RAYTHEON BRINGS EO TECHNOLOGY To Defend Our Nation

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1 technology today HIGHLIGHTING RAYTHEON S TECHNOLOGY RAYTHEON BRINGS EO TECHNOLOGY To Defend Our Nation 2005 Issue 1

2 A Message from Greg Shelton Vice President of Engineering, Technology, Manufacturing & Quality This new year is quickly progressing, so I would like to take a few moments to reflect back on our many successes in Financially, we have reported a strong fourth quarter, a solid year and our fifth consecutive quarter of predictable financial performance. We have continued to focus on the three pillars of Customer Focused Marketing: Performance through predictability, Relationships by building trust, and Solutions the most fun for all of us through creativity and innovation. In Engineering, Technology, Manufacturing and Quality, predictability is something on which we have focused strongly the past three years, with core processes and standards and invoking discipline in all we do. We have made significant strides, and our success is measured and validated by CMMI. In 2004, we continued our journey for process excellence with successful CMMI appraisals in Indianapolis, Tucson and the United Kingdom just to name a few. These achievements resulted in Raytheon leading the industry with the most sites at CMMI Level 3 or above for systems and software engineering. I often say that our people are our greatest asset. You are the ones who are building the relationships with our customers gaining and sustaining their trust. Our customers are actively participating in our five Engineering and Technology Symposia, our Mission Assurance Forum, and our second annual Raytheon Technology Day in Washington, D.C. These events are excellent vehicles for sharing knowledge, experiences and successes, but they are also perfect opportunities to foster and build those relationships. Ask Greg on line at: Technology is in our roots, and we have sustained our technical leadership by focusing on our four mission areas: Radio Frequency; Electro-optical (EO); Missiles; and Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence. We have had several major DARPA wins, including the Robust Integrated Power Electronics, Cognitive Engine Technologies and Future Combat System Communications. This issue of technology today focuses on EO technology, a core technology area for Raytheon. EO technology is found in spacecraft, unmanned airplanes, missiles, ground vehicles and in the hands of our soldiers. EO technology allows our forces to own the night. I encourage you to read this issue that focuses on current EO products and the enabling technologies on which they are based. Our next issue will focus on emerging threats and the enabling technologies that we are developing to address them. In 2005, let s continue to focus on the fundamentals, but let s also continue to drive Raytheon Six Sigma to the next level developing new, innovative solutions for our customers, partners and teammates. We will also focus on Mission Assurance, Mission Systems Integration and Mission Support. Lastly, I encourage you to be a continuous world learner and hope you learn to look outside the box for solutions to meet our customers ever-changing needs, and if that means bringing in a partner to provide a solution, then so be it. We are a total Mission Systems Integrator, and we have to continue to do all we can to think like one. Regards, ISSUE 1 Greg

3 TECHNOLOGY TODAY INSIDE THIS ISSUE technology today is published quarterly by the Office of Engineering, Technology, Manufacturing & Quality Vice President Greg Shelton Managing Editor Jean Scire Editors Mardi Scalise, Lee Ann Sousa Art Director Debra Graham Photography Mike McGravey, Charlie Riniker Publication Coordinator Carol Danner Contributors Steven Bailey James Bangs Stefan Baur Scott Bloomfield Paul Buelow Marc Carson Alan Hoffman Todd Johnson Richard Juergens Frank Kearns Donald Lewis Kevin Marler Heather McKenna Brian Morgan Daniel Murphy Brian Perona Marcilene Pribonic Chuck Pruszynski William Radford Mike Sprung Mike Stokes Frank Sulzbach Kevin Wheeler Paul Wheelwright Raytheon s Electro-optical Technology In the Defense of Our Nation 4 World Leadership in FLIR Systems 5 2nd-Generation FLIR 7 Precision Targeting on the Battlefield 8 Precision Guided Weapons 8 Electro-optical Missile Seekers 9 Enabling Technologies 10 Engineering Perspective Alan Silver 11 Optics Technology 12 Leadership Perspective Dr. Peter Pao 13 EO Test Systems 14 Cryogenics: Keeping It Cool 15 Eye on Technology Architecture & Systems Integration 16 RF Systems 17 Materials & Structures 18 Processing 19 Design for Six Sigma 20 CMMI Accomplishments 22 The Future State of IPDS 24 Women s Forum Mission Assurance & Quality Forum 25 Fall Symposia 26 First Joint Council Meeting 28 People: Raytheon s Greatest Asset 28 Patent Recognition 29 Future Events 32 EDITOR S NOTE I recently had to purchase a new dishwasher, so I went to the local appliance store and bought the dishwasher that the salesperson recommended to meet my needs. This was a quick and easy sale and also included a new stove (for decorative purposes only to match the dishwasher because my culinary skills and desires are minimal at best). Someone asked me why I just went to the local store without investigating the products on the market and shopping around for the best deal, and the answer was simple: I trust the people because they have met their commitments with excellent service and support. Trusted partnerships are critical to our success. I was fortunate to hear Brigadier General Mike Cannon, United States Army, Program Executive Officer, Missiles and Space, Redstone Arsenal speak on a panel at the Program Leadership symposium this past February. He said, We don t trust Raytheon, it s a name We might trust the products that are coming out of Raytheon, but it s only because we trust the people that are inside of that company. It s the people who have earned our trust. We re not your customers, we re your partners. Raytheon s technology is a key discriminator, but when our technology is paired with customer solutions and supported by the relationships that we build, we drive growth. We must continue to foster and maintain relationships with our customers, partners, suppliers and teammates. This issue focuses on EO technology, a key technology area for our company in which we have a strong history of success. We are providing solutions to our customers, especially in the Global War on Terror where our products enable our customers to own the night. The next issue will focus on the future of EO technology and what Raytheon is doing to develop solutions to meet our customers needs. Enjoy the magazine. As always, your ideas, comments and feedback are most welcome. Happy Spring! We welcome your comments and suggestions; go to technology today via and visit the Interact section, or us at 2005 ISSUE 1 3

4 Raytheon s Electro-optical Technology in the Defense of Our Nation Part 1 of 2 Electro-optical Technology Features T his issue of technology today is dedicated to electro-optical (EO), infrared (IR) and laser technology in which Raytheon has a long and storied history in supporting the defense of our nation. As one of the world s largest manufacturers of EO/IR sensors and systems having delivered over 43,000 forward-looking IR (FLIR) systems alone we have a lot to be proud of, but our greatest accomplishment is the difference we have made to our warfighters. While speaking at the 2002 DARPA Systems and Technology Symposium, General Richard Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, stated that there are three technologies that have changed the nature of modern warfare: night vision, precision strike and global positioning systems. Two of these capabilities are provided by Raytheon s EO technology and systems. Since there is so much to show and tell about EO, we have split the information into two issues of technology today. This edition shows how Raytheon has and continues to bring EO technology to support the defense of our nation. Here, we feature EO technology, our current products, and the enabling technologies on which they are based. The next issue of technology today will review emerging threats and the programs and enabling technologies that we are developing to address them. Figure 1 captures the breadth and depth of technologies that have given the warfighter affordable night vision to detect targets Figure 1. EO enabling technologies from the ground, the air and space. Once these targets have been detected, Raytheon laser ranging technology helps locate exacting target positions for our precision strike weapons. Once launched, Raytheon seekers guide our missiles accurately to these targets through either passive sensor tracking or semi-active or active illumination by Raytheon laser designators. However, the nature of warfare is evolving. In response, Raytheon continues to develop capabilities to sustain our charter of bringing EO technology to protect the warfighters and defend our nation. Alan Silver In this issue, you ll read about EO products and technologies. The next issue of technology today will focus on how we apply these technologies to emerging threats against our nation ISSUE 1

5 World Leadership in FLIR Systems Raytheon s experience in designing, developing and integrating forward-looking infrared (FLIR) systems and subsystems spans space, airborne and ground combat systems. Over the past 40 years, Raytheon has successfully developed and fielded navigation, surveillance and targeting systems on numerous domestic and international programs. During this period, we have produced and delivered more than 43,000 FLIR systems. As one of the world s largest manufacturers of electro-optical (EO) systems, Raytheon is known for its expertise and quality in this area. Space and Airborne Sensors Information gained from sensors in the air and in space has become a fundamental component in planning and forecasting a wide range of civil, military and intelligence activities. For years, advanced visible, infrared (IR) and microwave sensors have contributed to our ability to predict patterns and effects of weather. Such data can be of great value in planning anything from a picnic to a military campaign. Information developed by sensors in space allows forecasters to predict among many other things soil moisture content and weather patterns. This information might affect the number of ants you could expect at your picnic, but if you're a tank commander, it can also help you determine whether the mud on the battlefield is going to be too thick to plan a successful attack. The ability to predict sandstorms and their duration has already proven to be an important factor in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Data from polar-orbiting and geostationary platforms has been used for decades to support battlefield operations. The next 10 years will see improved environmental data from a new suite of National Polarorbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System instruments, along with revolutionary improvements in Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite System weather products, courtesy of the new Advanced Baseline Imager and the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite of sensors. Currently, threat sensors such as the Defense Support Program provide missile warning. Soon, however, these sensors will be replaced by constellations of much more acute sensors in the Space-Based Infrared High and the Space Tracking Surveillance Systems. These systems will provide the target identification and tracking capabilities necessary to support the United States multilayered national missile defense program. Of course, we don't have to travel as far as space to encounter sensors operating with great strategic effect above the earth. Consider three recent stars of the sky: the Predator and Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicles and Advanced Targeting FLIR (ATFLIR). Predator, carrying organic sensors developed by Raytheon, has been conducting intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) operations in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan. Raytheon s precision strike weapons are then employed to engage threats as soon as possible. Global Hawk also carries Raytheon EO and IR, and performed extremely well in ISR missions in OIF. Although it flew only three percent of air-breathing imagery intelligence missions and five percent of high-altitude reconnaissance sorties, it nonetheless accounted for 55% of the time-sensitive targets generated to kill air defense equipment. Global Hawk s sensors located 13 surface-to-air missile (SAM) batteries, 50 SAM launchers, 300 SAM canisters, 70 SAM transporters and more than 300 Iraqi tanks. ATFLIR is providing the F/A-18 Super Hornet with precision engagement with excellent standoff range. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites provides daily global information on atmospheric, land and ocean environmental dynamics. Daily Continued on page 6 Figure 1. In this MODIS image taken March 28, 2003, dust is pooled in the valleys closest to the coast, while a front stretches across hundreds of miles. Into the waters of the Persian Gulf (center), bright blue swirls of sediment pour in from rivers. In places the swirls appear tinged with green, which suggests some marine plant life could be present. Orbit 705 km, 10:30 a.m. descending node or 1:30 p.m. ascending node, sun-synchronous, near-polar, circular Size 1.0 x 1.6 x 1.0 m Scan Rate 20.3 rpm, cross track Data Rate 11 Mbps (peak daytime) Scan Dimensions 2,330 km (cross track) by 10 km (along track at nadir) Quantization 12 bits Telescope cm diam. Off-axis, afocal (collimated), with intermediate field stop Spatial Resolution 250 m (bands 1-2), 500 m (bands 3-7), 1,000 m (bands 8-36) Weight 240 kg Design Life 5 years Power 150 W (orbital average) Table 1. MODIS Design Specifications 2005 ISSUE 1 5

