NIST s FIPS 201: Personal Identity Verification (PIV) of Federal Employees and Contractors Masaryk University in Brno Faculty of Informatics

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1 NIST s FIPS 201: Personal Identity Verification (PIV) of Federal Employees and Contractors Masaryk University in Brno Faculty of Informatics Jan Krhovják

2 Outline Introduction and basics of PIV Minimum requirements (PIV-I) Personal identity proofing & Registration Issuance & Maintenance Security & Privacy protecting Detailed technical specifications (PIV-II) System Overview Front-End Subsystem Issuance & Management Subsystem Access Control Subsystem Conclusion 2

3 Introduction to PIV Physical and logical access control process Access to the security-sensitive buildings, computer systems or data Authentication of individual s identity => need of PIV 25. February 2005 NIST released FIPS 201 Purpose of the standard Defining reliable government PIV system Developing standard within the constraints of law Standard composed of two parts: PIV-I, PIV-II PIV-II => technical interoperability 3

4 Basics of PIV (I,II) Four primary parties of PIV-I processes Applicant individual who needs PIV credentials Sponsor authority that consider applicants request Registrar entity responsible for identity proofing Issuer authorized identity card creator PIV-II adds other two parties Digital signatory signs PIV biometrics and CHUID Authentication certification authority 4

5 PIV-I: Control Objectives Each agency s PIV implementation shall meet four control objectives for secure and reliable forms of identification Based on sound criteria for verifying identity Strongly resistant to identity fraud, tampering, counterfeiting, and terrorist exploitation Can be rapidly authenticated electronically Can be issued only by providers established by official accreditation process List of 10 more detailed items specifies objectives 5

6 PIV-I: Identity Proofing & Registration Involves applicant, sponsor, and registrar Sponsor Signs and submits the original PIV request Applicant In-person appearance at a registrar enrollment station Presenting two forms of approved identification The documents are scanned and must go trough document proofing process that authenticates them (time consuming) Biometric information is also captured (PIV-II) Registrar Multiple fingerprints & facial photograph Cross-checking applicants against federal databases 6

7 PIV-I: Issuance & Maintenance Involves applicant and issuer Issuer Confirm validity of PIV request received from sponsor Controls creation and personalization of new PIV credential Shall notify sponsor & registrar that process is done Maintains requests, notices, expiration dates etc. Applicant (or authorized delegate) In-person appearance at issuer to collect credentials His identity must be verified Must sign acceptance of PIV credential and the related responsibilities 7

8 PIV-I: Security and Privacy PIV identity proofing, registration and issuance process adhere to the principle of separation No single individual can issue PIV credential PIV system must protecting privacy Special role of official for privacy Overseas the privacy-related matters Responsible for implementing privacy requirements Entire document should be published and maintained Types of collected information & purpose of collection Focused on personal information in identifiable form How information will be protected What information may be disclosed to whom Complete set of uses of credentials and related information 8

9 PIV-II: System Overview Basic functional components Front-end subsystem PIV card, cards and biometric readers, PIN input device Cardholder interacts with these components Card issuance and management subsystem Components responsible for identity proofing and registration, card and key issuance, management, various repositories and services (e.g. PKI, certificate status server) Access control subsystem Access control to physical and logical resources Technical specification is not part of this standard Various mechanisms are discussed Notional model + data flows => next slide 9

10 PIV-II: System Overview picture 10

11 PIV-II: PIV Card Life Cycle initiation request verifying claimed identity physical (visual surface) and logical (contents) personalization generating and loading logical credentials onto the card performing cardholder authentication for access destroying the card and all data and keys 11

12 PIV-II: Front-End Subsystem 1 Physical PIV card topology Printed material Shall not rub off or interfere with chip area Tamper proofing and resistance (at least one feature) Optical varying structures and inks Laser etching and engraving Watermarking, holographic images Physical characteristics and durability Visual topology (visual and printed information) Mandatory/optional items on the front/back of the card Logical identity credentials (details of composition) PIV card activation (PIN based) By cardholder or card management system 12

13 PIV-II: Front-End Subsystem 2 Cardholder unique identifier (CHUID) Federal Agency Smart Credential Number Expiration date Biometric data specifications Full set of fingerprints two compactly stored on card Accessible only over the contact interface after entry of PIN Facial image not required to be stored on the card Other characteristics (e.g. pixel depth and density) Card reader specifications Contains also requirements for PIN input devices For physical access integration within the reader For logical access may be used keyboard 13

14 PIV-II: Front-End Subsystem 3 Cryptographic specifications PIV card must store minimally one key pair And support correspondent cryptosystem PIV card shall implement RSA and ECC key pair generation RSA and ECC cryptographic operations Importation and storage of X.509 certificates Support of digital signature keys => cryptographic hash algorithm is not required (performed off-card) Operations using PIV keys shall be performed on-card PIV keys shall be generated within FIPS validated HSM (overall validation at Level 2 or above) PIV card shall provide Level 3 physical security! 14

15 PIV-II: Issuance & Management Subsystem Extends (and describes in detail) most of PIV-I processes Control objectives Interoperability requirements Identity proofing and registration Biometrics (fingerprints and facial image) Issuance and maintenance requirements PIV card: issuance, maintenance, renewal, reissuance, PIN reset, termination Key management requirements Architecture, PKI certificate (X.509 certificate/crl contents), migration from legacy PKIs, PKI repository Privacy requirements (equal to PIV-I) 15

16 PIV-II: Access Control Subsystem Three identity authentications assurance levels Some, high, or very high confidence Depending on used type of PIV credentials Technical specification is not part of this standard Basic types of authentication mechanisms PIV visual credentials (photograph, name, date ) PIV CHUID (contains numerous elements) PIV biometric (using attended or unattended) PIV asymmetric cryptography Selection of mechanism(s) is dependent also on presence/lack of (contact/contactless) card reader 16

17 Conclusion Access control process needs authentication of individual s identity => need of PIV NIST released FIPS 201 PIV system described in two parts PIV-I: Minimum requirements Describes basic processes PIV-II: Detailed technical specifications Supports technical interoperability Primary component of system is PIV card Used for authentication to various resources 17

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