Grammar as Science. Text by Richard K. Larson. Graphic design by Kimiko Ryokai. Supported by the National Science Foundation

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Grammar as Science. Text by Richard K. Larson. Graphic design by Kimiko Ryokai. Supported by the National Science Foundation"

Transcription

1 Grammar as Science Text by Richard K. Larson Graphic design by Kimiko Ryokai Supported by the National Science Foundation The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England

2 2010 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher. For information about special quantity discounts, please This book was set in Times Roman and Univers by SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong. Printed and bound in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Larson, Richard K. Grammar as science / Richard K. Larson ; designed and illustrated by Kimiko Ryokai. p. cm. Includes bibliographic references and index. ISBN (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Grammar, Comparative and general Syntax Textbooks. I. Ryokai, Kimiko. II. Title. P291.L dc

3 Index adjectives 28, 129 adjunction of N 337 adjuncts 220, 231, 233, , 266, iterability of 236, 264 lexical sensitivity of 244 optionality of 237 recursion of 236, 264 adverbials. See adverbs adverbs 29, 128, 130, 220 agent 228 Allen, C. 388 ambiguity semantic 51, 111 in structural formulas 198 syntactic arguments 240 arrow notation 41 articles 28, 128, 130 Asimov, I. 199 asterisks 58 auxiliary verbs 301 black box branches 46, 115 Bresnan, J. 236 case categories of words. See grammatical categories c-command 118 center embedding 150 chemical bonds 199 chemical valences 199 Chomsky, N. 3, 18, 82, 304 circular reasoning 172 clausal 294, 299, 309, 376 complementizers 290, 306 CP , , 408 complements 228, 247, 266, , complex NPs 328, 396, 409 conjunction 29, 84, , 128, 136, 188, 312 predicate conjunctions 95, 100 conjunction test 133, 261 constituency 96 97, , 172, 181, 247, 251, 286, 291, 299 constituency test 102, 104, 107, 110 constituent questions. See questions, wh-questions context-free rules 44 CP. See complementizers dative 128, 211, 217 declarative sentences 283 degree inflection 129 deletion. See ellipsis derivation family of 45, 50 derived nominals 328 Derry, G. 82 Descartes, R. 22 descriptive adequacy 365

4 430 Index determiners 29, 130, determiner phrase (DP) See also nouns D feature 290, direction feature 214 dislocation , 368 See also transformations, movement dislocation test , 128, 136, 172, 174, 181, 183, 188 ditransitive verbs , 249, 323 dominance 116 DP. See determiners duration feature 215 each... the other 121, 184 ellipsis , 136 ellipsis test , 111, 136, 138, 172, 174, 180 embedding center embedding 150 finite clauses nonfinite clauses sentence embedding 286, 287 exclamative sentences 284 explanatory adequacy family of derivations 45 features D (declarative) 290, dative 211, 217 direction 214 duration 215 inheritance , 223 locative 211, 214 manner 216, 220 number 225 PAST 304, 305, 306 PRES 304, 305, 306 Q-question 290, , 391 subcategory features TNS-tense 301, finite clauses 298 finiteness 301 Freud, S. 12 gerundive nominals 328 Goldstein, I. 4 Goldstein, M. 4 grammar 23, 54 alternative grammars 82 building a grammar 62 as a scientific theory 81 testing a grammar grammatical categories 27 29, 128, conjunction test for 133 function of 130 meaning of 130 subcategorization 207 substitution test for 131 Haegeman, L. 229 Harris, J. 13 head 222 Horn, L. 376 Humboldt, W. von hypotheses 55, 65, 81 idioms , 324 ill-formedness 59, 69 See also judgments infinitives. See embedding, nonfinite clauses inflection case degree 129 number 129 tense 129

