do not have direct contact with people. Therefore, subjects' behavior are not affected by the research itself. Topics covered in this

More information

Multicultural Perspectives and Diversity Issues

Multicultural Perspectives and Diversity Issues The Need for a Multicultural Emphasis Multicultural Perspectives and Diversity Issues Chapter 4 Psychology 475 Professional Ethics in Addictions Counseling Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these

More information

SAMPLE 1 ASSESSMENT CRITERIA AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

SAMPLE 1 ASSESSMENT CRITERIA AND LEARNING OUTCOMES SAMPLE 1 ASSESSMENT CRITERIA AND LEARNING OUTCOMES Unit Title: Sociology 2. Understand theories associated with major social divisions, inequalities, differences and diversity in contemporary society 2.1

More information

TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 2. (Summer, 1996), pp

TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 2. (Summer, 1996), pp Researching Gender-Related Patterns in Classroom Discourse Deborah Tannen TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 2. (Summer, 1996), pp. 341-344. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0039-8322%28199622%2930%3a2%3c341%3argpicd%3e2.0.co%3b2-2

More information

Interpersonal Attraction and Personal Relationships

Interpersonal Attraction and Personal Relationships Interpersonal Attraction and Personal Relationships Chapters 8 & 9 Banu Cingöz Ulu The Need to Belong We want people around us! Loneliness: experienced when our social relations are inadequate ( aloneness)

More information

Psychology of Women PSY-270-TE

Psychology of Women PSY-270-TE Psychology of Women PSY-270-TE This TECEP assesses material covered in a one-semester course in the psychology of women. It focuses on developmental and topical approaches to important facets of women

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES

AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES An Introduction to Sociological Theories 1 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES Introduction Humans are social beings. Whether we like it or not, nearly everything we do in our lives takes place

More information

The Power of the Bible

The Power of the Bible The Power of the Bible By Rev. Mona West, Ph.D. The Bible is a powerful book. What is more important to realize is that interpretations of the Bible are just as powerful. New Testament scholar, Mary Ann

More information

For some of the more common terms we suggest using Merriam Webster Dictionary

For some of the more common terms we suggest using Merriam Webster Dictionary For some of the more common terms we suggest using Merriam Webster Dictionary http://www.merriam-webster.com/ A Androgyny: A gender identity or gender expression. Asexual: A sexual orientation; someone

More information

Abuse in Same-Sex Relationships

Abuse in Same-Sex Relationships 1 Abuse in Same-Sex Relationships Abuse in relationships is any behavior or pattern of behavior used to coerce, dominate or isolate the other partner. It is the use of any form of power that is imposed

More information

Social Work Field Education Core Competencies and Practice Behaviors

Social Work Field Education Core Competencies and Practice Behaviors Social Work Field Education Core Competencies and Practice Behaviors The School of Social Work Field Education Program addresses each of the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) Core Competencies and

More information

identity sexual and gender expression abroad

identity sexual and gender expression abroad identity sexual and gender expression abroad Studying abroad is is a a golden opportunity to to live live another culture, soak up up a a second language, and transform yourself as as a a citizen and as

More information

Why is same-sex marriage important?

Why is same-sex marriage important? Why is same-sex marriage important? The Equality Network is strongly of the opinion that the law should allow same-sex marriages, and, more generally, that marriage should be available to couples regardless

More information

A Comparative Review of Cass s and Fassinger s Sexual Orientation Identity Development Models

A Comparative Review of Cass s and Fassinger s Sexual Orientation Identity Development Models The Vermont Connection Volume 33 Liberating the Learner: Unpacking Access and Privilege in Higher Education Article 7 January 2012 A Comparative Review of Cass s and Fassinger s Sexual Orientation Identity

More information

Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality

Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality Objective s for Today s Class: The difference between sex and gender Influences on gender Gender roles and stereotypes WHAT DO WE MEAN BY GENDER? Sex: Designates the biological

More information

Today. Social Development - Sexual Orientation. Sexual Orientation. Sexual Orientation. Sexual Orientation. Understanding sexual orientation

Today. Social Development - Sexual Orientation. Sexual Orientation. Sexual Orientation. Sexual Orientation. Understanding sexual orientation Today Social Development - Sexual Orientation Intro Psychology Georgia Tech Instructor: Dr. Bruce Walker Understanding sexual orientation fundamental aspect of human behavior explosion of research over