6 FLIR SYSTEMS Continued from page 5 MODIS sea-surface temperatures are required to model air-sea temperature interactions that affect climate and weather and correct radar tracking of incoming missiles threatening our ships at sea. Its estimates of aerosol levels and cloud cover contribute to global weather and climate prediction. Its vegetation assessments support global and seasonal crop forecasting. Its dust storm warnings support tactical military operations. The spectral capability of MODIS is the key to its ability to detect dust storms and provide key reports to military planners regarding the density, position, size, trajectory and visibility of these sand blizzards. Special spectral channels in the visible, nearinfrared and even longer wavelengths in the infrared, sensitive to temperature, allow MODIS to segregate land, ocean, clouds and dust in the same picture. MODIS has proven to be not only a successful tool to support scientific environmental studies the basic mission for which it was originally designed but also a necessary adjunct to civil weather forecasting and military operations worldwide (see Figure 1 on page 5). In OEF and OIF conflicts that continue to make headlines, desert dust storms are the bane of infantry and airmen. MODIS is a key combat ally as well as an essential tool for continued NASA environmental research. Global Hawk Integrated Sensor Suite and Ground Segment With its unmatched sensor technology and sophisticated ground support systems, the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) offers a dramatic warfighting advantage. Raytheon developed the electronic sensors, radar and ground-based elements that allow Global Hawk to excel at providing critical ISR data to military field commands. Day or night, on land or at sea, and in all kinds of weather, the Raytheon Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) on the air vehicle (Figure 2) pinpoints stationary or moving targets with unparalleled accuracy. It transmits imagery and position information instantaneously from 65,000 feet with dramatic clarity, empowering warfighters to respond quickly and decisively. The Raytheon-built ISS enables Global Hawk to scan large geographic areas and produce outstanding high-resolution reconnaissance imagery. In just 24 hours, Global Hawk s wide-area search mode can cover 40,000-square nautical miles with 1-meter resolution; while in spot target mode, the sensors can search 1,900 2 km x 2 km spots with 0.33-meter resolution. To provide Global Hawk with its broad sensing, night vision and radar-detection capabilities, ISS combines a cloud-penetrating synthetic aperture radar antenna with a ground moving target indicator, a high-resolution EO digital camera and an IR sensor. A common signal processor, acting as an airborne supercomputer, ensures that all elements work together. Figure 2. Global Hawk s array of sensors supports the UAV s nearly 36 hours of long-term surveillance. Global Hawk s EO Sensor Modes EO/IR Characteristics Performance Parameters Focal Length 1.75 M Wide Area Search Mode 138,000 sq km/day Aperture 0.28 M (11 ) NIIRS 5.0 MWIR, 6.0 visible µrad Visible Spotlight Mode 1,900 spots/day µm EO CCD Array NIIRS 5.5 MWIR; 6.5 visible Pixel IFOV 11.4 µrad MWIR; 5.1 µrad visible Array FOV 5.5 x 7.3 mrad MWIR; 5.1 X 5.2 mrad visible AN/AAS-52 Multi-Spectral Targeting System Parameters Features AN/AAS-52 Multi-Spectral Targeting System Eyes of the Predator Raytheon s multi-spectral targeting system (MTS) (see Figure 3) is a multi-use IR, EO and laser detecting/ranging/tracking set, developed and produced for use in military systems. Using state-of-the-art digital Continued on next page Figure 3. The eyes of the Predator a Multi- Spectral Targeting System integrating Raytheon infrared, EO and laser technologies Fields of View, Degrees Wide: 33 X 44, Medium-wide: 15 X 20, Medium: 5.7 X 7.6 Narrow: 1.2 X 1.6 (IR&TV) Ultra-narrow: 0.6 X 0.8 (IR) Ultra-narrow: 0.22 X 0.29 (TV) Electronic Zoom, IR & TV Gimbal Angular Coverage Gimbal Slew Rate Maximum Air Speed Automatic Video Tracker Environmental Interface Video Outputs Cooling Power (Nominal) Weights and Dimensions (Approx.) Options 2:1 0.3 X 0.4 (IR), 0.11 X 0.14 (TV) 4: X 0.2 (IR), 0.06 X 0.07 (TV) Azimuth: 360 degrees, continuous Elevation: 60 degrees up, 105 degrees down 3 radians/sec elevation >350 kts IAS Multimode (centroid, area and feature) Compliant with MIL-E-5400, MIL-STD-810 1,553 data bus and/or discrete controls RS-170 (525-line), digital, other formats available Self contained 900 W nominal WRA-1: 125 lb; 17.5 in. D X 18.7 in. H WRA-2: 48 lb; in. W X in. L X 9.24 in. H Multiple sensors such as EO-TV, illuminator, eye-safe rangefinder, spot tracker, image fusion and other avionics ISSUE 1

7 2nd-Generation FLIR Moving Ground Forces Mission Operability Beyond Traditional Boundaries In the first Gulf War, We own the night became the catch phrase of the day. That war was fought with first-generation thermal sensors built circa Second-generation forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensors for ground combat made their large-number debut in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) in Iraq. Both first- and second-generation systems have been credited with being a force multiplier and were enabled by Raytheon-developed technology. The superior performance of the secondgeneration FLIR allowed our warfighters to expand, and even improvise, on missions with this powerful new capability. Second-generation FLIR was born out of lessons learned from the first Gulf War. Due to the disparate performance of the earlier systems, the stated goal was for all armored vehicles to have a common view of the battlefield. A second goal was to reduce system cost by standardizing components, thus taking advantage of the economies of scale. Today, Raytheon Network Centric Systems (NCS) is the leader in second-generation electro-optical (EO)-based gun and missile fire control systems and surveillance systems, having delivered thousands of systems to date. NCS provides the EO sensor for the Improved Target Acquisition System (ITAS) used by the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions. The Scouts of the 3rd Infantry Division (ID) have our Long-Range Advanced Scout Surveillance System (LRAS3). The M2A3 Bradley Fighting Vehicles of the 4th ID have the Improved Bradley Acquisition System at the gunner s station and the Commander s Independent Viewer in the vehicle command station. The M1A2 SEP uses Raytheon s Commander s Independent Thermal Viewer for hunter/killer tactics. Raytheon Vision Systems in Santa Barbara, Calif., is a key supplier of our sensors detector, the Standard Advanced Dewar Assembly (SADA) II. The SADA is a 480 x 4 HgCdTe focal plane array (FPA) integrated with a one-watt linear cooler. In addition, Raytheon provides thousands of thermal weapon sights (TWS) mounted on the weapons of individual soldiers. The TWS family consists of three rugged sights providing long- (2.5 km), medium- (1.5 km) and short-range (600 m) target recognition matched to the capability of the individual and crew-served weapons. The TWS sights use two Raytheon detector technologies: scanned medium-wave infrared detectors are used in the medium- and long-range sights, and uncooled staring long-wave infrared 320 x 240 FPAs are used for the short-range sight. Each TWS mounts directly to the warfighter s individual weapon, enabling day and night thermal targeting without affecting the soldier s dismounted mobility. The high-fidelity imagery of second-generation FLIRS takes our warfighters from the days of blob-ology to reading facial Photo Courtesy of U.S. Army ITAS 2nd-Generation FLIR an integral component of U.S. ground forces expressions at greater than double the range of first-generation systems. This new level of performance has allowed traditionally anti-armor weapons systems, such as ITAS, to perform surveillance missions in OEF, and traditional surveillance sensors, such as LRAS3, to call for fire in OIF. Raytheon has received many accolades about the performance of our systems in OEF/OIF from all levels of the Army: LRAS3 gave us the edge over the Iraqis It allowed us to do our job better; it kept us from getting killed. Scout, 3rd ID, OIF The FLIR and the TOW ITAS, in particular, was the hero of the battlefield. MG Petraeus, 101st Airborne, OIF Lives were saved with TWS. BG J. Moran, PEO soldier We continue to own the night. Our warfighters are learning to use these systems more effectively with greater operability. Second-generation FLIR performance saves lives by providing standoff capability that allows for calls for fire, thus keeping our troops concealed. The ability of our warfighters to improvise new missions is a tribute to them and our EO sensor systems. Hector Reyes FLIR SYSTEMS (CONTINUED) architecture, this advanced system provides long-range surveillance, target acquisition, tracking, rangefinding and laser designation for semi-active laser missiles and for all tri-service and NATO laser-guided munitions. With proven combat experience, the MTS and variants are available to support domestic and international missions for rotary-wing, UAV and fixed-wing platforms. AN/ASQ-228 ATFLIR Pod The AN/ASQ-228 ATFLIR pod is the most advanced infrared targeting system available for the F/A-18 aircraft. Combat-proven in operations Southern Watch (Iraq), Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, Raytheon s AN/ASQ-228 ATFLIR is the Navy s targeting pod program of record and the most technologically advanced system of its kind in the world. Its target detection range shows a fourfold improvement over previous systems, and laser designation is effective at altitudes up to 50,000 feet and at a slant range of greater than 30 miles. ATFLIR combines the mid-wave infrared targeting and navigation FLIRS, electro-optical sensor, laser rangefinder and target designator, and laser spot tracker into a single pod, freeing one air-to-air weapon station for other mission requirements. Compared to other targeting pods in production, the ATFLIR s EO/IR imagery has three to five times greater clarity. Robert Schaefer 2005 ISSUE 1 7

8 Precision Targeting on the Battlefield Raytheon Rangefinders Ensure Mission Success with Minimal Collateral Damage Raytheon pioneered the development of laser rangefinder technology, starting with the first laser ever built the flash-lamppumped Ruby laser in the early 1960s. Since then, Raytheon has remained the dominant supplier/manufacturer of rangefinder lasers for a variety of platforms and missions. These include vehicle and manportable/rifle-mounted implementations. The evolution of rangefinder technology has been driven by two requirements: robust eye safety (to prevent the accidental blinding of friendly troops) and covertness (to remain invisible to the naked eye). These requirements led to the development of a family of Nd:YAG Raman shifted 1.5- micron wavelength rangefinder lasers. These lasers are widely used in today s Raytheon s long-standing legacy of delivering battle-hard designators to our troops has been proven once again in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Raytheon has an extensive history in Army designator development and production which includes: White Knight designator delivered to Army Electronics Command (1969) AC-130 Gunship Laser Designator/Rangefinder delivered starting in 1970 LTD AN/PAQ-1 G/VLLD & LTD development for U.S. Army beginning in 1972 MULE development for USMC beginning in 1976 Direction Ranging Set Laser MULE AN/PAQ-3 Designator for Navy A6E jet starting in ,500 G/VLLDs, 200 LTDs and 400 MULEs delivered ( ) AC-130 LTD/R design upgrade and follow-on production ( ) AESOP (SOF helicopter) production ( ) military platforms: ELITE Foreign LAVs BELRF ODS BELRF IBAS LRAS3 PM-NV/RSTA TISS U.S. Navy ELITE Foreign LAVs The successful legacy of delivering battle-worthy rangefinders has ensured the U.S. military superiority on BELRF ODS battlefields all over the world. Precision Guided Weapons Raytheon Designators Shine in the War on Terror G/VLLD AN/TVQ-2 Next-generation man-portable designator trade study for Communications Electronics Command ( ) Next-generation F/A-18 designator (ATFLIR) now in low-rate initial production for U.S. Navy The successful legacy of delivering designators has given Raytheon a distinctive edge in delivering an all-solid-state airborne designator/rangefinder that is used by autonomous fighter aircraft such as the F-18 Hornet. The ATFLIR designator is already combat-proven with stellar results in current conflicts. Our diode-pumped composite cavity laser technology is providing the basis for the robust designator design that works in the harshest airborne environments. The ATFLIR laser features a convertible LTD/R AC130 Gunship DRS TRAM A6E bomber AESOP various helicopters Following the success with Nd:YAG, Raytheon once again BELRF IBAS proved its leadership in cutting-edge laser technology by developing diode-pumped Er:glass lasers for rangefinders. The unique direct diodepumped Er:glass lasers that use passive saturable absorber Q-switch technology proved a robust solution to a complementary set of rangefinder applications. Among these are the Land Warrior ELRF/DCA and OCSW ATD TA/FCS. Raytheon owns numerous patents related to this technology and is poised to further the proliferation of this technology for future military platforms. OCSW ATD TA/FCS Lightweight Designator Concept LRAS3 PM-NV/RSTA TISS U.S. Navy Kalin Spariosu cavity for an eye-safe (1,570 nm) pulsed output for rangefinding, in addition to the 1,064 nm special waveform output for the designator task. Following success in the fielding of the battle-proven designator and rangefinder laser systems, Raytheon is now pursuing next-generation lightweight designator development. These next-generation designators will feature ultra compact efficient diode pump technology, novel Q-switch technology, improved conversion efficiency laser diodes, and integrating cavity laser pump geometries/architectures. Raytheon is poised to remain the dominant military laser supplier to our armed forces and to lead technology developments that will enable the next generation of precision guided weapon deployment. Land Warrior ELRF/DCA Kalin Spariosu ISSUE 1