5 Index 431 inheritance , 223 intensifiers 29 interrogative sentences. See questions intonation 284 islands , iterability 236, 264 Jackendoff, R. 345 judgments 55, 58 Keil, F. 4 knowledge of a grammar 39 of language 9 12, tacit 11 12, 54 Kuhn, T. 281 language as an artifact 5 as a natural object 5 See also knowledge of language lexical items 201 lexical rules 44, 69 lexical sensitivity 244 linguistic competence 31 locality , 378 locative feature 211, 214 locative proforms 317 manner feature 216, 220 measure phrase (MP) modal verbs 302 movement. See transformations N adjunction 337 native speaker intuitions. See judgments negative polarity items (NPIs) 119, 146, 184 nodes daughter 47 leaf. See nodes, terminal mother 46 root 46, 115 sister 47, 265 terminal 46, 115 See also tree diagrams normal science 281 nouns 28, 128 adjuncts complements , complex NPs 328 derived nominals 328 determiner phrase (DP) gerundive nominals 328 noun phrase (NP) 109, 211, 223, , 343, , 396, 406 possessive NPs 141 NP. See nouns number feature 225 number inflection 129 optionality 237 paradigm 281 participant roles. See thematic roles participles 128 parts of speech. See grammatical categories PAST feature patient 228 perfective have 301 Phase Principle , 417 phases 410 phonology 23 phrase markers. See tree diagram phrases. See tree diagram phrase structure rules 42 44, 348

6 432 Index picture noun phrases 380 Platts, M. 31 Popper, K. 38 possessive NPs 141 PP. See prepositions precedence 116 predicate conjunctions 95, 100 predictions 55, 68, 69, 86 prepositions 28, 128, 130, 218 complements of 252 prepositional phrase (PP) 109, 211, , 337, PRES feature principles 39 processing difficulties 153 proforms , 136, 181 locative 317 pro-predicate 105 See also pronouns proform replacement test 106, 136, 174, 181 progressive be 301 prominence 117 pronouns 128 pleonastic , 324 PRO , , , 376, 378 reflexive , 146, 184, 313, , Q feature 290, , 391 questions polarity questions 285 wh-questions 285, 369 See also transformations, wh-movement recursion 91, 101, 236, 264 in structural formulas 198 reflexive pronouns. See pronouns rhetoric 168 Rizzi, L Ross, J. R. 340 rules context-free 44 lexical 44, 69 phrase structure (PS) 42 44, 348 and principles 39 recursive 91, 101 structural 44 scientific theories 54, 81, 94 coverage of the facts 82 depth of understanding 82 fertility 82 grammar as a scientific theory 81 hypothetico-deductive structure of 81 predictions 55, 68, 69, 86 simplicity 82, 94 strongly equivalent 93 weakly equivalent 93 See also hypotheses semantic ambiguity 51, 111 semantics 23 sentence embedding 286, 287 sentential subjects 398 simplicity 82, 94 specifier 348, 391, 395, 400 strict cycle, principle of the structural formulas 198 structural rules 44 subcategorization 207 substitution test 131, 261 syntactic ambiguity 49 51, 111 tacit knowledge 11 12, 54 tense PAST 304, 305, 306 PRES 304, 305, 306 TNS feature 301, tense phrase (TP) ,

7 Index 433 terminal string 46 thematic roles 229, 240, 322 agent 228 patient 228 theme 228 theme 228 theories. See scientific theories theta roles. See thematic roles Thrax, D. 128 TNS feature 301, TP. See tense transformations adjunction islands complex NPs 396, 409 sentential subjects 398, 409 wh-islands 399, 409 movement , 136, 183, 188 gapped 384, targeted 384, trace wh-movement , , transitive verbs , 248, 376 tree diagrams 45, 96, 115 adjuncts 263 branches 46, 115 complement 247 daughter nodes 47 head 222 leaf nodes. See below, terminal nodes mother nodes 46 nodes 46, 115 phrases 222 phrase structure rules 42 44, 348 root nodes 46, 115 sister nodes 47, 265 specifier 348, 391, 395, 400 terminal nodes 46, 115 tree relations c-command , , 146, 149, 185 dominance 116 precedence 116 prominence 117 unacceptability 58, 152 ungrammaticality 58, 152 Universal Grammar 17 19, 365 verbs 28, 128, 129, 251 adjuncts 231, , 266 arguments 240 auxiliary 301 clausal complements 294, 299, 309, 376 complements 228, 266, 334 ditransitive , 249, 323 intransitive 69, , 376 modal 302 modifiers. See adjuncts perfective have 301 progressive be 301 transitive , 248, 376 verb phrase (VP) 96, 101, VP/ See verb wanna contraction 376 well-formedness 30, 56, 70 See also judgments wh-islands 399, 409 wh-movement. See transformations wh-questions 285, 369 wh-phrases 369 wh-words 369 X-Bar Hypothesis 349 yes/no questions. See questions, polarity questions