More information

School of Social Work

School of Social Work MSW Core Curriculum for Generalist Practice St. Catherine University/University of St. Thomas Core and Advanced Competencies of the MSW Program The SCU/UST MSW curriculum prepares its graduates for advanced

More information

Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs

Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Wiederman 1 Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Most people are too focused on sexual activity they think it is more important than it really is. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? What is

More information

Metropolitan State University of Denver Master of Social Work Program Field Evaluation

Metropolitan State University of Denver Master of Social Work Program Field Evaluation Metropolitan State University of Denver Master of Social Work Program Evaluation Date: Agency/Program Task Supervisor Faculty Liaison Total Hours Completed To Date for this semester: s will not receive

More information

Feminist Ethnography. By Kristin Aune

Feminist Ethnography. By Kristin Aune Feminist Ethnography By Kristin Aune Feminist ethnography is a research methodology, a theory about how research should proceed. Its principal method is observational research conducted over time and motivated

More information

Attraction, Sex, & Love 1. Human Sexuality i. Human Oddities b. Humans are primarily monogamous c. Humans are always sexually receptive d.

Attraction, Sex, & Love 1. Human Sexuality i. Human Oddities b. Humans are primarily monogamous c. Humans are always sexually receptive d. Attraction, Sex, & Love 1. Human Sexuality i. Human Oddities b. Humans are primarily monogamous c. Humans are always sexually receptive d. Human females have permanently swollen breasts; other primates

More information

Shifting Sensibilities: Attitudes toward Same-sex Marriage, Past, Present and Future

Shifting Sensibilities: Attitudes toward Same-sex Marriage, Past, Present and Future Michael Bailey 1 Shifting Sensibilities: Attitudes toward Same-sex Marriage, Past, Present and Future America is a large, diverse country with some three-hundred twenty million people. With that many people

More information

The Call to Marriage is Woven Deeply into the Human Spirit: A Message on Marriage from the Catholic Bishops of New Jersey

The Call to Marriage is Woven Deeply into the Human Spirit: A Message on Marriage from the Catholic Bishops of New Jersey The Call to Marriage is Woven Deeply into the Human Spirit: A Message on Marriage from the Catholic Bishops of New Jersey God who created man and woman out of love also calls him to love the fundamental

More information

Marriages and Families Intimacy, Diversity, and Strengths

Marriages and Families Intimacy, Diversity, and Strengths Marriages and Families Intimacy, Diversity, and Strengths Chapter 6 Sexual Intimacy David H. Olson John DeFrain Linda Skogrand 8e Intimacy, strengths, and diversity Couple strengths and sexual issues Sex

More information

Power and gender: analysing the experiences of women for transformed practices in higher education in South Africa (0224)

Power and gender: analysing the experiences of women for transformed practices in higher education in South Africa (0224) Rita Niemann University of the Free State, South Africa Power and gender: analysing the experiences of women for transformed practices in higher education in South Africa (0224) Programme number: J4 Research

More information

What motivates us to have sex?

What motivates us to have sex? Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality Objective s for Today s Class: -Sexual orientation -Development of sexual identity What motivates us to have sex? Sexual Scripts Traditional religious script Sex is accepted

More information

NON-BINARY GENDER IDENTITIES Information for trans people & allies

NON-BINARY GENDER IDENTITIES Information for trans people & allies NON-BINARY GENDER IDENTITIES Information for trans people & allies Contents Introduction What is non-binary gender? Sex vs gender Non-binary identities Identifying & presenting as non-binary Pronouns Surgery

More information

- WHEN YOU DON'T KNOW THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR CROSS-CULTURAL HUMAN SERVICES WORK

- WHEN YOU DON'T KNOW THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR CROSS-CULTURAL HUMAN SERVICES WORK Cultural Jeopardy - WHEN YOU DON'T KNOW THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR CROSS-CULTURAL HUMAN SERVICES WORK including experiential activities to examine areas of diverse cultural expression While many professionals

More information

Tool for Attorneys Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Survivors of Domestic Violence

Tool for Attorneys Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Survivors of Domestic Violence Section of Individual Rights and Responsibilities Commission on Domestic Violence Criminal Justice Section In collaboration with Tool for Attorneys Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender

More information

Young people who are gay, lesbian or bisexual

Young people who are gay, lesbian or bisexual Parent Easy Guide 79 Young people who are gay, lesbian or bisexual The teenage years can bring lots of change for children and parents. Children are working out who they are, and dealing with relationships

More information

MEDIA EDUCATION FOUNDATION STUDY GUIDE

MEDIA EDUCATION FOUNDATION STUDY GUIDE MEDIA EDUCATION FOUNDATION STUDY GUIDE UNDERSTANDING HOOKUP CULTURE What s Really Happening on College Campuses Study Guide by Jason Young Graphs by Paula England 2 CONTENTS Note to Educators. 3 Program

More information

Essays on Teaching Excellence. Teaching in Action: Multicultural Education as the Highest Form of Understanding

Essays on Teaching Excellence. Teaching in Action: Multicultural Education as the Highest Form of Understanding Essays on Teaching Excellence Toward the Best in the Academy Volume 12, Number 3, 2000-01 A publication of The Professional & Organizational Development Network in Higher Education (www.podnetwork.org).

More information

Sociology Course of Study

Sociology Course of Study UNIT ONE: How do sociologists study the world? (January February) 1. The Sociological Perspective 2. The Emergence of Scientific 3. Use of the Scientific Method 4. Difficulties of Sociological Research

More information

Policy Subject: Sexual orientation and gender identity Date Passed: 09/05/2012

Policy Subject: Sexual orientation and gender identity Date Passed: 09/05/2012 Yukon Education Policy Subject: Sexual orientation and gender identity Date Passed: 09/05/2012 Legislation: Education Act - Section 4 (b)(e); Section 34 (e) Yukon Human Rights Act Section 7 (g) Cross Reference:

More information

EXPLORING Marriages & Families

EXPLORING Marriages & Families EXPLORING Marriages & Families Chapter 3 Building Relationships Figure 3.1 Percentage Never Married versus Percentage Single, Ages 15-85+, 2008 Singlehood How Many Stay Single? It Depends on How You Define

More information

Gender Studies A Summary. The Swedish Research Council s Committee on Gender Research

Gender Studies A Summary. The Swedish Research Council s Committee on Gender Research 1 Gender Studies A Summary The Swedish Research Council s Committee on Gender Research 2 Gender Studies A Summary The Swedish Research Council s Committee on Gender Research Gender studies/theory is a

More information

II BEING A COUPLE. 0 Introduction

II BEING A COUPLE. 0 Introduction II BEING A COUPLE 0 Introduction Everyone creates his/her identity through various group affiliations (family, workplace, philosophy or religion, couple etc.). Examining the socio-cultural dimensions that

More information

Equality & Diversity. Positive Use of Language. Guidelines for Staff and Students

Equality & Diversity. Positive Use of Language. Guidelines for Staff and Students Equality & Diversity Positive Use of Language Guidelines for Staff and Students University of Bath Equality and Diversity This leaflet is produced to assist in the pursuit of corporate aims of supporting

More information

NASW Press Guidelines for Describing People

NASW Press Guidelines for Describing People NASW Press Guidelines for Describing People To provide implementation strategies for its policy on unbiased communication, the NASW Press has developed the following guidelines. The purposes of the guidelines

More information

DEFINITIONS AND KEY CONCEPTS

DEFINITIONS AND KEY CONCEPTS DEFINITIONS AND KEY CONCEPTS Race: A social construct that artificially divides people into distinct groups based on characteristics, such as physical appearance (particularly color), ancestral heritage,

More information

Running head: Module One: Philosophy 1

Running head: Module One: Philosophy 1 Running head: Module One: Philosophy 1 Module One: Philosophy Reema A. Alsweel George Mason University Module One: Philosophy 2 Introduction I have been on a long, bumpy journey of self discovery in the

More information

Women and Psychological Disorders

Women and Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 12 Women and Psychological Disorders Terminology Depression Psychological Disorders Antisocial personality disorder Major depressive disorder Characteristics of Depression 1. Emotional symptoms:

More information

SPIRITUALITY, FAITH-BASED ISSUES, ETHICAL MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT AND

SPIRITUALITY, FAITH-BASED ISSUES, ETHICAL MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT AND SPIRITUALITY, FAITH-BASED ISSUES, AND ETHICAL MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT PANELISTS: Rabbi Dan Kaiman, MA Allison Moore, MHR Rev. Chris Moore, MDiv Jeffrey Rediger, MD, MDiv Swarna Singhal, PhD, LPC Julie

More information

Social and Cultural Foundations of Counseling IPSY510 Course Syllabus Spring, 2015

Social and Cultural Foundations of Counseling IPSY510 Course Syllabus Spring, 2015 Social and Cultural Foundations of Counseling IPSY510 Course Syllabus Spring, 2015 Instructors: Lindsay Fikkert, Psy.D and Jeffrey White, Ph.D Contact Information: Dr. Fikkert: lfikkert@heritageprofessional.com

More information

race ancestry place of origin colour ethnic origin citizenship creed sex sexual orientation

race ancestry place of origin colour ethnic origin citizenship creed sex sexual orientation Scope of the Code The Ontario Human Rights Code provides protection from discrimination in five areas of our lives. The Code states that every person has a right to freedom from discrimination in the following

More information

Syracuse University. Office of Field Instruction. School of Social Work. Program Competencies, Resulting Practice Behaviors & Examples of Field Tasks

Syracuse University. Office of Field Instruction. School of Social Work. Program Competencies, Resulting Practice Behaviors & Examples of Field Tasks Syracuse University School of Social Work Office of Field Instruction Program Competencies, Resulting Practice Behaviors & Examples of Field Tasks Program Competency Resulting Practice Behavior Example

More information

Diversity and Social Justice A glossary of working definitions*

Diversity and Social Justice A glossary of working definitions* Diversity and Social Justice A glossary of working definitions* *This glossary is not intended to be an exhaustive list of every word and term used in our conversations about diversity and social justice.

More information

Department of Social Work Florida Gulf Coast University. Generalist Practice Field Placement Learning Plan. Task Supervisor (if applicable):

Department of Social Work Florida Gulf Coast University. Generalist Practice Field Placement Learning Plan. Task Supervisor (if applicable): Department of Social Work Florida Gulf Coast University Generalist Practice Field Placement Learning Plan Student: Student Email: Agency: Agency Phone: Field Instructor: Faculty Liaison: Task Supervisor

More information

Bloomsburg University Midterm and Final Competency Field Evaluation. Task Supervisor (if appropriate) :

Bloomsburg University Midterm and Final Competency Field Evaluation. Task Supervisor (if appropriate) : Bloomsburg University and Competency Field Evaluation BSW EVALUATION OF THE COMPETENCIES AND PRACTICE BEHAVIORS Student : Field Instructor : Task Supervisor (if appropriate) : _ Agency : University Faculty

More information

important theories emerging in the Twentieth Century. The dominated the debate on the private-public divide by showing its use to

important theories emerging in the Twentieth Century. The dominated the debate on the private-public divide by showing its use to In contemporary political philosophy feminism is one of the most important theories emerging in the Twentieth Century. The contemporary debate on private-public debate has been greatly impacted by the

More information

Review of Diversity and Public Administration: Theory, Issues, and Perspectives, 2nd ed.

Review of Diversity and Public Administration: Theory, Issues, and Perspectives, 2nd ed. Review of Diversity and Public Administration: Theory, Issues, and Perspectives, 2nd ed. by Mitchell F. Rice Review by Laura C. Hand Arizona State University The topic of diversity in public administration

More information

DIVISION 44 STATEMENT ON IMMIGRATION LAW 6

DIVISION 44 STATEMENT ON IMMIGRATION LAW 6 Statement on New Arizona Immigration Law Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues Division 44 of the American Psychological Association As members of Division

More information

CHAPTER 4: PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION

CHAPTER 4: PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION CHAPTER 4: PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION CHAPTER OVERVIEW Chapter 4 introduces you to the related concepts of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination. The chapter begins with definitions of these three

More information

Mental health and social wellbeing of gay men, lesbians and bisexuals in England and Wales A summary of findings

Mental health and social wellbeing of gay men, lesbians and bisexuals in England and Wales A summary of findings Mental health and social wellbeing of gay men, lesbians and bisexuals in England and Wales A summary of findings Report funded by in collaboration with and Mental health and social wellbeing of gay men,