9 Electro-optical Missile Seekers Sensing, Detecting, Tracking All In One Small Package Electro-optical (EO) seekers are employed in missiles to provide a means of target sensing, detection and selection and to provide updates of target location for improved pointing for guidance. Fielded systems have, historically, been passive sensors using either atmospheric windows of the medium-wave infrared or long-wave infrared bands for day and night operation of the target s emissive signature; or semi-active laser (SAL) systems requiring third-party illumination to provide a reflected signal from the target with single or few detector elements. EO missile seekers have now evolved to cost-effective staring arrays with tens of thousands of pixels. The constraints that determine the EO seeker design for a given application are the target characteristics (signature, size, range at acquisition, maneuverability, clutter environment); missile constraints (size, power, maneuverability); and environmental conditions (visibility, accelerations). The variety of EO seeker designs is reflective of the vast differences in requirements ranging from shoulder-launched applications, such as Stinger, and a space intercept application, such as Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). The earliest EO missile seekers used the signal of a target hot spot, such as jet engine exhaust, combined with a free gyro stabilized gimbal system. Evolution over the decades added reticles for countermeasure rejection, linear arrays for early imaging systems and, starting in the 1980s, a general conversion to focal plane arrays of increasing size, with the anti-armor Javelin and anti-aircraft AIM-9X being examples of early fielded staring systems. Since the mid-1990s, uncooled infrared (IR) systems have been maturing that achieve an even lower cost by leveraging commercial silicon processing for lower sensitivity applications. Seeker control and stabilization approaches have evolved from spinning mass (free gyro) stabilization to a variety of approaches ranging from free gyro stabilized (Rolling Airframe Missile, Stinger, Missile Homing Improvement Program, Brilliant Anti-Tank submunition); instrument stabilized (Javelin, Non Line Of Sight (NLOS)), remotely stabilized (AIM-9X, Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW)) to fixed-post or body stabilized (EKV, Standard Missile 3). The absolute stability requirements for cooled EO sensors have reduced over time with the short integration times of cooled sensors, resulting in systems that are forgiving to motions in terms of smear. Present-day optical systems use fabrication and design techniques, such as integral mounts, aspheres and diffraction gratings, to achieve system requirements of collection efficiency, bandwidth and performance over temperature ranges within the severe packaging constraints of missile systems. Image processing has progressed from the designation by a manin-the-loop and hand over to a tracker to autonomous target recognition (ATR) and autonomous target acquisition (ATA) for both fixed and moving targets. An example is JSOW Unitary, which uses scene-matching techniques to correlate mission planning templates to the seeker video to establish an aimpoint to hand over to the tracker. Looking toward the future, EO seekers will continue to evolve to meet the individual market needs: multimode products such as NLOS (uncooled IR and SAL) to allow more flexible use of the weapons; uncooled IR for the most cost-sensitive applications; active EO seekers to determine detailed target characteristics; and, in general, increasing autonomy of the missile by the advances in ATA and ATR algorithms. Dan Brunton 2005 ISSUE 1 9

10 ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES Focal Plane Arrays: Detecting the Light Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) in Santa Barbara, Calif., has been developing and manufacturing high-performance infrared (IR) products for the Department of Defense (DoD), civil space and astronomy systems for 50 years. RVS is the leading supplier of second-generation forwardlooking infrared and missile seekers, including Standard Advanced Detector Assembly (SADA), Javelin, Advanced Short-Range Air-to-Air Missile (ASRAAM), AIM-9X and NLOS-PAM, with deliveries currently totaling 12,000 units per year. Most of these units are integrated Dewar cooler assemblies (IDCA). Since 1966, RVS has provided focal plane arrays (FPA) for more than 70 space instruments for applications including weather data collection, planetary exploration, earth resources, star trackers and space astronomy. RVS develops and fabricates highperformance infrared detectors and arrays that cover the entire IR spectrum as shown in Figure 1. This technology base is the broadest in the industry and includes hybrid visible Si PIN, InSb, HgCdTe and Si impurity-band conduction (IBC) FPAs along with monolithic uncooled VO x microbolometer FPAs. In recent history, photoconductive (firstgeneration) FPA technology has been overtaken by photovoltaic (second-generation) technology that consists of detector arrays hybridized to read-out integrated circuits (ROIC) using indium bump technology. Growth to third-generation technology includes large format, multicolor and avalanche photodiodes (APD). Tactical Products Tactical IDCAs are the largest volume product being delivered by RVS. This includes over 25,000 Javelin (64 x 64 staring long-wave IR (LWIR) HgCdTe); 3,500 SADA (scanning 480 x 4 LWIR HgCdTe); 20,000 thermal weapon sights (TWS) (40 x 16 scanning mediumwave IR (MWIR) HgCdTe); and over 4,000 ASRAAM (staring 128 x 128 InSb) units. Large Format Figure 1. RVS FPA technology covers the visible and infrared spectrum. The development of large-format FPAs has historically been driven by the needs of the astronomy community, which is interested in mapping the position, intensity and wavelength of radiation received from objects in space. RVS has developed a unique capability to produce FPAs for astronomical applications to achieve extremely demanding specifications, with array formats up to 2,048 x 2,048 for both short-wave IR (SWIR) HgCdTe and MWIR InSb, in addition to 1,024 x 1,024 VLWIR Si:As (IBC) FPAs. Figure 2 shows a 2,048 x 2,048 SWIR HgCdTe module. For DoD applications, RVS supports numerous Raytheon programs that use 640 x 480 InSb staring FPAs for situational awareness and targeting applications. More recently RVS has developed a large-format 2,560 x 512 MWIR HgCdTe staring array for Navy Shipboard Distributed Aperture Sensor needs. This array uses HgCdTe Figure 2. Photo of a 2,048 x 2,048 SWIR HgCdTe FPA mounted on a module. The module consists of a precision metal pedestal, an electrical interface cable and a temperature sensor. detector structures grown directly on four-inch-diameter silicon substrates using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). MBE HgCdTe/Si technology is currently being scaled to six-inch wafer sizes and is continually becoming more important for these third-generation FPA technologies. Very-Long-Wavelength Infrared Very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR) FPAs are being produced for astronomy, civil space and low-background applications. This technology consists primarily of HgCdTe FPAs with cutoff wavelengths in the µm range, designed for highperformance, low-background operation, and typically operate at temperatures of K. Si:As IBC FPAs extend the cutoff out to 28 µm, but need to operate at temperatures less than 10 K. A 1,024 x 1,024 Si:As IBC FPA is currently being developed for the Mid-Infrared Instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope. Multicolor Multicolor FPAs that are capable of sensing in two or more spectral bands can provide a significant advantage to sensor systems through added information that is not available from traditional single-color systems. RVS is currently developing 256 x 256 format MWIR/MWIR FPAs for Navy missile warning applications and LWIR/LWIR FPAs for Raytheon Missile Systems missile seeker applications. Recently, RVS demonstrated the Continued on next page ISSUE 1

11 Engineering Perspective first large staring MWIR/LWIR 640 x 480 twocolor FPA having a 20 µm unit cell for Army NVESD, and is currently working to increase this array size to 1,280 x 720 under the dual band FPA manufacturing program for use in future third-generation systems. All of these two-color FPAs use MBE HgCdTe technology. Avalanche Photodiode LADAR is continuing to become an important technology for Raytheon s advanced systems. RVS is developing HgCdTe APD detector technology for this application. Most of these applications desire eye-safe wavelengths at 1.5 µm, and formats have increased in size from single element and 256 element linear arrays up to 256 x 256 arrays. Uncooled VO x Microbolometers RVS has achieved a significant technical breakthrough in uncooled VO x microbolometer FPAs by reducing the pixel size by a factor of two, while maintaining state-of-theart sensitivity. RVS is producing and delivering high-quality 320 x 240 and 640 x 480 microbolometer FPAs with 25 µm pitch pixels for a variety of programs. These 25 µm microbolometer detectors also have a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately msec. This state-of-the-art performance has been achieved as a result of an advanced monolithic micro-machining fabrication process on six-inch ROIC wafers, which allows maximization of both the thermal isolation and the optical fill-factor. Additionally, RVS has developed flexible uncooled front end electronics that serve as the basis for the camera engine systems using 320 x 240 arrays, and also developed a 640 x 480 common uncooled engine (CUE) that is intended for small-pixel, high-performance applications. The CUE is the ideal cornerstone for ground and airborne systems; multi-mode sensor; weapon sight or seeker architectures; and commercial surveillance. As the performance of uncooled VO x microbolometer technology continues to improve, it will continue to displace cooled FPAs for certain applications. Scott M. Johnson ALAN SILVER Senior Engineering Fellow and Chairman of the Electro-optical (EO) Systems Technology Network I have been with Raytheon and its legacy companies for the majority of my career since the early 1970s. I tell you this not to impress you with my advanced age, but to provide you with a perspective of all the changes I have seen in the EO industry and a glimpse of those still to come. One of my first jobs was to develop an EO mortar locator. It fit in an equipment van. It used a staring linear array of infrared (IR) detectors to sense a mortar rising skyward. A laser was optically scanned over the array. The IR detectors reported the azimuth position of the mortar and a DEC computer in a 6-foot-high, 19-inch rack computed when to fire the scanning laser so it would hit the mortar to return a range point. The computer then ordered a mirror to jump to a new elevation, pointing the projection of the IR detector and the laser with it. The mortar would cross at three elevation positions yielding three positions in space allowing us to compute a trajectory. The improvements in components available today for that system are a firsthand look at the revolution in the industry. Detector The detector was a linear array with a wire connected to each one penetrating the Dewar and going to a separate preamp. One very large change in IR detectors has been the incorporation of focal plane electronics. This allows not just multiplexing, but also preamplification and processing to be put within the Dewar. These internal electronics, along with improvements in detector processing, have enabled twodimensional arrays that might have eliminated our need to step the array through space. Cooling The system used a Leidenfrost liquid nitrogen transfer cooling system. This system was chosen for low vibration. However, it would have never been reliable enough for field use. We have seen a huge improvement in the reliability and vibration characteristics of mechanical coolers. We have gone from rotary coolers with high vibration and hundreds of hours of life, to linear coolers with lower vibration and thousands of hours of life, to pulse tube coolers with almost no vibration and tens of thousands of hours of life. Processing The computer for control and processing was a 6-foot-high, 19-inch rack. Of course, I do not have to tell you the revolution advances in processing technology have spawned. I am sure that a modern microprocessor chip could have provided all our computational power. Laser Our ranging laser was a huge Nd:YAG flash-lamp-pumped laser. Advances in diode pumping and injection efficiency could have reduced our laser considerably. Mechanical Scanning The position of the laser was mechanically scanned over the linear IR array by a high-speed rotating prism and projection optics. A far simpler mechanism is now available through the use of optical phased arrays that could have positioned the laser with no moving parts and no complex timing. But there was the team. We faced many difficult technical questions. Knowing who could help find a solution was key. It was a small group so the choices were limited, but, as smart as they were, the answers were also limited. The answers the team generated were almost always Our ability to manage knowledge in Raytheon may prove as important a lever to solving our customer s problems as our technology innovations. superior to the answers individuals could generate. But the key was knowing whom to ask the right question. The bigger the team is, the harder that question becomes. That is why I became interested in the engineering networks when Hughes acquired my group in 1996 and as it continued under Raytheon. I feel passionately that there are few problems the assembled brainpower of Raytheon cannot answer. However, to leverage that assembled brainpower, we need to make every individual aware of the resources they have available to them, not just in terms of technical innovations, but also who the experts are that they can turn to to answer their specific technical questions. That is why we are reaching out to our engineering community through our symposia workshops and are currently assembling the experts list. In the end, our ability to manage knowledge in Raytheon may prove as important a lever to solving our customer s problems as our technology innovations. I look forward to working with you to achieve this. Please visit our knowledge management site at technetworks/eostn/rteamware.htm ISSUE 1 11