8

Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar

Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar Phrase Structure Grammar no movement, no transformations, context-free rules X/Y = X is a category which dominates a missing category Y Let G be the set of basic

More information

Correlation: ELLIS. English language Learning and Instruction System. and the TOEFL. Test Of English as a Foreign Language

Correlation: ELLIS. English language Learning and Instruction System. and the TOEFL. Test Of English as a Foreign Language Correlation: English language Learning and Instruction System and the TOEFL Test Of English as a Foreign Language Structure (Grammar) A major aspect of the ability to succeed on the TOEFL examination is

More information

stress, intonation and pauses and pronounce English sounds correctly. (b) To speak accurately to the listener(s) about one s thoughts and feelings,

stress, intonation and pauses and pronounce English sounds correctly. (b) To speak accurately to the listener(s) about one s thoughts and feelings, Section 9 Foreign Languages I. OVERALL OBJECTIVE To develop students basic communication abilities such as listening, speaking, reading and writing, deepening their understanding of language and culture

More information

L130: Chapter 5d. Dr. Shannon Bischoff. Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 1 / 25

L130: Chapter 5d. Dr. Shannon Bischoff. Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 1 / 25 L130: Chapter 5d Dr. Shannon Bischoff Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 1 / 25 Outline 1 Syntax 2 Clauses 3 Constituents Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 2 / 25 Outline Last time... Verbs...

More information

Constituency. The basic units of sentence structure

Constituency. The basic units of sentence structure Constituency The basic units of sentence structure Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words. Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words. a. The puppy hit the rock Meaning of

More information

AN AUGMENTED STATE TRANSITION NETWORK ANALYSIS PROCEDURE. Daniel G. Bobrow Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts

AN AUGMENTED STATE TRANSITION NETWORK ANALYSIS PROCEDURE. Daniel G. Bobrow Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts AN AUGMENTED STATE TRANSITION NETWORK ANALYSIS PROCEDURE Daniel G. Bobrow Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts Bruce Eraser Language Research Foundation Cambridge, Massachusetts Summary

More information

Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics

Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics Grade and Unit Timeframe Grammar Mechanics K Unit 1 6 weeks Oral grammar naming words K Unit 2 6 weeks Oral grammar Capitalization of a Name action words K Unit 3 6 weeks Oral grammar sentences Sentence

More information

MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE I / VOCATIONAL ENGLISH I

MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE I / VOCATIONAL ENGLISH I MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE I / VOCATIONAL ENGLISH I VOCATIONAL ENGLISH I / 2 credits 3 rd * Reviewing Basic English Grammar (word order, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, prepositions etc.) * Learning common

More information

English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation The grammar of our first language is learnt naturally and implicitly through interactions with other speakers and from reading. Explicit knowledge

More information

CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE. CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4. CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7. CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10. CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14

CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE. CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4. CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7. CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10. CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14 CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4 CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7 CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10 CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14 CHARTE NIVEAU C1 Pages 15-17 MAJ, le 11 juin 2014 A1 Skills-based

More information

Semantics and Generative Grammar. Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1

Semantics and Generative Grammar. Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1 Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1 1. Introduction Thus far, we ve considered two competing analyses of sentences like those in (1). (1) Sentences Where a Quantificational

More information

COURSE OBJECTIVES SPAN 100/101 ELEMENTARY SPANISH LISTENING. SPEAKING/FUNCTIONAl KNOWLEDGE

COURSE OBJECTIVES SPAN 100/101 ELEMENTARY SPANISH LISTENING. SPEAKING/FUNCTIONAl KNOWLEDGE SPAN 100/101 ELEMENTARY SPANISH COURSE OBJECTIVES This Spanish course pays equal attention to developing all four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing), with a special emphasis on