More information

The Intricacies of Same-Sex Marriage. Marriage, better known in the Catholic world as Holy Matrimony, is one the

The Intricacies of Same-Sex Marriage. Marriage, better known in the Catholic world as Holy Matrimony, is one the P a g e 1 The Intricacies of Same-Sex Marriage Marriage, better known in the Catholic world as Holy Matrimony, is one the most sacred sacraments along with the Holy Orders and Holy Confirmation. It is

More information

The Equality Act 2010: protected or ignored characteristics? Jo Moriarty Jill Manthorpe King s College London

The Equality Act 2010: protected or ignored characteristics? Jo Moriarty Jill Manthorpe King s College London The Equality Act 2010: protected or ignored characteristics? Jo Moriarty Jill Manthorpe King s College London Outline Equality Act Doing the literature review Messages Discussion Age UK London SCWRU annual

More information

Department of Social Work Standards of Professional and Ethical Behavior

Department of Social Work Standards of Professional and Ethical Behavior Department of Social Work Standards of Professional and Ethical Behavior The Department of Social Work at the Metropolitan State University of Denver is mandated by the Council on Social Work Education

More information

Deep Secrets: Boys' Friendships and the Crisis of Connection by Niobe Way

Deep Secrets: Boys' Friendships and the Crisis of Connection by Niobe Way Deep Secrets: Boys' Friendships and the Crisis of Connection by Niobe Way Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011 (ISBN: 978-0-6740-4664-1). 326pp. Clare Stainthorp (University of Glasgow) Niobe

More information

Gender Stereotypes Associated with Altruistic Acts

Gender Stereotypes Associated with Altruistic Acts Gender Stereotypes Associated 1 Gender Stereotypes Associated with Altruistic Acts Lacey D. Seefeldt Undergraduate Student, Psychology Keywords: Altruism, Gender Stereotypes, Vignette Abstract Possible

More information

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH Volume 3, Number 1 Submitted: August 3, 2007 First Revision: August 30, 2007 Accepted: September 1, 2007 Publication Date: September 10, 2007 Sexual Attitudes

More information

Cultural Competency: Is it a level of consciousness or just (plain ol ) common sense?

Cultural Competency: Is it a level of consciousness or just (plain ol ) common sense? Cultural Competency: Is it a level of consciousness or just (plain ol ) common sense? DR. TAMARA A. BAKER DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS FEBRUARY 26, 2015 outline 1. Defining culture, cultural

More information

WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERISTY SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK Field Education Learning Contract and Evaluation. MSW Concentration-Interpersonal Practice (IP)

WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERISTY SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK Field Education Learning Contract and Evaluation. MSW Concentration-Interpersonal Practice (IP) WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERISTY SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK Field Education Learning Contract and Evaluation Revised 10/04/2014 Pg. 1 MSW Concentration-Interpersonal Practice (IP) Student s Name: Jane Smith Phone

More information

Women and the Criminal Justice System

Women and the Criminal Justice System SECOND EDITION Women and the Criminal Justice System Katherine Stuart van Wormer University of Northern Iowa Clemens Bartollas University of Northern Iowa Boston New York San Francisco Mexico City Montreal

More information

New York University Silver School of Social Work Field Learning and Community Partnerships

New York University Silver School of Social Work Field Learning and Community Partnerships New York University Silver School of Social Work Field Learning and ommunity Partnerships Field Learning Evaluation: Professional Foundation (First Year) MID-YEAR EVALUATION FINAL EVALUATION Student Name:

More information

Colchester Borough Council. Equality Impact Assessment Form - An Analysis of the Effects on Equality. Section 1: Initial Equality Impact Assessment

Colchester Borough Council. Equality Impact Assessment Form - An Analysis of the Effects on Equality. Section 1: Initial Equality Impact Assessment Colchester Borough Council Equality Assessment Form - An Analysis of the Effects on Equality Section 1: Initial Equality Assessment Name of policy to be assessed: Major Preliminary Enquiries and Planning

More information

Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) and Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy Standards and Accreditation Standards (CSWE-EPAS)

Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) and Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy Standards and Accreditation Standards (CSWE-EPAS) (CTC) and Educational Policy Standards and Accreditation Standards (CSWE-) Standards Crosswalk June 2013 An institution that is offering a nationally accredited Pupil Personnel Services: School Social

More information

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution

More information

CSL 502 Legal, Ethical, and Professional Issues. CSL 503 Human Relations Methods and Skills

CSL 502 Legal, Ethical, and Professional Issues. CSL 503 Human Relations Methods and Skills CSL 501 Evaluation and Assessment This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of individual, couple, family, group and environmental/community approaches to assessment and evaluation.