12 Optics Technology The Eyes of Electro-optic Systems The requirement to achieve high performance at affordable cost in extreme environments has driven optical technologies to innovative solutions. Advances in the areas of optical fabrication, assembly and materials are combining to make higher performance systems possible. Precision Machining Beginning in the 1980s, revolutionary precision machining techniques known as diamond point turning (DPT) were developed to address the need to cost-effectively fabricate high-performance optical components. DPT processes are used extensively today to generate flat, spherical and complex aspheric optical surfaces in a host of different optical materials ranging from aluminum to visible and infrared glasses. The concept of interlocking lenses is a more recent innovation made possible by precision machining of not only optical surfaces, but also mechanical interfaces. The Passive Missile Approach Warning System and the Countermine programs both have optical designs that call for lens centering and tilt tolerances of a few ten thousandths of an inch. The standard technique of manufacturing lenses to mount into lens barrels makes it very difficult to cost effectively assemble these designs and meet the system performance requirements. The solution calls for diamond machining each lens and its mechanical holding features out of the same material and in one operation. Lens spacers are also diamond machined, and in the case of Countermine, the assemblies are manufactured totally out of germanium (see Figure 1). VQ Surface Finishing Current electro-optical systems such as MTS-B, Q2 and VIIRS often require high performance in multiple-wavelength bands across the spectrum from visible to far infrared. As-generated DPT optical surfaces are sufficient for medium-wave infrared and long-wave infrared, but suffer Figure 1. Precision machining of optical elements and mechanical interface features permit assembly to extremely tight tolerances. excessive scatter from tool marks at shorter wavelengths. To address this problem, engineers at Raytheon s ELCAN facility in Texas have developed a finishing process to apply to diamond-machined optical surfaces, known as the VQ process. VQ makes it possible to fabricate low-scatter DPT d surfaces (surface roughness of less than 25 angstroms) without adversely affecting the surface figure (see Figure 2). BRDF (Average Total Scatter (x 10-4)) VQ Enhanced Innovative Optical Subassembly Alignment The extremely tight tolerances required in modern high-resolution, long-range airborne applications, such as MTS-B and Q2, require an innovative approach to subassembly alignment. Along with the precision attained with DPT manufacturing of the optical components, the afocal subassemblies in these systems are accurately BRDF (Average Total Scatter) vs. Sample Type VQ Enhanced GE Polished aligned using in-situ wavefront optimization. This alignment cannot be done with standard lab equipment, as the large entrance pupil diameters demand the use of an 18-inch interferometer to visualize the transmitted wavefront. Submicron translators are used to adjust subassembly components while monitoring the wavefront. Then, novel retention methods are used to secure the sensitive components to maintain performance under difficult environmental conditions. Best Alumiplate DPT 6061 #1 Figure 2. The VQ process improves surface scattering characteristics of DPT d surfaces by an order of magnitude. Low-Cost Optics GH Alumiplate Flat DPT 6061 #2 The demand for high-volume infrared (IR) optical assemblies for commercial applications (such as automotive night sights and other thermal viewers) has driven the development of low-cost IR glasses and less expensive component fabrication processes. Raytheon is responsible for developing IR glasses that perform well and can be Continued on next page ISSUE 1

13 designed into systems in place of more expensive crystalline materials, such as zinc selenide, zinc sulfide and germanium. In addition, commercial replicating processes are applied to these IR glasses, generating near-net lens blanks in less time and at lower cost than by conventional means. ALON, a substitute for more expensive sapphire, has been developed for use in medium-wave IR missile dome applications. Future Trends in Optical Technology Two technology areas that Raytheon is pursuing to address the stringent system requirements of the future relate to material development and optical surface figuring. Engineers in El Segundo, Calif., are developing technologies to use silicon carbide optical components for satellite system applications demanding light weight, high stiffness and the ability to withstand cryogenic operating temperatures. Aspheric mirror and coating development are complete; mirror fabrication, coating and testing are underway. The goal is to improve current hardware by developing mirrors that are lower in cost, result in better visible and short-wave IR performance and permit reduced lead times for space-based system telescopes. Magneto-rheological finishing is a novel technique of deterministic fabrication of optical components for improved surface finish and optical figure. It is being used at Raytheon to enable high-performance aluminum system applications not previously possible. The technique is applicable to offaxis section mirrors and other large aperture optics. Surface figures approaching one-fifth wave peak to valley and one-thirtieth wave RMS surface figures have already been demonstrated on VQ mirrors. Other processes, such as ion beam figuring and CNC polishing, are being investigated for final surface figuring of critical optical components, enabling Raytheon to achieve extremely high-performance optical systems using lower-cost aluminum mirrors. Craig Brooks Leadership Perspective DR. PETER PAO Vice President of Technology The Technologist s Role in Corporate Decision Making The decision-making process in large companies is a complex issue. It usually involves many stakeholders with diverse views. When the process is working correctly, it produces optimum solutions for the customers, and companies grow. But it does not always work this way and is sometimes misunderstood. Often, stakeholders don t realize they play a part in making decisions, leading to a lack of preparedness, responsibility and accountability. Raytheon is a solutions-based company, and technology is our foundation. Many of our company strategies are based on our technological strength and our ability to innovate. We engineers are important stakeholders in many of the company s decisions. In this short note, I want to tell you my view about this subject and talk about our responsibilities. How do decisions or strategies made in Raytheon relate to our solutions: products and services? The decisions are usually made logically, based on information we gather: Market requirements including our understanding of customers desires and competitions Solution options based on our technology assessments and readiness Schedule and resource constraints including finances, personnel and facilities Good information is the foundation of good decisions. We are responsible for the solutions. We are important stakeholders in the decision-making process. We need to recognize that providing effective solution options is our responsibility. First, the ingenuity of our solutions is the most important factor in retaining a competitive edge. Not only must our solutions meet the technical challenges, but they must also meet the cost- and time-tomarket requirements. This requires flexibility in our thinking and creativity in our approaches. Second, we need to choose our technology investments carefully, and we must always understand the technology being developed elsewhere. Competing products and services often come from unexpected sources. Being a lifetime learner is not just a good thing; it is a requirement for all of us. This is a perfect opportunity to talk about Technology Knowledge Sharing (TKS). You can find it at TKS is developed to facilitate knowledge sharing within Raytheon. There are links to several outside sources of technology information, such as SRIC, where technology information in 15 selected fields is provided from SRI Consulting Business Intelligence. Use this site to learn and share experience and information with each other. I want to thank our technology networks for building it for you. There are six sites: RF, electro-optical, processing, systems engineering, software, and mechanical and materials. There is room to improve this resource, but the only way to improve it is by using it. Remember, you are the owner. It is built for your technology community. Third, good ideas don t get accepted easily. Establishing a new technology and gaining support require strong champions. If you have good ideas, you need to have confidence in yourself; you need to be passionate about them; and you need to sell your ideas to your colleagues and your bosses. You are the one who understands the concept and its benefits. Nobody but you can sell it. Remember, each of us is a vital part of the decision chain. It is up to us to provide good solution options, and perform the trade studies that lead to good decisions. We are all responsible for the decisions we make in this company ISSUE 1 13

14 Profile Lila Engle joined Missile Systems in 1999 after earning her bachelor s degree in mathematics, physics and astronomy at Northern Arizona University. I was encouraged to be active in my development, to pursue technical challenges and accountability to business goals, and to put forward the causes and achievements of every colleague, she recalls. Engle served her first two years at Missile Systems in an informal rotation program where she often supported a dozen or more programs at a time. I was hands-on everything. I worked with every colleague I could. At any time, I was defining system requirements, writing proposals, implementing solutions, developing secured labs, completing purchase requests or tracking lost shipments. Though some of that didn t seem to fit my training, I was exposed to big-picture and operational details across Raytheon. This rapid immersion in all parts of the business exposed her to the principles of technical performance and program leadership. In 2001, Engle proposed an MS Multi-Spectral/ Multi-Sensor Scene Simulation (MS3) Resource Group, chartered to support bid and proposal, technology demonstration and contract performance across tactical and strategic defense technologies. She continues to lead the MS3 project in developing core expertise and resources for synthetic scenes characteristic of long/medium/ short-wave infrared (IR), uncooled IR, laser detection and ranging, semi-active laser/radar, real beam, multi/ hyper-spectral, multimode and other sensor technologies, and for coordinated subsystem- and system-level simulation activities throughout simulation life cycles. The MS3 project has been honored multiple times as the most innovative and most interesting technology at Raytheon Electro-optical Systems Technology symposia. As a champion of One Company strategy, Engle credits the team s progress to the direct involvement of numerous stakeholders and subject matter experts across Raytheon businesses and customer and vendor organizations. While the technical challenges of synthetic scenes are significant, the most important part of this work deals with breaking down barriers, increasing communications across user groups, and building consensus for common solutions to diverse problems. EO TEST SYSTEMS Enabling the Enablers The early days of electro-optical (EO) test systems generated solutions to aid in the assembly and acceptance testing of EO systems. Forward-looking infrared test systems and rugged, depot-level test systems developed for air-to-air and strike weapons have yielded legacy standard platforms still in use today. Precision fixturing, optical interferometry and optical performance testing (such as Modulation Transfer SM-3 target simulator, Raytheon Missile Systems Function and Noise Equivalent Irradiance) continue to be key in ensuring the high performance of today s EO systems from the visible through the infrared. Raytheon Technical Services Company LLC in Long Beach, Calif., and Raytheon Missile Systems (MS), in Tucson, Ariz., currently offer several standard platform test systems, as well as custom solutions for EO systems. Raytheon continues to develop and improve EO test systems for engineering development and military depot-level testing, including test systems for the TOW, F/A-18 and F-117 weapon systems. Scene simulation continues to be an important enabler for EO weapon systems. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations of tanks and other targets have evolved into space simulations of ballistic missile targets. These HIL simulators enable the development and test of software aimpoint algorithms that are critical to terminal guidance, navigation and control. These simulators also play an important role in missile defense programs by validating hardware models and testing system performance. Automatic TOW 2 Field Test Set (AT2FTS), Raytheon Technical Services Company LLC Precise radiometric discrimination has emerged as a significant capability of missile defense programs, and the role that test systems plays in the radiometric characterization of these EO systems is as a valuable enabler in the system s ability to distinguish the reentry vehicle from countermeasures. Space and Airborne Systems and MS currently use cutting-edge space and vacuum chambers to radiometrically characterize such systems as the Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicle, Space Tracking and Surveillance System, Near Field Infrared Experiment and Standard Missile 3. Maintaining traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology is critical in this enabling technology. So what s next for EO test systems? Emerging technologies include the development of high-fidelity ballistic missile endgame simulations, which are important to refining lethal aimpoint algorithms, as well as boosting target simulation, which is critical to newly emerging boost phase kill vehicles. In addition, electro-optical built-intest and reduce the cost of test initiatives are in place to enable overall cost reduction early in the development cycle of weapons systems. And finally, the EO test community of practice is in its early stages of development to answer the question, What do technology information groups do the rest of the year? Jeff Wolske ISSUE 1

