1 SWGFAST Defining Level Three Detail ANSI / NIST Workshop Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint, Facial, & Scar Mark & Tattoo (SMT) Information April 26-28, ,2005
2 Defining Level Three Detail Background Development of AFIS technology needed to achieve throughput and performance for large volume processing. Primary focus on 10-print fingerprints Started with minimal amount of fingerprint information, e.g. finger position, fingerprint classification, minutiae (ending ridges and bifurcations limited level two detail) 10-print searching and matching success promoted exploration into latent print searching and matching.
3 Defining Level Three Detail Background continued: Development of latent print searching and matching attempted to exploit existing data from 10-print AFIS technology Very limited information available in comparison to what and how the latent print community utilizes. Resulted in limited application Not all latent prints could be processed through an AFIS
4 Defining Level Three Detail Background continued: 10-Print Fingerprint image quality and AFIS minutiae extraction algorithms are key factors in latent print performance (accuracy) Early development was hampered by cost factors and politics. Image quality remains a key factor today Fingerprint quality vs. digital image quality (see part 2 of this presentation)
6 Defining Level Three Detail If we were to build a ALPIS today, what approach would we take to achieve: Accuracy Selectivity / Reliability Throughput Connectivity Interoperability Future goals and objectives
7 Defining Level Three Detail But, we can t start from scratch because of the legacy systems, however, we could migrate towards achieving those latent print needs and start with a day-one forward approach, TODAY IS AS GOOD AS ANY
8 Defining Level Three Detail Applications of friction ridge impressions Criminal record keeping (Informational) Forensic science (Investigative) Personal identification (Humanitarian) Security (Safety) 1:n and/or 1:1 (identification / verification) Where do latent prints fall in the big picture?
9 Defining Level Three Detail Each and all are very important. We need to provide a standard that will support the needs of each application without a detriment to another. It all starts with the finger What does that mean to each of us; to each application???
10 Defining Level Three Detail All 10 fingers, rolled and plain, intentionally (controlled) recorded Two fingers, one from each hand, plain impressions, intentionally recorded One fragmentary portion of a finger, intentionally recorded One friction ridge impression of varying size, unintentional impression (latent print) Many, many more variations
11 Defining Level Three Detail It is time to move beyond just ending ridges and bifurcations for any and all of these applications. So, what else is there? Three levels of detail Limitations of two dimensional images Is there a fourth, fifth level? Three dimensional images
12 EXHIBIT 10a Levels of Friction Ridge Detail Level 1, Ridge Flow Orientation Classification arch, loop, whorl ridge count Focal areas core, delta Individualization can NOT occur at this level However, EXCLUSIONS
13 EXHIBIT 10b Levels of Friction Ridge Detail Level 2, Ridge Path Characteristics (Galton Points) ending ridge bifurcation dot combinations Location, type, direction and relationship Absence of characteristics Individualization CAN occur at this level with level 1
14 EXHIBIT 10c Levels of Friction Ridge Detail Level 3, Ridge Features pores edge shapes width relationship Individualization CAN occur at this level with levels 1 and 2 detail
15 EXHIBIT 17 Methodology of Friction Ridge Identification A nalysis C omparison E valuation V erification
25 B E B B B B E B B D E B B B B E B E B E E B E B LATENT B D E INKED E
26 Level 3: Ridge Attributes LATENT INKED
27 Qualitative and Quantitative Process The quality of the ridge detail along with the quantity of all three levels of detail is used to effect an individualization.
28 Evaluation Level 1 Detail Approximately 18 ridges in agreement in both prints, with no discrepancies Level 2 Detail 14 characteristics which are in the same location, direction, and relationship, with no discrepancies Level 3 Detail Several features in agreement in both prints, with no discrepancies
29 Verification All identifications are verified by another qualified examiner Quality Assurance Peer Review - part of the scientific process
30 Defining Level Three Detail How do we define: Ridge path With deviations (endings, bifurcations, enclosures, etc.) Without deviations (continuous ridges) Ridge paths in sequence Dots Incipient ridges Ridge attributes Ridge widths, edge shapes, pores Scars Creases Other (warts, blisters, etc.)
31 Defining Level Three Detail Current standard defines minutiae X,Y, Theta Type 9 Minutiae data record Lacks ridge path Absence of minutiae is not adequately addressed
32 SWGFAST Minimum Scan Resolution ANSI / NIST Workshop Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint, Facial, & Scar Mark & Tattoo (SMT) Information April 26-28, ,2005
33 Minimum Scan Resolution Simply stated - the current standard for 10- print fingerprint capture at 500ppi with 15:1 WSQ compression: hampers the ACE-V V methodology for latent print examinations; does not capture detail with sufficient clarity for the confidence needed by an expert; Was a compromise based on 1993 costs and politics. 1000ppi is merely a strong recommendation
34 Minimum Scan Resolution 1000ppi capture technology is now available and affordable Storage is affordable Transmission is affordable JPEG2000 is compression of choice 10:1 compression reduces, if not eliminates, image clarity loss attributable to a lossy technique.
35 Minimum Scan Resolution SWGFAST PROPOSAL The normal mode of finger- and palm print image capture should be 1000ppi minimum scan resolution. Images should be compressed using JPEG2000, not to exceed 10:1 compression. Legacy compatible 500ppi image capture and processing should be permitted.
36 Minimum Scan Resolution Day one forward proposal Image capture, storage and transmission is focus AFIS technology at 500ppi images is still workable
37 Defining Level Three Detail and 1000ppi Capture Resolution QUESTION How important is preventing terrorist acts and solving crimes?
FINGERPRINTING IS A SCIENCE - TAKE A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH FINGERPRINT CLEAN HANDS ONLY DRY HANDS THOROUGHLY ROLL FINGERS FROM NAIL-TO-NAIL NOTE THE CORES AND DELTAS TAKE IMPRESSIONS IN CORRECT ORDER PRODUCE
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