1 GENDER-RESPONSIVE ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT FOR JUSTICE-INVOLVED WOMEN IN COMMUNITY SUPERVISION Krista Gehring, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Criminal Justice University of Houston-Downtown January 17, 2013
2 EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE
3 A BRIEF HISTORY Evidence-based practice Evidence exists that the program or intervention is effective. This effectiveness is obtained through empirical research not anecdotes, stories, common sense, or beliefs about effectiveness.
4 BEING EVIDENCE-BASED
5 WHAT IS EVIDENCE? Literature Review Look at more than one study Meta-analyses Summaries of many studies of correctional interventions Study of studies
6 THE RESULTS OF EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE The Principles of Effective Intervention Risk Need Responsivity Treatment Integrity
7 WOMEN IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
8 MEN AND WOMEN IN STATE PRISONS Estimated percent of sentenced prisoners under State jurisdiction, by offense and sex, yearend 2004 Percentage Inmates Incarcerated 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 53% 34% 31% 20% 19% 29% Violent Offenses Property Offenses Drug Offenses Offense Type Male Female Bureau of Justice Statistics (2007). Prisoners in Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice
9 THE JUSTICE-INVOLVED WOMAN Early 30s Drug-related crimes Victims of physical and/or sexual abuse Under-educated/unskilled Substance abuse problems Poverty Unemployed Disproportionately women of color Health problems Mental health issues Mothers to minor children
10 PERCENTAGE INCREASE OF MEN AND WOMEN UNDER CORRECTIONAL SUPERVISION, Women Men Correctional Supervision 81% 45% Prison 108% 77% Jail 89% 48% By the end of 2006, the number of women under criminal justice supervision had reached over 1.3 million Bureau of Justice Statistics (2001). Prison and Jail Inmates at midyear Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice; Bureau of Justice Statistics (2007). Prisoners in Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice; Bureau of Justice Statistics (2001). National correctional population. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice
11 WHY ARE MORE WOMEN ENTERING THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM? The War on Drugs The number of women in state prisons for drug offenses rose by 888% from 1986 to 1996 Tough on Crime Policies Reduced Funding for Mental Health
12 WHY DO WOMEN OFFEND?
13 THEORY AND INTERVENTIONS Theory based approach to correctional interventions Interventions should be based in theories about criminal behavior
14 SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Criminal behavior is learned Treatment focuses on here and now Originally theorized by Bandura (1979) Borrows from classical and operant conditioning Also recognizes observational learning
15 SOCIAL LEARNING MODELS Social learning models, especially combined with cognitive behavior models, are among the most effective treatment approaches These approaches have achieved reductions in recidivism as high as 20 to 30 percent
16 Blanchette, K. & Brown, S. (2006). The assessment and treatment of women offenders. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; Bloom, B., Owen, B., & Covington, S. (2003). Gender-responsive strategies: research, practice, and guiding principles for women offenders. Washington D.C: U.S. Department of Justice PATHWAYS PERSPECTIVE Suggests women enter the criminal justice system through different pathways than men. Examines the lives of women prior to incarceration. Looks at how experiences shape pathways to offending.
17 COMPONENTS OF THE PATHWAYS PERSPECTIVE Histories of Personal Abuse Mental Illness Substance Abuse Economic and Social Marginality Homelessness Relationships Bloom, B., Owen, B., & Covington, S. (2003). Gender-responsive strategies: research, practice, and guiding principles for women offenders. Washington D.C: U.S. Department of Justice
18 EXAMPLE OF TWO PATHWAYS WOMEN MIGHT TRAVEL INTO THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM Child Abuse (Physical and Sexual) Mental Illness Substance Abuse Offending Behavior Child Abuse (Physical and Sexual) Running Away Survival Behavior (e.g., prostitution, drug use) Offending Behavior
19 WHAT IS GENDER-RESPONSE?
20 THE NEXT PHASE IN WHAT WORKS What is Gender-Responsive Acknowledges the realities of women s lives and how they may differ from men, including the pathways to offending and how relationships shape their lives. Practices address issues like violence, abuse, family relationships, and substance abuse. Bloom, B., Owen, B., & Covington, S. (2003).
21 DEVELOPING GENDER-RESPONSIVE POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PRACTICES System should be different from male system Target women s pathways to criminality and issues involved with them Recognize the minimal danger women generally present to society Recognize importance of relationships Bloom, B., Owen, B., & Covington, S. (2003).