15 Cryogenics: Keeping It Cool Cryogenics is defined as the production and use of very low temperatures (below -200 F/144 K). Until the advent of uncooled technology, all of our infrared products required cryogenic cooling. Even now, the most sensitive of these products still require cryogenic cooling. Cryogenics cuts across many of Raytheon s products, from small tactical missiles (Javelin), air- and ship-defense missiles (Stinger, AIM-9X, Standard Missile, Rolling Airframe Missile), missile defense systems (EKV, SM-3, STSS) and ground-based systems (ITAS, IBAS, LRAS). In each of these products, cryogenic coolers are used to cool an infrared focal plane and associated optical elements. Without cryogenic cooling, each of these systems would fail to function. For small, short-time-of-flight missiles, the cryogenic system typically requires storage for a long period (many years), quick cooldown times (a few seconds) and operation for a short time (a couple of minutes). For these applications, the Joule-Thomson (J-T) cooler (see Figure 1) is an ideal solution. In a J-T cooler, a quantity of compressed gas is expanded to provide cooling for a short period. The coolers are simple, consisting of a supply line, a finned-tube heat exchanger, and a very-small-diameter expansion tube. The RAM cooler shown below (in X- ray) consists of two J-T stages cascaded together to provide very fast cooldown in Figure 1. Joule-Thomson (J-T) cooler Figure 2. Two-stage hybrid cooler a critical ship-defense application. The X-ray emphasizes the relative simplicity of the RAM cooler. Because of the small dimensions of the cooler parts, however, J-T coolers require careful assembly and exquisite cleanliness. For space-based applications (such as STSS), the cooler must operate properly for many years without failure or significant degradation. There are additional requirements for low power draw and low vibration. In this application, a resonant piston compressor with flexure bearings is coupled with a Stirling or Pulse Tube cooler to provide years of consistent and stable performance. The cooler shown in Figure 2 is a two-stage hybrid with an upper (Stirling) stage and a lower (Pulse Tube) stage. The lower stage has no moving parts, ensuring a long lifetime. Figure 3. AIM-9X missile cooler The requirements for the AIM-9X missile cooler lie somewhere between tactical missile requirements and the missile defense or spacebased needs. The cooler (see Figure 3) must survive years of storage, yet provide many hours of reliable cooling under a wide range of environmental conditions once the missile is loaded on an airplane (since the system may be powered but not always launched). The cooler must be efficient, small, lightweight, reliable and inexpensive. The AIM-9X cooler meets these needs, combining a resonant piston compressor and a small Stirling cooler. The entire package fits gracefully within the envelope of the missile and provides thousands of hours of quiet, efficient cooling. Myron Calkins Profile David Rockwell has always been fascinated with light and optics. Since his Massachusetts Institute of Technology thesis on the construction and use of a narrow-band laser as a probe of the properties of superfluid helium, Rockwell received his doctorate degree and established a career in laser research. At the beginning of his career with the company some 25 years ago, Rockwell was responsible for building new laser system capabilities based on Nd:YAG technology. His team was able to convert the basic one µm wavelength to a range of wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Based on this wavelength-conversion success, it became critical to find ways to maintain beam quality as laser power was scaled. Our work led to a sole-source contract with the Army in the 1980s to build a phase-conjugate laser, install it in a ground vehicle, and successfully execute extended field trials, Rockwell explains. Direct derivatives of our work performed 10 years ago were sustained and improved by Raytheon to become principal elements of our successful bid on the ongoing Joint High-Power Solid-State Laser (JHPSSL) program. JHPSSL is the entry to the next-generation highenergy laser (HEL) business, and Raytheon intends to be the leader. After a brief stint in the optical communications industry, Rockwell was attracted back to Raytheon by a new initiative to scale solid-state lasers using Yb:YAG crystals to yield more power than was contemplated in the early 1990s. The type of crystals used is not, by itself, what sets Raytheon apart from its competitors. The unique element of the Raytheon HEL program is the technique we have developed to ensure that the beam divergence of our high-power lasers is maintained near the fundamental lower limits, rather than increasing beyond the point where the lasers cease to be useful. Now, as an Integrated Product Team leader on JHPSSL, Rockwell says, We have an exciting opportunity to build a laser system that was considered impossible not long ago ISSUE 1 15

16 ontechnology ARCHITECTURE & SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Reference Architectures for Information-Intensive Net-Centric Systems Architecture has typically not been an emphasis for Raytheon business in the past. However, to become a Mission Systems Integrator, architecture is necessary to integrate all system components. The corporate Architecture Review Board (ARB) has been tasked to come up with a reference architecture so we have a common understanding of the respective architectures that are being developed. Axis of Instantiation Organizational hierarchy Modular open system approach Customer policies, reference architectures (NR KPP, NCOW RM, NCES, etc.) Axis of Performance Shared system attributes Categories may include embedded real-time, networked decision support, etc. Enterprise System Subsystem Functional Area (Sub- Subsystem) Module The ARB working group is coordinating the development of an initial set of reference architectures (RAs) as an element of a corporate architecture methodology governed by the Raytheon Enterprise Architecture Process (REAP). An RA is an abstraction of a class of architectures with common characteristics and quality attributes. It is instantiated to address a particular mission solution by adding and selecting detail pertaining to that mission. An RA can be thought of as analogous to a class; a particular mission solution architecture can then be viewed as an object instantiated from that class. The benefits RAs offers are that they: establish a consistent, state-of-the-practice architecture approach across multiple programs and problem domains; Axis of Abstraction Zachman matrix M&S/executable architecture levels Component Enterprise Logical/ Process/ Operational Functional Workflow Figure 1. Our architecture taxonomy categorizes architecture in three dimensions. Transformation from Abstraction to Physical Architecture-centric, model-based, object-oriented system engineering Tools and methodologies REAP, reference models, frameworks establish an advanced point of departure that reduces risk, cost and schedule in implementing specific mission solutions; embed best practices and lessons learned in the architectural foundation of a system or enterprise; provide a framework for maximizing the reuse of existing components, ensuring consistency in interfaces and information exchanges, and ensuring conformity to customer policies, RAs and reference models (RMs); facilitate the application of REAP; support customer dialogue to refine requirements, communicate Raytheon capabilities, and establish the foundation for proposals and program plans; and serve as a foundation for coherent product line development. These RAs are instantiated through an object-oriented system engineering (OOSE) methodology to create mission solutions to meet specific customer needs. An RA is used in activities 3 and 4 of REAP (business architecting and technical architecting) and is therefore organized into a business reference model and technical reference model. These, in turn, form the basis for the operational and logical views of an architecture. The GIG Integrated Architecture, the NCOW RM and the principles of service-oriented architecture as embodied in GIG Net- Centric Enterprise Services, are also taken into account, and the methodology generates the products of the DoD Architecture Framework. This approach provides an advanced point of departure in implementing a system or enterprise, and thereby reduces risk, cost and schedule. It incorporates best practices of the Information Technology community, promotes the use of REAP, addresses customer needs in the warfighter s domain and promises significant advantages to a wide range of programs across the company. State-of-thepractice architecture methodology gives Raytheon a significant advantage over competing strategies that are rooted in older architecture and system engineering paradigms. An important aspect of the RA strategy is the taxonomy summarized in Figure 1. The axes represent three basic dimensions of architecture and allow any given mission solution or architecture issue to be consistently and unambiguously placed in an overall context. We are developing an initial set of RAs at the top (enterprise) level for two basic system categories: embedded ISSUE 1 YESTERDAY TODAY TOMORROW

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18 MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES Raytheon Diamond Wafer Survives Drop Test from Space The mission of the NASA Genesis program is to determine the elemental and isotopic composition of the sun by collecting material in the solar wind. More than 99% of the mass of our solar system is contained in the sun, so the results from this mission will provide important information about the origin of our solar system. One of the solar collector materials (see Figure 1) provided by Raytheon Company is made of diamond, containing only the rare 13 isotope of carbon. This type of diamond does not exist in nature, but results in an approximately 50:1 improvement in sensitivity to certain ions compared to natural diamond. Fabrication of the diamond components was a significant challenge for Raytheon, but the product was delivered on time and under budget, thanks to a dedicated group effort. Dr. Don Burnett, the principal investigator from the California Institute of Technology, was pleased with Raytheon s efforts, especially considering that fabrication of the 13C diamond components had not been demonstrated previously. The Raytheon chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films addressed the highest priority science objective. We had extremely high machining tolerances, surface polish and purity requirements, all of which were met, said Dr. Burnett. On August 8, 2001, the Genesis spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta 7326 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Fla. On the morning of November 16, 2001, the spacecraft entered orbit at a location described as the first Lagrangian point (L1), nearly one million miles from earth in the direction of the sun. At this location, the gravitational forces of the sun and earth are equal, and the spacecraft remained in that orbit approximately three years, bathing in the solar wind. During this period, particles of the solar wind implanted themselves into the ultra-pure materials of the solar collectors. The sample capsule returned to earth this past summer and, due to a failed parachute Figure 1. The diamond component was in the solar collector in the center of the Genesis spacecraft. Photo: NASA deployment (see Figure 2), the landing was rough and resulted in the capsule impacting the desert floor at 311 kilometers per hour (193 miles per hour) (see Figure 3). Dr. Burnett noted, The CVD diamond came through intact, still in its target holder. There will be some surface contamination that we will have to deal with, but so far, so good. CVD diamond is grown by the scientists of materials engineering at Raytheon s Integrated Air Defense Center in Andover, Mass. Materials engineering has the capability to grow diamond wafers and films of up to five inches in diameter, with thicknesses of up to one tenth of an inch. Diamond is the hardest and most thermally conductive material, with a thermal conductivity of over four times that of copper (2,000 W/mK). It is the combination of these extraordinary physical properties that make it one of several materials that will continue to provide operating and performance success for many of Raytheon s key programs and missions, such as the Genesis collector. These events serve to showcase the importance of materials engineering in meeting or exceeding customer expectations. Rob Hallock Figure 2. A planned mid-air helicopter retrieval goes bad due to a failed parachute deployment. Photo: NASA Photo: NASA Figure 3. A Genesis sample canister is imbedded in the desert floor after a 193-mile-per-hour impact. Ralph Korenstein Erik Nordhausen and Tony Rafanelli contributed to this article ISSUE 1 YESTERDAY TODAY TOMORROW

