1 ADenosine Vasodilator Independent Stenosis Evaluation II A prospective, observational, non-randomized, double blind, global, multi-center registry with an adaptive design, investigating the diagnostic utility of instantaneous wave-free ratio in assessing coronary stenosis relevance. Javier Escaned MD PhD FESC on behalf of the ADVISE II Study Team
2 Potential Conflicts of Interest ADVISE II is a study registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT ) Sponsor of the study: Volcano Corporation Speaker's name: Javier Escaned Potential conflicts of interest regarding the topics of this presentation: Speaker at educational events: Boston Scientific, St. Jude Medical, Volcano Corporation
3 Pressure (mm Hg) Background Instantaneous wave-free ratio (ifr) is a recently introduced pressure-derived, adenosine-free index for assessment of coronary stenosis relevance. 120 Wave-free period ifr has generated considerable interest among cardiologists. Since its introduction in TCT 2011, >1,500 comparisons of ifr and fractional flow reserve (FFR) have been reported Time (ms) Pa Pd 15 entries on ifr made in PubMed in <2 years.
4 Background Although the reported agreement between ifr and FFR has been good, some discrepancy has been observed, potentially related to: Retrospective designs Heterogeneous FFR technique Differences in ifr detection algorithm Lack of EKG to detect wave-free period Potential artifacts in wave forms have not been ruled out Pressure drift was not ruled out A prospective study with rigorous methodology was deemed required to establish the clinical value of ifr
5 Study Objective and Design To prospectively assess the clinical value of ifr to characterize, without concomitant administration of hyperemic agents and outside a specified range of ifr values, coronary stenosis severity as determined with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Prospective, observational, non-randomized, double blind, global, multi-center registry with an adaptive design.
6 What makes ADVISE II different? Design: Prospective, global (US, EU, Africa), multi-center (n=40), double blind registry with an adaptive design based on interim analyses. Data collection: standardized guidewire/console, IV adenosine and pressure pullback were mandatory. ifr algorithm: ifr calculation software analysis tool (HARVEST) fully consistent with upcoming online commercial system. ifr calculation and data analysis: performed at an independent core laboratory (CARDIALYSIS, Rotterdam, The Netherlands). Primary endpoint: focused on the clinical applicability of ifr in the context of a hybrid ifr/ffr strategy 1. 1 Petraco et al. EuroIntervention 2013;8: Petraco et al. EuroIntervention 2013;8:
7 Standardized data collection Bookmark Bookmark Bookmark ifr segment FFR segment IV adenosine for a minimum of 2 min. Pullback & P drift segment Data acquisition was performed in a single tracing, with bookmarks introduced for identification of relevant study segments during core lab analysis.
8 Hybrid ifr/ffr approach Hybrid ifr/ffr approach ifr 0.85 Treat ifr between 0.86 and 0.93 Perform FFR ifr 0.94 Do not treat This hybrid diagnostic strategy aims to increase adoption of physiologyguided PCI, by decreasing the need for adenosine while maintaining a high classification agreement with an FFR-only strategy 1. 1 Petraco et al. EuroIntervention 2013;8:
9 Primary endpoint Percentage of stenoses properly classified in terms of hemodynamic severity by ifr (outside 0.85 ifr 0.94): Hemodynamic severity was established with an FFR value Properly classified ifr/ffr disagreement
10 Secondary endpoints Minimum ifr exclusion ranges around ifr=0.89 in which ifr and FFR agreement is equal to or greater than 80 and 90%. Sensitivity/specificity as well as positive predictive and negative predictive values of ifr for FFR prediction. Diagnostic efficiency of ifr to identify FFR severe stenoses (AUROC). Correlation coefficient (r) of the ifr FFR relationship. Estimated proportion of patients free from adenosine in a hybrid ifr- FFR approach. Estimated cost saving in a hybrid ifr/ffr approach.
11 Age > 18 and < 85 years. Inclusion criteria Willing to participate and able to understand, read and sign the informed consent document before the planned procedure. Eligible for coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention.? One or more stenoses DS>40% (visual assessment). Stable angina or acute coronary syndromes (non-culprit vessels).
12 Exclusion criteria Known contraindication to adenosine administration. Contrast allergy. Cardiac pacemaker, 1 st or 2 nd degree AV block, LBBB. STEMI or non-stemi within 48 hours of procedure. Severe vessel tortuosity and/or severe calcification by angiogram. Significant (moderate or severe) valvular pathology Previous CABG with patent grafts to the interrogated vessel. Weight >200kg (441 lbs.). Hemodynamic instability at the time of intervention. Significant hepatic, renal or lung disease / malignancy with poor prognosis. Left main stenosis, downstream stenoses, CTOs. Known left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 30.