More information

Chapter Five Socialization. Human Development: Biology and Society. Social Isolation

Chapter Five Socialization. Human Development: Biology and Society. Social Isolation Chapter Five Socialization Socialization is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identify and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival

More information

The Character Assassination of Jordan Baker in The Great Gatsby

The Character Assassination of Jordan Baker in The Great Gatsby Jonathan T. Dillon Professor Andrew Strombeck English 3060-02 April 4, 2013 The Character Assassination of Jordan Baker in The Great Gatsby Within literary circles, Jordan Baker's sexuality in The Great

More information

Session one: Why diversity is important

Session one: Why diversity is important Session one: Why diversity is important Goals: to welcome and introduce the group to clarify the schedule and ground rules their to help the group reflect on the challenges and advantages of organization's

More information

Chapter 18 Writing the Research Report

Chapter 18 Writing the Research Report Chapter 18 Writing the Research Report (Reminder: Don t forget to utilize the concept maps and study questions as you study this and the other chapters.) The purpose of this final chapter is to provide

More information

Chapter 13. Prejudice: Causes and Cures

Chapter 13. Prejudice: Causes and Cures Chapter 13 Prejudice: Causes and Cures Prejudice Prejudice is ubiquitous; it affects all of us -- majority group members as well as minority group members. Prejudice Prejudice is dangerous, fostering negative

More information

Since 1975, the American Psychological

Since 1975, the American Psychological nswers to Your uestions For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation Homosexuality Since 1975, the merican Psychological ssociation has called on psychologists to take the lead in removing the stigma

More information

GENDER and SEX A sample of definitions Emily Esplen and Susie Jolly December 2006

GENDER and SEX A sample of definitions Emily Esplen and Susie Jolly December 2006 GENDER and SEX A sample of definitions Emily Esplen and Susie Jolly December 2006 BRIDGE (gender and development) Institute of Development Studies University of Sussex Brighton BN1 9RE, UK Tel: +44 (0)

More information

HOMOSEXUALITY. Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D. Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis

HOMOSEXUALITY. Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D. Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis HOMOSEXUALITY Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D. Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis To appear in: A.E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

More information

Career Counseling Skills for Contextual Decision Making

Career Counseling Skills for Contextual Decision Making Career Counseling Skills for Contextual Decision Making Video Leader Guide Anika K. Warren, Ph.D. Teachers College, Columbia University Distributed by Microtraining Associates: www.emicrotraining.com 2

More information

A Proclamation for the Dignity and Rights of All Human Beings

A Proclamation for the Dignity and Rights of All Human Beings A Proclamation for the Dignity and Rights of All Human Beings PREAMBLE We believe all persons are whole human beings, regardless of ability, mobility, expression, communication, intelligence, accommodations,

More information

Love Lingers Here: Intimate Enduring Relationships Essay II: The Couple as a Third Entity

Love Lingers Here: Intimate Enduring Relationships Essay II: The Couple as a Third Entity Love Lingers Here: Intimate Enduring Relationships Essay II: The Couple as a Third Entity William Bergquist I base my analysis of enduring relationships on a fundamental assumption: a couple is a living,

More information

The Role of Social Support in Identity Formation: A Literature Review

The Role of Social Support in Identity Formation: A Literature Review Graduate Journal of Counseling Psychology Volume 1 Issue 1 Spring 2008 Article 9 3-1-2008 The Role of Social Support in Identity Formation: A Literature Review Elizabeth A. Para Follow this and additional

More information

Rethinking Homophobia : Sexual Prejudice Today

Rethinking Homophobia : Sexual Prejudice Today Rethinking Homophobia : Sexual Prejudice Today A O I F E C A R T W R I G H T P H D S T U D E N T D E P A R T M E N T O F P S Y C H O L O G Y N U I M A Y N O O T H Rethinking Homophobia : Sexual Prejudice

More information

Ally: Someone who advocates for and supports members of a community other than their own. Reaching across differences to achieve mutual goals.