19 RF Technology in the Field and at Home: AESAs are helping to protect soldiers and opening doors to new business Figure 2. An RA is instantiated through OOSE to meet specific customer needs. processing/real-time nodes and networked decision support (soft or non-real-time) nodes. Examples of these are, respectively, a networked constellation of sensors, weapons and command and control (C2) nodes; a control system for a radar or missile; and an individual C2 system, such as an operations center. Our approach to RAs is based in the theory of pattern-based design and embraces general solutions for operational artifacts, such as use cases, and logical artifacts, such as class collaborations in functional domains, documented in unified modeling language models and supported by executable models built in a variety of tools. We are constructing an online repository that will contain the RA artifacts, example applications, rules for instantiating RAs and guidance. We are also defining the governance mechanisms that are essential both to maintaining the RAs and to promoting consistent use across Raytheon programs. Figure 2 is a high-level flow diagram summarizing how an RA is used in the OOSE methodology to respond to a particular customer need. These initial RAs will be refined and expanded over time and will be tailored with additional detail for use in particular mission areas and product lines. For more information, please feel free to contact either the authors or a member of the Architecture Review Board. (Please contact Kenneth Kung at if you don t know the board members in your region). Mike Borky, David Kwak Actively scanned arrays have historically been the domain of high-performance applications where cost was not an issue. Occasionally, active electronically scanned arrays (AESA) would replace dishes or mechanically scanned electronically steered arrays (ESA) where the increased performance was necessary (e.g., a high-performance fighter aircraft, missile defense, etc.). The increasing importance and actual achievement of low-cost, high-performance radio frequency (RF) electronics is opening opportunities to win new business opportunities never before thought possible. Successes on programs where low cost was necessary to penetrate new business areas such as Low-Cost ESA for Missile Systems (<$50 thousand for active, approx. 1,000 element missile front end) and awards for applying this technology to programs such as the Army s Future Combat Systems MFRFS AESA (low-cost active protection, radar and communications), are winning the customers approval and improving the success rate for Raytheon technology to be used in more nextgeneration systems. These new architectures and technologies, along with improved manufacturing tolerances similar to the aforementioned examples, will allow AESAs to take over businesses thought to be the domain of dishes, X-band thru W-band. With the increased functionality and the low cost of these moduleless approaches, actively scanned antennas are making their way into missiles, protecting soldiers and onto vehicles where space and money were barriers before. These low-cost technologies are the stepping stones to next-generation netted systems. They will allow for disposable nodes (sensors, chemical and RF), handheld sensors ( see-through-the-wall radar, communications, detectors) and the increased proliferation of portable or vehicular active electronics. They will also benefit current applications, such as mobile communications, active protection for troops and vehicles, and other areas that will benefit tomorrow s warfighters. With persistent, all-weather, unmanned/ remote information assurance for situational awareness, we are starting to see these applications benefit urban warfare situations, which will make safer battle environments and lower collateral damage in Homeland Security engagements. Scott Heston RF SYSTEMS YESTERDAY TODAY TOMORROW 2005 ISSUE 1 17

20 DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA - LESSONS LEARNED: EMBEDDING DFSS WITHIN AN ORGANIZATION S CULTURE This analysis is an excerpt from the book: The Six Sigma Path to Leadership: Observations from the Trenches, published by Quality Press (Milwaukee: 2004), and brings together research on the lessons learned and challenges faced by several major market leaders, such as GE, Delphi Automotive, Pratt and Whitney, Allied Signal and others, along with consultants such as The Pendleton Group. The focus is on their efforts to implement Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and embed it throughout the entire corporate culture of a company with ramifications far beyond the original limitations of Six Sigma/DFSS. What is Design for Six Sigma? According to one firm it is the change in the product design organization from a deterministic to a probabilistic culture. On the other hand, probabilistic refers to a change in the approach to product design that incorporates statistical analysis of failure modes, both product and process, to incorporate design changes that modify and eliminate design features with a statistical probability of failure within a predefined range of operating environments and conditions. It reflects the change from a factorof-safety mentality to a quantitative assessment of design risk. For this same firm there are three elements of design that are most critical to this effort: Design for Producibility (design for manufacturing and assembly) Design for Reliability Design for Performance (technical requirements) Design for Maintainability When we examine the notion of a culture change it is evident that we are not discussing a short-term process or rapid realization of remarkable results. Changing and molding a company culture is a long-range, visionary, top-management committed, evolutionary and revolutionary journey. Most of the firms interviewed indicated that DFSS is only in use in selected design groups. There are several notable exceptions to this and those are the firms that report the most substantial success from their organization-wide adoption and utilization on every project. It would appear from this data that there is a critical level of utilization/application at which time the additive effects become multiplicative. Leadership s direct involvement in one aerospace firm, which appears to be far along in achieving true DFSS integration and adoption across the entire organization, encompassed the following: Master Black Belts and Black Belts were selected from only the very best people within the organization. During the first year, all leadership teams met weekly to discuss, review and adjust the strategy and implementation of DFSS. The senior leadership conducted off-sites quarterly to review, discuss and adjust the strategy to accelerate results. Senior leadership reviewed all Black Belt projects at all phases and publicly rewarded the results of these projects. Vice presidents of engineering personally reviewed each DFSS Black Belt project during the first year. All Master Black Belts and Black Belts were established as fulltime in their Six Sigma positions; funding and resource necessary to support annual Six Sigma activity were planned, budgeted and scheduled at the beginning of the year. Training was owned and provided locally. This permitted site personnel to conduct the training and use local examples in the training exercises and projects conducted. Everyone who contributed to the success of the efforts received significant rewards both as members of teams and individually. Raytheon Six Sigma TM was viewed and openly discussed as a leadership development program, thus becoming a desired career development path. Business practices and results were measured and compared to find opportunities for immediate impact. Core concepts were driven across the entire company: Critical to Quality (CTQ) what is a defect and what is variation Processes used to make products Process capability DFSS (a process not a chart to report) The summary to follow may seem cryptic. For a more complete explanation of each lesson learned refer to The Six Sigma Path to Leadership: Observations from the Trenches. The lessons learned are grouped into four categories: DFSS: A Growth Strategy DFSS: A Way to Serve Customers DFSS: Product/Process Fusion The DFSS Engineering Organization DFSS: A Growth Strategy Design for Six Sigma is the result of an evolution, not a singular event. 1. Achieving world-class performance through whatever set of tools takes preparation and foundational change efforts leading to capability. Invest and reward during paper and electrons rather than tooling. 2. DFSS is an investment that grows into program profits in direct proportion to the size of the initial investment. The more the initial investment to eliminate design issues the greater the life cycle profits that will be realized. Leadership commitment and alignment of rewards are essential. 3. A structured compensation system that substantially rewards leadership cooperation and co-ownership for successfully implementing cross-functional DFSS projects significantly improves the bottom line. Direct involvement of leadership is the only force that will establish the momentum to embed DFSS into the organization for the long term. Continued on next page ISSUE 1

21 4. Leaders, especially middle managers, need to be selected, prepared and trained much earlier in the process to achieve desired levels of commitment. DFSS : A Way to Serve Customers Customers should be involved from the beginning and an integral part of all activity throughout the product life cycle. 5. Continual customer feedback and ideas are essential to achieve a partnership with the customer. DFSS should be managed like any other project or program with plans, budgets and schedules established in advance. 6. DFSS should be regarded as a part of doing business and as such represents part of reinvesting a portion of the profits back in to the business to produce greater profits in the long run. Product development is an enterprise activity. 7. DFSS must be inclusive and make a conscious effort to become embedded in the fabric of the entire organization. Everyone must understand how it works and why it benefits the customer, the business and themselves. DFSS Product/Process Fusion Drive design and process together. 8. Drive product and process compatibility across the entire value chain and the product life cycle. Partner with major suppliers during the design process. 9. The value chain of your customer includes everything that is incorporated in the final product. Substantial elements often come from suppliers and subcontractors. If they are not integrated into the DFSS activity, then the final product is sub-optimized. Design for Six Sigma reduces variability introduction to the factory floor. 10. Factory Six Sigma activity to reduce variability is a losing process if the new designs introduced cause new variability. Metrics must be publicly displayed in every area. 11. Metrics must tell the story of the organization s performance and they must be discussed regularly among the staff in each area. Design and production must be balanced. 12. DFSS can have applicability in diverse industries, including some nontraditional industries like pharmaceuticals, if the design and the production application are integrated and balanced. The DFSS Engineering Organization Design team demographics slow change and evolution. 13. Design organizations are struggling with the loss of domain knowledge and lack of experience and skills among the teams themselves. Managing a Six Sigma Enterprise requires a change of philosophy and conventional wisdom. 14. Enlarging the responsibility of design engineering to follow the product from start to finish creates ownership that changes the approach to product design. It accelerates the incorporation of lessons learned outside the design studio. The culture change requires a change in the engineering hierarchy and composition of design teams. 15. The trend toward engineering efficiency (matriced organizations that assign engineers from pools to cover assignments) has made engineers a commodity at just the point in time when the loss of domain knowledge has made the need for longevity in an organization essential. Challenges to Successful Implementation 1. Probabilistic design is not generally part of the engineering curriculum or understood by regulatory bodies. The tools and methods are not part of the standard package of new design engineers. 2. Implementation continues to be uneven. Some companies have been much more successful than others. Even within companies, some areas are further along. 3. Does everything have to be Six Sigma? The answer is no. 4. Discipline. In nearly every engineering organization the need is to respect datadriven decisions and to suspend opinions in the face of facts. This drives to more discipline in setting and flowing down requirements. 5. The Phased Implementation Approach. The deployment of the methodology and the training to establish it is a concurrent effort that takes three to four years to complete. 6. Reliability. One firm discussed the difficulty in obtaining valid data from the field. An approach they instituted is to obtain direct customer feedback through web-based scorecards that the customer is able to customize and report data on. Thus, the field metrics are those that are important to the customer. Dr. David H. Treichler The Six Sigma Path to Leadership: Observations from the Trenches, by Dr. David H. Treichler with Ronald D. Carmichael (Quality Press: Milwaukee 2004) Many organizations have seen dramatic improvements by implementing a Six Sigma system, such as better efficiency, reduced errors and increased profits. But for the individuals charged with implementing this system, it can be a long and arduous journey. This book serves as a support guide for these individuals who may get lost or frustrated on their journey toward Six Sigma improvement. The authors have extensive field experience in applying Six Sigma across a wide variety of value chains, not only internally to the company, but also externally with customers and suppliers in a global context. They have also applied the tools and methodologies from strategic planning and business growth to fixing design, manufacturing and fielded system maintenance and operations. They have assembled a collection of stories showing how they and others handled Six Sigma implementation with many how-to (and how-notto) examples. Each chapter recounts lessons learned from hundreds of nontraditional applications and specific Six Sigma projects. The Six Sigma Path to Leadership is written for anyone from senior management to the curious novice, with the intent to inspire and motivate him/her to lead and teach others in the organization. The stories shared will spark the reader s imaginations and help them get the most out of their own Six Sigma efforts ISSUE 1 21