13 Enrollment and Participating Centres 40 active centres 27 US 13 EMEA FPI on Jan 9, 2013
14 Study flow chart Pre-specified final analyses at n=797 n=797 patients, 919 stenoses 477 stenoses ifr 0.85 or 0.94 ( , ) 213 stenoses ifr 0.85 to ifr/ffr stenoses included in final results 229 tracings excluded by core lab* *Artifacts in pressure or ECG recording: 109; pressure drift documented: 70; pullback not recorded: 34; other: 16
15 Clinical and angiographic data Patient characteristics % Age (years) 64±11 * Gender (Male) 69 Hypertension 78 Diabetes 35 Smoker 22 Prior MI 34 Clinical presentation: - Stable angina 54 - Unstable angina 25 - Silent ischemia 12 - NSTEMI (>48 hr) 6 - STEMI (>48 hr) 3 Stenoses characteristics Diameter stenosis (visual assessment) Lesion Type - A - B1/B2 - C % 59.7±13.2 * Vessel -LAD LCX RCA 19.9 * mean ± SD
16 Stenosis severity (FFR) FFR: Percent of cases (%) Mean ± SD = 0.83 ± 0.11 Median (IQR) = 0.84 (0.77, 0.90) FFR 0.80 = 36% FFR < 0.75 = 21% FFR 0.60 to 0.90 = 73% Fractional flow reserve Normal distribution (Mu=0.826, Sigma=0.109)
17 Scatterplot of ifr vs FFR Pearson (r)= (95% CI: ), p<0.001
18 Diagnostic accuracy of ifr Best ifr cut-off: 0.89 Properly classified by ifr: 82.46% Specificity: 87.78% Sensitivity: 72.98% Area under ROC = 0.90 (95% CI: ) p< Positive predictive value: 77.02% Negative predictive value: 85.27%
19 Primary endpoint The percentage of stenoses properly classified in terms of hemodynamic severity by ifr (outside 0.85 ifr 0.94) was 91.6% Hybrid ifr/ffr approach ifr % 95% CI: 81.6, 92.9 ifr between 0.86 and 0.93 Perform FFR ifr % 95% CI: 89.8, % 95% CI: 88.8, 93.9
20 Primary endpoint 93.1% 88.1% 91.6% The percentage of stenoses properly classified in terms of hemodynamic severity by ifr (outside 0.85 ifr 0.94) was 91.6%
21 Secondary endpoint Minimum ifr exclusion ranges around ifr 0.89 in which ifr and FFR agreement is equal to or greater than 80% and 90%. Minimum required percentage agreement ifr Exclusion range Number of ifr stenoses assessed Number of ifr stenoses with agreement Percentage agreement 80% % 90% % 95% %
22 Hybrid ifr/ffr approach The percentage of stenoses properly classified by using the hybrid ifr/ffr approach was 94.2%. Hybrid ifr/ffr approach ifr % 95% CI: 81.6, 92.9 ifr between 0.86 and % ifr % 95% CI: 89.8, % 95% CI: 92.2, 95.8 Sensitivity: 90.73% Specificity: 96.15% PPV: 92.98% NPV: 94.87%
23 Free from adenosine (%) Estimated saving from adenosine in a hybrid ifr-ffr approach 65.1% 95% CI: 61.1, % 95% CI: 65.5, 72.6 Patients Stenoses
24 Conclusions In ADVISE II, ifr characterized correctly 91.6% of the stenoses in terms of hemodynamic severity, outside the pre-specified 0.85 and 0.94 values. Overall, a hybrid ifr/ffr approach would avoid usage of adenosine in 69.5% of interrogated stenoses whilst classifying correctly 94.2% of them in terms of hemodynamic severity.
25 ADVISE II Study Team Participating Centres and Investigators Al-Dorrah Heart Care, Egypt Alleghany General, USA AMC Amsterdam, NL Amphia Ziekenhuis, NL AtlantiCare Med Ctr, USA Aurora St. Luke s, USA Baptist Miami, USA Chandler Regional, USA Deborah Heart and Lung Center, USA Duke University, USA Emory University, USA A. Khashaba D. Lasorda J. Piek M. Meuwissen H. Levite S. Allaqaband J. Roberts G. Nseir K. Sanghvi S. Jones H. Samady
26 ADVISE II Study Team Participating Centres and Investigators, continued Erasmus MC, NL R. van Geuns Fairview, Univ of Minn, USA G. Raveendran Forsyth, USA R. Preli Geisinger Danville, USA J. Blankenship Greenville Memorial, USA J. Baucum Hamot, USA Q. Orlando Hosp. Clinico San Carlos, Spain J. Escaned Hosp. Sacre Coeur, Canada E. Schampaert Hosp. Univ San Juan, Alicante, Spain R. Palop Hosp. Univ. La Paz, Madrid, Spain R. Moreno Jagiellonian Univ Hospital, Poland J. Legutko
27 ADVISE II Study Team Participating Centres and Investigators, continued Kerckhoff Klinik, Germany H. Möllman Liverpool Heart, United Kingdom R. Stables Maimonides Med Ctr, USA R. Frankel Mayo Clinic, USA R. Gulati Med. Univ. of S. Carolina, USA E. Powers MSWiA Warszawa, Poland R. Gil North Florida Cardiac & Vascular, USA M. Tulli East Carolina University, USA B. Carrabus Poliklinika SP ZOZ, Wroclaw, Poland K. Reczuch Regions Med, USA J. Brechtken Royal Jubilee, Canada A. Della Siega
28 ADVISE II Study Team Participating Centres and Investigators, continued Sentara Health System, USA P. Mahoney St. Anthony s, USA J. Altman St. John s Prairie, USA G. Mishkel SUNY Stoney Brook, USA A. Jeremias Toronto General, Canada V. Dzavik Twente Enschede, The Netherlands C. von Birgelen Univ of North Carolina, USA P. Kaul VA Charleston, USA V. Fernandes Wake Heart Research, USA J. Schneider Washington University, USA H. Kurz Wellmont, USA M. Mayhew Winter Haven, USA Z. Tai
29 ADVISE II Study Team Principal Investigators Javier Escaned, MD PhD, Amir Lerman, MD Steering Committee Jan Piek, MD PhD, Habib Samady, MD, Hector Garcia-Garcia, MD PhD, Javier Escaned MD PhD, Amir Lerman, MD PI Assistant Mauro Echavarria-Pinto, MD
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