Name Period Chapter 18 The Reconstruction Era

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1 Name Period Chapter 18 The Reconstruction Era Section 1: First Steps to Reunion (Pages ) 1. What were freedmen and how many lived in the south? Men and women who had been slaves in the South. There were almost 4 million of them._ 2. What is Reconstruction? The rebuilding of the South after the Civil War 3. What did Lincoln s plan for Reconstruction call for? Lincoln s plan called for 10% of a states voters to swear an oath of loyalty to the Union, then they could join form a new government. 4. What did the Freedmen s Bureau provide slaves with? Food, clothing, and helped to find jobs for freedmen. It also helped poor whites and gave medical care for more than a million people. It also set up schools. 5. What Amendment banned slavery? 13th Amendment 6. Because the southern governments elected representatives who were former Confederate government office holders, what did the Republicans in Congress do to these southern representatives when they met? Refused to let them take their seats

2 Section 2: Radical Reconstruction (Pages ) 1. What were black codes? Laws that severely limited the rights of freedmen 2. What was the name of the political group that opposed President Johnson? Radical Republicans 3. Led the Radical Republicans in the Senate Charles Sumner 4. Led the Radical Republicans in the House Thaddeus Stevens 5. What did the moderate and Radical Republicans agree on? Southern Democrats should be barred from Congress 6. What did the 14th Amendment state? Granted citizenship to all persons born in the U.S. and guaranteed all citizens equal protection of the laws and declared not state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law. 7. What were the major parts of the Radical Reconstruction Act of 1867? 1) southern states had to ratify _the _14th Amendment 2) Blacks had to be permitted to vote in all southern states 3) the South was place under military rule. 8. Why did the House of Representatives impeach President Johnson? He wasn t enforcing the new Reconstruction laws. 9. Why did some Republican senators vote against impeaching Andrew Johnson? They believed the

3 Constitution did not allow a President to be removed just because he didn t agree with Congress

4 Section 3: Changes in the South (Pages ) 1. What three groups took an active role, and were new forces, in Reconstruction governments in the South? 1) scalawags 2) carpetbaggers 3) African Americans 2. What did people call white Southern Republicans ( a word used for small, scruffy horses)? _scalawag 3. Who were carpetbaggers? Northerners that came South after the war 4. What did Conservatives want the South to do? Wanted the South to change as little as possible 5. What did the KKK want to do in the South? Keep black and white Republicans out of office 6. In 1870, Congress made it a crime to do what? To use force to keep people from voting 7. Did taxes go up or down in the South during Reconstruction? Went up 8. What did some Radical Republicans talk about giving each freedmen? 40 acres of land and a mule 9. What were sharecroppers? Freedmen and poor whites who would farm someone s land and then give that person a share of the crops.

5 Section 4: Reconstruction Ends (Pages ) 1. Radical Republicans lost power in Congress for the following reasons: a. Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens had both died by b. Many northerners grew tired of trying to reform the South c. Widespread corruption under President Grant 2. Why did the election of 1876 bring an end to Reconstruction? Rutherford B. Hayes made a secret agreeement to end Reconstruction if he got the disputed electoral votes. 3. How long did it take the South s planters to grow as much cotton as they had in 1860? 1880 (20 years)_ 4. By 1900, Southern industry included A. textiles C. oil refining B. furniture making 5. By 1900, the South had a more balanced economy and COULD NOT keep up with the North s growth. 6. What were poll taxes? Required voters to pay a fee each time they voted 7. What were literacy tests? Required voters to read and explain a portion of the Constitution in order to vote 8. What were Grandfather Clauses? If a voters father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867, the voter didn t have to take a literacy test. (ensured that only white men could vote) 9. What is segregation? Separating people of different races in public places

6 10. What were Jim Crow laws? Segragation laws to separate African Americans from whites 11. What did the Supreme Court rule in the court case Plessy vs. Ferguson? Segration was legal as long as facilities for whites and blacks were equal 13. What happened to the rights of African Americans after Reconstruction ended? There rights eroded. They started to lose the rights they had gained.

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