22 Alice Parry became one of only 350 authorized CMMI lead appraisers in the world and one of only four Raytheon appraisers in August By completing the requirements to be authorized by the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute, she joins fellow Raytheon employees Kent McClurg, Jane Moon and Michael Campo in this significant achievement. The path to this goal included 80 hours of training and participation in required activities over the last 18 months, culminating in a rigorous two-week observation. Leading the Network Centric Systems (NCS) common process architecture team, Parry contributed to developing a cross-site, cross-discipline process architecture. This architecture defines the requirements and procedures that will enable NCS North Texas, Fullerton and Northeast participants to reach CMMI Level 5 in 2005 for systems, hardware and software engineering, which is critical to Mission Assurance. Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) ACCOMPLISHMENTS Raytheon builds customer relationships through joint focus on process improvement CMMI is about process excellence, and Raytheon is committed to CMMI. That commitment was evident in the award-winning papers presented at the 2004 Fourth Annual National Defense Industrial Association s (NDIA) CMMI Technology Conference. More than 400 users, adopters and developers of capability maturity models and those involved in appraisal methods representing defense, aerospace and commercial companies, the Department of Defense (DoD), CMMI transition partners, government agencies and companies specializing in engineering development tools and processes attended the four-day event in Denver, Colo. The CMMI Technology Conference brings together managers and professionals involved in systems engineering, program management, software development, process improvement, Six Sigma and related activities to advance state-of-the-art process improvement and achieve a higher state of maturity in engineering development in order to reduce cost, schedule and risk, as well as improve overall quality. The conference focused on CMMI implementation strategies, return on investment and benefits, and transitioning from SW-CMM to CMMI, while providing a forum for the free exchange of ideas, lessons learned and implementation and appraisal methodologies with the sponsors, developers and stewards of CMMI. In the words of Gary Wolf, Raytheon CMMI training lead, This is the place to be if you want to know something about where CMMI is in the industry and where the industry is going, and even where some of our customers are going with CMMI. Bob Rassa (see page 23), director of system supportability at Raytheon and chair of the systems engineering division of NDIA, provided the opening remarks for the conference, addressing the future of CMMI. He commented that these events provide a great opportunity for bringing the suppliers and customers together, bringing the government and DoD industry together, In 2003, providing leadership and guidance for process development and deployment at NCS North Texas, Parry participated on the appraisal team that resulted in an impressive successful CMMI Level 5 rating for software engineering in September and CMMI Level 3 for systems engineering in December. With the help of her NCS North Texas team, she developed a behavior change management workshop, which helps Raytheon businesses identify execution gaps in performance and generates corrective action plans. The workshop has been conducted in four Raytheon businesses with positive results. With Parry s 25 years of technical engineering and process improvement experience at Texas Instruments and Raytheon, she has participated in 11 CMMI appraisals across Raytheon s businesses. As a member of the CMMI expert team, Parry provides technical consulting and training on documenting and deploying CMMI-compliant processes throughout the Raytheon businesses. For more information about Raytheon s CMMI activities and the CMMI expert team, please visit ISSUE 1 bringing together the practitioners of CMMI so they can learn what everyone else is doing the synergism makes it better for everybody because everyone learns from everyone else. Keynote addresses were given by Major General Paul Nielsen, USAF (retired), director of the Software Engineering Institute, and by John Grimm, vice president of CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University.

23 Engineering for Raytheon s Intelligence and Information Systems business. Major Nielsen particularly enjoyed this year s conference. As a newcomer to this community, I find the level of energy really exciting. I think this [conference] helps show the common problems across the industry base, [and] enables a company like Raytheon to understand the issues that other companies have and how they may have solved them. No one company has all the answers and good companies understand that. Grimm spoke on the role of CMMI in Mission Assurance. We need to get out and talk to our customers to see what the requirements are in each of the businesses and not just automatically jump over the horse. Mission Assurance is associated with CMMI in that it gives us a strong base. If we re at maturity level 3 or 5 in CMMI, we re getting very close to having the kind of base we need to have in Mission Assurance. He also saw the value in seeing people talk together and discuss real issues. The panel discussions are a catalyst to get ideas to the forefront of everybody s minds. These kinds of gatherings make people really start to exchange ideas and solve real problems. More than 30 Raytheon employees from across the company attended the conference, including 12 CMMI experts who presented more than 15 papers and tutorials. Raytheon was well represented by earning four Best Paper awards, including Best Overall Paper by Donna Freed on Raytheon ROI and Benefits for Achieving CMMI Level 5. Freed also won Best Paper for another presentation, as did fellow employees Tom Lienhard, Timothy Davis and Melissa Olson. For a complete list of papers and tutorials presented at this year s event, go to cmmi/2004cmmi.html. John Evers, Raytheon Engineering Common Program, CMMI and Integrated Product Development System project manager, summed up his thoughts about the conference and on Mission Assurance by saying, The most valuable thing is seeing where other companies are, including our competitors, [and] seeing where we re at as a company. We had a lot of presentations here which is great. We got the word out on what we ve been doing, but we also know we have more to do. We ve got a lot of sites at CMMI Level 3, but that s just part of it. We really want to get to where this is part of what we re doing, continuously improving our processes: how we use them and how we execute them on projects. One of the key things in Mission Assurance is that it s strongly related to CMMI. By improving how we stand against CMMI as an appraisal model, we get better in executing our job and delivering products and services that our customers need. The CMMI project is a cooperative effort of the DoD, industry and the Software Engineering Institute to develop an integrated Capability Maturity Model that encompasses systems engineering, software engineering, integrated product and process development and supplier sourcing. Its purpose is to provide for improvements in cost, schedule and overall quality of programs in engineering development and production by causing integration of the various engineering and related disciplines. For more information about CMMI at Raytheon, visit Bob Rassa is a director of system supportability for Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems in El Segundo, Calif. During the past 10 years he has focused on working with customers to make Raytheon products easier to support through systems engineering. Rassa founded and chaired the National Defense Industrial Association s (NDIA) systems engineering (SE) division, partnering with Mark Schaeffer from the Department of Defense (DoD), who had recently established a new systems engineering department within the office of the Under Secretary of Defense, Acquisition Technology & Logistics. This defense-industry partnership led to the integration of significant capability maturity models specifically SW-CMM and SECM with IPD-CMM, which eventually became known as Capability Maturity Model Integration or CMMI, an idea borne from napkin doodlings among Schaeffer, Dr. Art Pyster (then with the Software Productivity Consortium) and Roger Bate of the Software Engineering Institute. With Rassa s validation, NDIA became the industry sponsor of CMMI, with Schaeffer as the DoD counterpart. What CMMI promised, it has been delivering: substantial adoption within the commercial and defense industries, and outstanding return on investment being reported in terms of improved cost performance index and schedule performance index, reduced delivered defects and quicker development time, explains Rassa. The group also wrote the CMMI Acquisition Module (CMMI-AM) to improve government program offices performance and facilitate their engagement as industry adopts CMMI. Continued on page ISSUE 1 23

24 The Future State of IPDS Piali De is a senior principal engineer in Integrated Defense Systems (IDS) Mission Innovation (MI) Cross Business Team (CBT). De is responsible for developing innovative approaches to integrating missions and analyzing mission performance. I was thinking about my seven years in Raytheon, how I had left academia to join the defense industry so that I could use my technical skills to make a difference to the folks who give us their all. At her first meeting with IDS President Dan Smith at his holiday party last year, De introduced herself and said she wanted to make a greater difference. In 2004, De started working in MI with Lee Silvestre, director of the MI CBT. John Rannenberg, manager of growth and outreach for the MI CBT, gave me the opportunity to work on a Fires Working Group Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Marine Corps, whose charter is to help the Marines take a holistic look at their fire missions. The charter came from a commitment that Raytheon made a year and a half ago to Marine Corps Commandant General Hagee. Working with the Marines added new meaning to creating solutions that help the warfighter, says De. I learned a lot about how the Marines [execute] their missions, and I have developed some pretty nifty technologies to help them. One of these technologies is the Raytheon Adaptive Mission Profiler (RAMP), an intelligent system for designing, developing, testing, profiling and optimizing missions. RAMP allows real or simulated mission components sensors, command and control systems, people, weapons, etc. to interact. RAMP observes the mission and analyzes its performance, whether it will meet its goals or create an undesirable situation, she explains. De has briefed RAMP to customers, warfighters and flag officers. This fuels my excitement, and I am having a blast. I am applying all the intelligent system technologies that I have worked on for over a decade into RAMP. It is fun to see it all come together in something that makes a difference. For several years now, Raytheon s Integrated Product Development System (IPDS) has been in existence and used across Raytheon. Version 2.0 was released in 1999 and has undergone several revisions since then. Together with Raytheon Six Sigma TM and our CMMI -based process improvement activities, it provides Raytheon with the knowledge base to plan and execute programs successfully, with the highest assurance that our products and services will meet our customer s mission needs. These processes contain valuable information that is based on experiences and best practices from across Raytheon, and from various national and international standards and models. Program teams can use the information in IPDS to plan and execute their activities; IPDS Deployment Experts (DEs) are available to help projects use IPDS. DEs know where information is located in IPDS, and have the skills and experience to help projects effectively apply that information. They can help the project team develop the appropriate project architecture. This project architecture is analogous to the system architecture, and defines how the project s resources will be organized and function together to perform the tasks needed to develop and provide the products and services to meet the customer s need. The truth is that this as documented state isn t always reflected in the as executed state; the knowledge in IPDS isn t always put into practice. Evaluations of troubled projects indicate that many of them would be in better shape if they had applied the right processes at the right time; these processes nearly always were available in IPDS. So why were these processes not used? Why does this situation exist? Is there a problem with the information in IPDS? Are there problems in how we apply and use IPDS within Raytheon? IPDS contains so much potentially useful information that it s hard to find what you are looking for. If you know which rock to turn over, you can usually find the desired information, but it can be hard to find the right rock in the entire quarry that is IPDS. In addition, even once something is located, it can be difficult to determine what is really relevant everything in IPDS is essentially presented as equal in importance. Feedback from users evaluation of website hits, inputs to the IPDS Help Desk, surveys of various user groups, direct s confirm that while IPDS contains a lot of good information, users encounter difficulties in turning it into knowledge and then putting that knowledge into practice. Across the company, there exists a relative handful of DEs that can help programs and personnel find and use the information in IPDS. As a result, people are not getting everything from IPDS that is possible, and we need to improve this situation. In the spring of 2004, an IPDS steering committee was established with representation from all of Raytheon s businesses and many key functions. That group has established a new vision for IPDS, along with a roadmap for improving IPDS by the end of We are moving forward with developing the architecture for this future IPDS. It will consist of an integrated process (IPDP) and a process asset library (PAL) containing supporting process materials. The future IPDP will be similar in many ways to IPDP today, but noticeably streamlined in the number of tasks and with task descriptors focusing on the essential whats. The PAL will contain the how tos, such as work instructions, templates, checklists, etc. both Raytheon-wide and local business enablers. The future IPDS will be consistent with CMMI through Level 5, as well as Raytheon s Mission Assurance initiative. Beyond improving the content of IPDS, a key objective is also to ensure the new architecture makes it easier for users to find, understand and use applicable information in IPDS to plan and execute their work. Improved web interfaces and program planning aids are a key element of this future state for IPDS, a state where wizard-like aids help guide the generation of a program s integrated master plan/integrated master schedule, where tailoring is simplified, and the DE s role is more about helping program teams determine how to best plan and organize their work and their resources to enable success for Raytheon and our customers. John Evers ISSUE 1