22 CAN THEY FIT TOGETHER? Evidence Based Practice Gender- Responsiveness
23 INTEGRATING THE TWO APPROACHES Evidence Based Practice Gender- Responsiveness
25 GENDER-RESPONSIVE INTERVENTIONS: A BRIEF OVERVIEW
26 GENDER-RESPONSIVE PRACTICE: WOMEN OFFENDER CASE MANAGEMENT MODEL Conceptual model that should be used to guide the delivery of genderresponsive case management services to criminal justice involved women Review Progress [Update case plan] Engage and Assess [Reassess] Core elements can be introduced at all phases of the case management process. Information is carried forward from one phase to another via the case plan. Enhance Motivation [Increase commitment] Implement a Case Plan [Engage personal and social resources]
27 GENDER-RESPONSIVE INTERVENTIONS Moving on Girls Moving on Helping Women Recover Beyond Trauma Voices Seeking Safety Dialectical Behavior Therapy
28 GENDER-RESPONSIVE INTERVENTIONS: MOVING ON For women in the criminal justice system Gender-responsive, cognitive behavioral intervention Treatment is intended to: Provide women with crime-free alternatives and choices by helping them to recognize and use personal and community resources. 26 sessions, 2.5 hours each
29 GENDER-RESPONSIVE INTERVENTIONS: MOVING ON Setting the Context for Change Women in Society Taking Care of Yourself Family Messages Relationships Coping with Emotions and Harmful Self-Talk Problem-Solving Becoming Assertive Moving On
30 GENDER-RESPONSIVE INTERVENTIONS: GIRLS MOVING ON Gender-informed cognitive-behavioral program for atrisk girls between the ages of 12 to 21 years. Comprehensive program that uses a number of complementary approaches such as relational theory, motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral intervention Consists of seven modules: two are delivered on an individual basis and five are delivered in a group setting Designed the program for continuous intake, so that new participants can enter the program at the beginning of each module
31 GENDER-RESPONSIVE INTERVENTIONS: HELPING WOMEN RECOVER For women offenders with substance abuse issues Treatment is intended to: integrate substance abuse treatment with trauma recovery guide all professionals involved in helping addicted women to recover. reduce recidivism through substance abuse treatment Modules: 1) Self, 2) Relationships, 3) Sexuality, and 4) Spirituality
32 GENDER-RESPONSIVE INTERVENTIONS: BEYOND TRAUMA For women suffering from trauma Treatment is intended to: Help clients realize the strengths and skills they already possess, build upon them, and use them to help aid them in their healing Subtheme of addiction Modules: 1) Violence, Abuse, and Trauma; 2) The Impact of Trauma on Women s Lives; and 3) Healing the Trauma
33 GENDER-RESPONSIVE INTERVENTIONS: VOICES Encourages them to seek and celebrate their true selves by providing a safe space, encouragement, structure, and the support they need to embrace their journeys of self-discovery. Program includes modules on self, connecting with others, healthy living, and the journey ahead Uses a variety of therapeutic approaches, including psychoeducational, cognitivebehavioral, and expressive arts.
34 GENDER-RESPONSIVE INTERVENTIONS: SEEKING SAFETY For women with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse Treatment is intended to: Be a present-focused therapy to help people attain safety from trauma/ptsd and come to terms with substance abuse 25 Modules very flexible Modules evenly divided among cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal domains, with each addressing a safe coping skill relevant to both disorders
35 GENDER-RESPONSIVE INTERVENTIONS: DIALECTICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY For women with self-harming behaviors Many meet criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment is intended to: Bring problem behaviors, especially behaviors that could result in death, under control and create lives worth living Modules: 1) Mindfulness, 2) Interpersonal Effectiveness, 3) Emotion Regulation, and 5) Distress Tolerance
36 CONCLUSION This is a fast developing area in corrections In order to treat female offenders in the criminal justice system, programs must be sensitive to gender-specific pathways Programs must target the gender-responsive treatment targets CBTs are the most effective The few gender-responsive programs that have been evaluated show positive outcomes
37 CONTACT INFORMATION WOCMM/Moving On/Girls Moving On: Helping Women Recover/Beyond Trauma/Voices:
38 CONTACT INFORMATION Dr. Krista Gehring