More information

English auxiliary verbs

English auxiliary verbs 1. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs serve grammatical functions, for this reason they are said to belong to the functional category of words. The main auxiliary verbs in English are DO, BE and HAVE. Others,

More information

Movement and Binding

Movement and Binding Movement and Binding Gereon Müller Institut für Linguistik Universität Leipzig SoSe 2008 www.uni-leipzig.de/ muellerg Gereon Müller (Institut für Linguistik) Constraints in Syntax 4 SoSe 2008 1 / 35 Principles

More information

Advanced Grammar in Use

Advanced Grammar in Use Advanced Grammar in Use A reference and practice book for advanced learners of English Third Edition without answers c a m b r i d g e u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid,

More information

ANGOL CSOPORTOS TANFOLYAMOK TEMATIKA

ANGOL CSOPORTOS TANFOLYAMOK TEMATIKA INVEST ENGLISH NYELVISKOLA 1147 BUDAPEST, Lovász utca 7. [XIV. kerület] +36 20 583 2208 info@investenglish.hu www.investenglish.hu ANGOL CSOPORTOS TANFOLYAMOK TEMATIKA Tartalom I. ALAPSZINT... 2 II. KÖZÉPSZINT...

More information

Outline of today s lecture

Outline of today s lecture Outline of today s lecture Generative grammar Simple context free grammars Probabilistic CFGs Formalism power requirements Parsing Modelling syntactic structure of phrases and sentences. Why is it useful?

More information

Non-nominal Which-Relatives

Non-nominal Which-Relatives Non-nominal Which-Relatives Doug Arnold, Robert D. Borsley University of Essex The properties of non-restrictive relatives All non-restrictive relative clauses include a wh-word. There are no that or zero

More information

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns.

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns. English Parts of speech Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech. Here are some of their highlights. Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Articles Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Click on any of the

More information

UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELL AQUILA CENTRO LINGUISTICO DI ATENEO

UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELL AQUILA CENTRO LINGUISTICO DI ATENEO TESTING DI LINGUA INGLESE: PROGRAMMA DI TUTTI I LIVELLI - a.a. 2010/2011 Collaboratori e Esperti Linguistici di Lingua Inglese: Dott.ssa Fatima Bassi e-mail: fatimacarla.bassi@fastwebnet.it Dott.ssa Liliana

More information

Extended Projections of Adjectives and Comparative Deletion

Extended Projections of Adjectives and Comparative Deletion Julia Bacskai-Atkari 25th Scandinavian Conference University of Potsdam (SFB-632) in Linguistics (SCL-25) julia.bacskai-atkari@uni-potsdam.de Reykjavík, 13 15 May 2013 0. Introduction Extended Projections

More information

Pupil SPAG Card 1. Terminology for pupils. I Can Date Word

Pupil SPAG Card 1. Terminology for pupils. I Can Date Word Pupil SPAG Card 1 1 I know about regular plural noun endings s or es and what they mean (for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes) 2 I know the regular endings that can be added to verbs (e.g. helping, helped,

More information

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing 2 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Unit 4 Infinitive Phrases Review Units 1 and 2 introduced some of the building blocks of sentences, including noun phrases

More information

COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX

COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX COLING 82, J. Horeck~ (ed.j North-Holland Publishing Compa~y Academia, 1982 COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX Ludmila UhliFova - Zva Nebeska - Jan Kralik Czech Language Institute Czechoslovak Academy

More information

MODULE 15 Diagram the organizational structure of your company.