25 Welcoming more than 300 participants to the third annual Women s Forum, held November at the Wyndham Anatole hotel in Dallas, Texas., Chairman and CEO Bill Swanson, a lauded Diversity champion both in the company and in the industry, emphasized, We all need to be equally committed to inclusiveness at Raytheon. In support of this goal, Greg Shelton, vice president of Engineering, Technology, Manufacturing and Quality, added, We ve said many times that people are our greatest asset. Having a diverse workforce that includes women in key roles provides a balance in our thinking about leadership. With the introduction of outgoing Diversity champion Jim Schuster, chairman and CEO of Raytheon Aircraft Company, Swanson applauded Schuster s dedication and commitment to encouraging women to succeed. Schuster then passed the torch to the new Diversity champion, Louise Francesconi, president of Missile Systems, who said, It makes it so exciting to be in this role for the next couple of years with a boss who encourages Diversity so widely and so broadly. You have my commitment, my focus and my passion. Attendees enjoyed numerous speakers and presentations, including a Myers-Briggs exercise designed to help professionals discover behavioral attributes. Additional presenters spoke about the challenge of becoming successful leaders, while various breakout sessions and panel discussions focused on building an inclusive organization, communicating effectively, and personal and professional development. A realtime survey explored group responses to myriad issues leaders face in our industry. The survey revealed that if given the chance to work in the aerospace/defense industry again, 70% of attendees would not choose a more gender-balanced industry. For the full story, descriptions of the breakouts, presentations and photos, visit The message is clear: we are all responsible for our customers success. The 2004 Mission Assurance & Quality Forum welcomed almost 350 attendees to the Embassy Suites-Outdoor World October in Dallas,Texas. Representatives from Quality, Operations, Engineering, Supply Chain, IT and other Raytheon professionals, suppliers and customers came together to collaborate on Mission Assurance and Performance Excellence initiatives. The days were packed with information regarding Mission Assurance and Quality, steeped with messages of expecting the best from ourselves and our suppliers in order to deliver the best solutions to our customers. Informative sessions and papers were presented in four tracks: Leading Customer Satisfaction, Leading Supplier Management, Leading Change with Metrics and Leading Professional Development. Keynote speakers Dale Crownover, president and CEO of Texas Nameplate Company (Dallas); John Guaspari of Guaspari Associates; and Daniel Hanson, vice president of sales and operations, Branch-Smith Printing Division (Fort Worth), spoke about customer commitment and staying focused on customers success. Greg Shelton, vice president of Engineering, Technology, Manufacturing and Quality, spoke about looking at the big picture when it comes to our customers needs and what a customer s vision requires. Wouldn t it be interesting if our customers came to us for solutions which may not even be for Raytheon products, but they ve recognized that Raytheon s going to bring to them the best solutions possible? For full details about the forum, visit All track presentations and webcasts will also be available online in the Technology Process Library at rayeng/technetworks/tab5/tab5.htm ISSUE 1 25

26 Fall is a time of change. The air gets cooler, the leaves change color, we get back into our busy routines and we resume our quest for knowledge. Raytheon s fall technology symposia provided a valuable forum for sharing key emerging and developing technologies through informative presentations, as well as the chance to exchange ideas and share knowledge with peers. The seventh annual Processing Systems Technology Network (PSTN) symposium, held in late September at the historic Manning House in Tucson, Ariz., was a huge success. Over 300 people attended the three-day event themed Processing The Transformational Technology. The event featured eight tracks with over 100 presentations. Several keynote speakers, including engineering and technology vice presidents, technical area directors and business partners, shared their ideas about the future of processing technology and how Raytheon can be successful in a rapidly changing environment. signal processing to model-driven development and intelligent systems and cognitive computing. One of the days concluded with a banquet held beneath vintage aircraft at the Pima Air and Space Museum, where Colonel Tod Wolters, Wing Commander, Laughlin Air Force Base, shared his experiences in Iraq over the past year. One of the best parts of the symposium for many attendees was the chance to network and share knowledge with peers from around the company. Bruce Kinney, PSTN facilitator, said, Through networking, I can broaden my exposure to new ideas, as well as collaborate with people doing similar work and reduce duplication. Both of these contribute to being a technology and customer focused company. The fourth annual Mechanical and Materials Technology Network (MMTN) symposium was held at the Renaissance Hotel in Richardson, Texas, on October 19 21, This year s event, themed Performance, Relationships and Solutions, focused on technical performance to build strong relationships with internal and external customers and peers, as well as to provide solutions to technical and logistical challenges. The symposium exceeded expectations with nearly 300 in attendance who gained valuable knowledge from more than 175 presentations in three parallel tracks. Keynote addresses were given by Lynn Dugle, vice president of Network Centric Systems Engineering; Janne Ackerman, director for the Precision Strike and Airborne Surveillance Engineering Center; and Peter Pao, vice president of Corporate Technology, who spoke on Investing in Raytheon's Technology. Additionally, Tony Rafanelli, MMTN technical area director, spoke about devising strategies for the technologies of materials and structures. Attendees participated in a variety of sessions ranging from electronic packaging and interconnects to composite structures and adhesives over the course of three days. Guests enjoyed a lunchtime address by Jason Smith, a principal software engineer who spent five months supporting the Raytheon First Responder System in Iraq. Smith discussed the experiences, challenges and rewards of working directly with the U.S. military as a civilian during the war Cognitive computing and model-driven architecture are key technologies to Raytheon s success in this highly competitive market, said Mike Vahey, PSTN chairman. Employees from throughout Raytheon s businesses and technical communities attended sessions that ranged from processing and software architecture and ISSUE 1

27 Lynne Dugle, vice president, NCS Engineering; Walter Caughey, MMTN chairman; Peter Pao, vice president of Corporate Technology; Janne Ackerman, director of the Precision Strike and Airborne Surveillance Engineering Center in SAS; and Jeff Schierer, mechanical engineering department manager, PSAS, share ideas at the symposium. effort. The evening banquet featured Jack Bunning, director of marketing and development for The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas. Bunning enlightened guests with facts about John F. Kennedy s assassination and highlighted the significance and impact this event had on our nation s history. The highlight of the symposium, for many, was the chance to network with peers. It is such a wonderful experience to have many different people from around the company get together and share the technology work their doing. Too often we work in silos; we don t know what each other is doing and we reinvent the wheel, said Ron Carsten, chief engineer at Missile Systems in Tucson, Ariz. Nicki Girouard, MMTN facilitator, commented, This was a major opportunity for engineers to network and expand that network to suppliers, to learn about what each other does, become more intimate with the kinds of things we need from each other and make our whole job more meaningful. The fourth annual Engineering Process Group (EPG) Workshop was held November 4 5, 2004 at the Don Cesar Beach Resort in St. Petersburg, Fla., and was themed Catch the Wave. This year s workshop began with a warm welcome by Conference Chair Brenda Terry from the NCS-McKinney Program Resource Center. Terry introduced John Evers, the Raytheon Engineering Common Program IPDS and CMMI program manager, who began the workshop with a keynote address about Evolving to the Future State of IPDS. Sixty-six employees enjoyed the two-day workshop, co-chaired by Susan Bellucci, senior technical support engineer at NCS- St. Pete. The workshop was divided into two tracks packed with presentations, open discussions, knowledge sharing and networking in all areas relative to process improvement. It also provided the opportunity for Raytheon employees to renew contacts and establish new relationships with people actively engaged in process improvement across Raytheon. This year, not only did attendees catch the wave on process improvement, but they also caught some real waves at the beach and lots of sunshine. Continuing with the Floridian theme, there was a tropical reception held in the evening with a few rounds of Flamingo Bingo. The PSTN and MMTN presentations and webcasts are now available online in the Technology Process Library at ray.com/rayeng/technetworks/tab5/tab5.htm. You can view the EPG agenda or contact Susan Bellucci at for more details about the EPG workshop ISSUE 1 27

28 First Joint Council Meeting a Success! Greg Shelton welcomed all the attendees and provided an overview of Mission Assurance. He then moderated the panel at which each business presented their respective Mission Assurance results to date, as well as their forward plan. More than 100 business functional leaders from nine functional councils participated in the first annual joint council meeting, October 19-21, 2004, in Tucson, Ariz. During the two-day meeting, Raytheon leaders focused on Mission Assurance and enterprise systems integration two areas that are supported by the functions and are critical to business growth. Greg Shelton, vice president of Engineering, Technology, Manufacturing and Quality, and Rebecca Rhoads, chief information officer and vice president of Information Technology, co-sponsored the event. Representatives from Integrated Business Development, Contracts, Engineering and Technology, Information Technology, Operations, Program Leadership, Quality, Raytheon Six Sigma TM and Technology Leadership Councils participated in the event. Raytheon s council structure which consists of leaders from each business, as well as corporate staff is a well-established best practice developed to ensure knowledge sharing, best practices and solid business decisions for the enterprise. The joint council meeting provided the opportunity for the councils to learn what each council is doing, as well as identify areas for collaboration and teaming. Engineering and IT held a joint meeting in January 2004 and identified four key areas where we could team to ensure success, said Rhoads. We formed teams and worked together to provide the best solutions over the past year. This meeting brought all the functional councils together to share successes, as well as identify areas for improvement. We focused on two critical areas, Mission Assurance and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and developed action plans to ensure success. Interactive breakout sessions were led by Raytheon Six Sigma facilitators and focused on teaming and defined actions to move forward on Mission Assurance process, communications and training, and metrics. The councils will continue to work together to engage the businesses and help provide One Company solutions. Kate Shaw, director of business intelligence and systems integration, led the ERP panel, which included presentations on PRISM, APEX, Product Data Management, onertn, ICMS, HRMS and Import/Export. The meeting was a great learning experience we identified ways to team and move forward on several key issues, stated Shelton. We learned what the businesses are doing with Mission Assurance and identified key areas where the functions can work together to improve execution. PEOPLE: Raytheon s Greatest Asset You ve heard it said many times that people are our greatest asset at Raytheon. In an ongoing effort to recognize outstanding achievements, we offer this new People column to highlight significant external technical and leadership accomplishments, such as appointments to technical and/or industry societies (e.g., IEEE, NDIA), awards for technical achievements or medals. These high honors deserve recognition, exposure and visibility in our Raytheon community. If you would like to submit an announcement, please send your information to Wes Calhoun (St. Petersburg, Fla.) has accepted the position of symposium cochair, and Dave Cleotelis (St. Petersburg, Fla.) has accepted the position of symposium technical program chair, for the 16th International Symposium sponsored by the International Council on Systems Engineering. For additional information about the symposium, contact Calhoun at or visit This past spring, Johann (Hans) G. Demmel, Missile Systems senior manager, systems engineering and Raytheon Six Sigma TM Expert, was recognized as a Fellow of the Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE), the highest classification of membership in IIE. The award recognizes outstanding leaders of the profession that have made significant, nationally recognized contributions to industrial engineering. James Schuster, Raytheon Aircraft Company chairman and CEO, has been elected to serve as 2005 chairman of the board of directors of the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA). Schuster previously served as GAMA s vice chairman and chairman of GAMA s security issues committee. Schuster will work closely with other industry members who represent manufacturers of general aviation aircraft, engines, avionics and related equipment. For more information, visit GAMA s website at ISSUE 1

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