Ally: Someone who advocates for and supports members of a community other than their own. Reaching across differences to achieve mutual goals. Glossary of Terms Relating to Sexuality and Gender Compiled by Henry A. Holmes Program Officer Columbia Foundation from the following sources: Gender Equity Resource Center at the University of California,

More information

SB 71 Question and Answer Guide, page 1

SB 71 Question and Answer Guide, page 1 Questions and Answers about SB 71: The California Comprehensive Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Prevention Act A Guide for Parents, Students and Community members On January 1, 2004, California replaced 11

More information

Module 1 - Worldview and Mindset. Defining Culture

Module 1 - Worldview and Mindset. Defining Culture Module 1 - Worldview and Mindset Defining Culture Whatever you do, or wherever you go, or whatever you take part in will, in some way, reflect your own understanding of and position in culture. And that

More information

Written and developed by Joel Radcliffe, Roz Ward, Micah Scott Safe Schools Coalition Victoria

Written and developed by Joel Radcliffe, Roz Ward, Micah Scott Safe Schools Coalition Victoria 1 Written and developed by Joel Radcliffe, Roz Ward, Micah Scott Safe Schools Coalition Victoria Sally Richardson Safe Schools Coalition Australia Safe Schools Do Better was originally created by Safe

More information

STUDENT LEARNING PLAN Social Work Practice in SW 400/401

STUDENT LEARNING PLAN Social Work Practice in SW 400/401 Semester/year: STUDENT LEARNING PLAN Social Work Practice in SW 400/401 STUDENT: Phone Number: Placement Phone Number: UW Email Address: Field Hour Schedule: SUPERVISOR: Phone Number: Agency Name/Address:

More information

On Homosexual Partner Relationship

On Homosexual Partner Relationship 48 4 Vol. 48 No. 4 2015 7 Journal of Jiangxi Normal University Social Sciences Jul. 2015 330022 1979 B844 A 1000-579 2015 04-0130 - 07 On Homosexual Partner Relationship TANG Rixin LI Qian ZHANG Jing School

More information

OVERVIEW OF THE EQUALITY ACT 2010

OVERVIEW OF THE EQUALITY ACT 2010 OVERVIEW OF THE EQUALITY ACT 2010 1. Context A new Equality Act came into force on 1 October 2010. The Equality Act brings together over 116 separate pieces of legislation into one single Act. Combined,

More information

Sexual violence & individuals who identify as lgbtq

Sexual violence & individuals who identify as lgbtq Sexual violence & individuals who identify as lgbtq Research Brief The publications below examine sexual violence in the form of hate or bias-motivated crimes, intimate partner violence, childhood sexual

More information

Appreciating the Complex World of Bachelors

Appreciating the Complex World of Bachelors Appreciating the Complex World of Bachelors "Lifelong bachelors" (heterosexual men who are at least 40 years old and have never married) have long been the subject of public scrutiny. Usually this attention

More information

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to determine whether or not a relationship

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to determine whether or not a relationship ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to determine whether or not a relationship exists between eating disordered attitudes, specifically anorexia nervosa, and several factors, including attention from

More information

CARING FOR LGBTI PEOPLE WITH DEMENTIA

CARING FOR LGBTI PEOPLE WITH DEMENTIA CARING FOR LGBTI PEOPLE WITH DEMENTIA A GUIDE FOR HEALTH AND AGED CARE PROFESSIONALS CARING 2 CARING LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, TRANSGENDER AND INTERSEX (LGBTI) PEOPLE WITH DEMENTIA, AND THEIR CARERS, PARTNERS,

More information

Safe schools do better.

Safe schools do better. Safe schools do better. Supporting sexual diversity, intersex and gender diversity in schools. safeschoolscoalition.org.au safeschoolscoalition.org.au 1 Safe Schools Coalition Australia is proud to create

More information

Different Styles of Grieving

Different Styles of Grieving Different Styles of Grieving By Michael Lombardo, D.Min. Recent research has examined the ways men and women grieve differently. Books such as When Men Grieve: Why Men Grieve Differently and How You Can

More information