MODULE 15 Diagram the organizational structure of your company. Student name: Date: MODULE 15 Diagram the organizational structure of your company. Objectives: A. Diagram the organizational chart for your place of business. B. Determine the importance of organization

More information

English Descriptive Grammar

English Descriptive Grammar English Descriptive Grammar 2015/2016 Code: 103410 ECTS Credits: 6 Degree Type Year Semester 2500245 English Studies FB 1 1 2501902 English and Catalan FB 1 1 2501907 English and Classics FB 1 1 2501910

More information

A Survey of ASL Tenses

A Survey of ASL Tenses A Survey of ASL Tenses Karen Alkoby DePaul University School of Computer Science Chicago, IL kalkoby@shrike.depaul.edu Abstract This paper examines tenses in American Sign Language (ASL), which will be

More information

Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face

Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face 1A Question Forms 1.1 Yes-No Questions 1. If the first verb is an auxiliary verb, just move it in front of the Subject:

More information

English Language Proficiency Standards: At A Glance February 19, 2014

English Language Proficiency Standards: At A Glance February 19, 2014 English Language Proficiency Standards: At A Glance February 19, 2014 These English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standards were collaboratively developed with CCSSO, West Ed, Stanford University Understanding

More information

The New Forest Small School

The New Forest Small School The New Forest Small School Spanish For Children Aged 11 to 16 OCR GCSE in Spanish J732 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To provide: A meaningful and enjoyable educational experience Known and achievable but challenging

More information

Early Morphological Development

Early Morphological Development Early Morphological Development Morphology is the aspect of language concerned with the rules governing change in word meaning. Morphological development is analyzed by computing a child s Mean Length

More information

English Language (first language, first year)

English Language (first language, first year) Class contents and exam requirements English Language (first language, first year) Code 30123, Learning Path 1 Head Teacher: Prof. Helen Cecilia TOOKE Objectives pag. 2 Program pag. 2 Set and recommended

More information

Annotation Guidelines for Dutch-English Word Alignment

Annotation Guidelines for Dutch-English Word Alignment Annotation Guidelines for Dutch-English Word Alignment version 1.0 LT3 Technical Report LT3 10-01 Lieve Macken LT3 Language and Translation Technology Team Faculty of Translation Studies University College

More information

No Evidence. 8.9 f X

No Evidence. 8.9 f X Section I. Correlation with the 2010 English Standards of Learning and Curriculum Framework- Grade 8 Writing Summary Adequate Rating Limited No Evidence Section I. Correlation with the 2010 English Standards

More information

The finite verb and the clause: IP

The finite verb and the clause: IP Introduction to General Linguistics WS12/13 page 1 Syntax 6 The finite verb and the clause: Course teacher: Sam Featherston Important things you will learn in this section: The head of the clause The positions

More information

ONLINE ENGLISH LANGUAGE RESOURCES

ONLINE ENGLISH LANGUAGE RESOURCES ONLINE ENGLISH LANGUAGE RESOURCES Developed and updated by C. Samuel for students taking courses at the English and French Language Centre, Faculty of Arts (Links live as at November 2, 2009) Dictionaries

More information

Differences in linguistic and discourse features of narrative writing performance. Dr. Bilal Genç 1 Dr. Kağan Büyükkarcı 2 Ali Göksu 3

Differences in linguistic and discourse features of narrative writing performance. Dr. Bilal Genç 1 Dr. Kağan Büyükkarcı 2 Ali Göksu 3 Yıl/Year: 2012 Cilt/Volume: 1 Sayı/Issue:2 Sayfalar/Pages: 40-47 Differences in linguistic and discourse features of narrative writing performance Abstract Dr. Bilal Genç 1 Dr. Kağan Büyükkarcı 2 Ali Göksu

More information

COURSE SYLLABUS ESU 561 ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. Fall 2014

COURSE SYLLABUS ESU 561 ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. Fall 2014 COURSE SYLLABUS ESU 561 ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Fall 2014 EDU 561 (85515) Instructor: Bart Weyand Classroom: Online TEL: (207) 985-7140 E-Mail: weyand@maine.edu COURSE DESCRIPTION: This is a practical

More information

Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT

Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT This handout is designed to give you a very brief (and, of necessity, incomplete) overview of the different types of sentence structure and how the elements of

More information

Errata: Carnie (2008) Constituent Structure. Oxford University Press (MAY 2009) A NOTE OF EXPLANATION:

Errata: Carnie (2008) Constituent Structure. Oxford University Press (MAY 2009) A NOTE OF EXPLANATION: Errata: Carnie (2008) Constituent Structure. Oxford University Press (MAY 2009) A NOTE OF EXPLANATION: Dear Readers. There are a very large number of errata for this book. Most are minor but some of them

More information

Paraphrasing controlled English texts

Paraphrasing controlled English texts Paraphrasing controlled English texts Kaarel Kaljurand Institute of Computational Linguistics, University of Zurich kaljurand@gmail.com Abstract. We discuss paraphrasing controlled English texts, by defining

More information

Right Node Raising and the LCA

Right Node Raising and the LCA 1 Right Node Raising and the LCA CHRIS WILDER 1 Constituent sharing in coordination In (1), a typical right node raising (RNR) sentence, the object the book is a constituent shared by the verbs of both

More information

A step-by-step introduction to the Government and Binding theory of syntax

A step-by-step introduction to the Government and Binding theory of syntax A step-by-step introduction to the Government and Binding theory of syntax Cheryl A. Black SIL - Mexico Branch and University of North Dakota Designed for use as a textbook, this paper provides a data-motivated,

More information

A Beautiful Four Days in Berlin Takafumi Maekawa (Ryukoku University) maekawa@soc.ryukoku.ac.jp

A Beautiful Four Days in Berlin Takafumi Maekawa (Ryukoku University) maekawa@soc.ryukoku.ac.jp A Beautiful Four Days in Berlin Takafumi Maekawa (Ryukoku University) maekawa@soc.ryukoku.ac.jp 1. The Data This paper presents an analysis of such noun phrases as in (1) within the framework of Head-driven

More information

How the Computer Translates. Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD.

How the Computer Translates. Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD. Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD. How the Computer Translates Machine translation is a special field of computer application where almost everyone believes that he/she is a specialist.

More information

PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline

PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline August 2011 V2 Pearson Education Ltd 2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of Pearson Education Ltd. Introduction The

More information

Straightforward Pre-intermediate Practice Online

Straightforward Pre-intermediate Practice Online Macmillan Practice Online is the easy way to get all the benefits of online learning and with over 100 courses to choose from, covering all competence levels and ranging from business English to exam practice

More information

Exam Information: Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE)

Exam Information: Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE) Exam Information: Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE) Specifications Guide for Teachers Regulations These qualifications in English for speakers of other languages are mapped to Levels A1 to C2

More information

Towards portable natural language interfaces to knowledge bases The case of the ORAKEL system

Towards portable natural language interfaces to knowledge bases The case of the ORAKEL system Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Data & Knowledge Engineering 65 (2008) 325 354 www.elsevier.com/locate/datak Towards portable natural language interfaces to knowledge bases The case of the ORAKEL

More information

Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702)

Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702) Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702) Introduction This document offers guidance on content that students might typically explore

More information

Elementary (A1) Group Course

Elementary (A1) Group Course COURSE DETAILS Elementary (A1) Group Course 45 hours Two 90-minute lessons per week Study Centre/homework 2 hours per week (recommended minimum) A1(Elementary) min 6 max 8 people Price per person 650,00

More information

Presented to The Federal Big Data Working Group Meetup On 07 June 2014 By Chuck Rehberg, CTO Semantic Insights a Division of Trigent Software

Presented to The Federal Big Data Working Group Meetup On 07 June 2014 By Chuck Rehberg, CTO Semantic Insights a Division of Trigent Software Semantic Research using Natural Language Processing at Scale; A continued look behind the scenes of Semantic Insights Research Assistant and Research Librarian Presented to The Federal Big Data Working

More information

RED ANUAL DE CONTENIDOS INGLÉS 2014 SÉPTIMO BÁSICO

RED ANUAL DE CONTENIDOS INGLÉS 2014 SÉPTIMO BÁSICO RED ANUAL DE CONTENIDOS INGLÉS 2014 SÉPTIMO BÁSICO MES CONTENIDOS * Welcome * Introducing yourself * Reading Protocole * Calendar of Evaluations MARZO * Review : a.-present Simple b.-clothes c.-colors

More information

Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE)

Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE) Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE) Syllabus from 1 February 2010 These qualifications in English for speakers of other languages are mapped to Levels A1 to C2 in the Common European Framework

More information

CINTIL-PropBank. CINTIL-PropBank Sub-corpus id Sentences Tokens Domain Sentences for regression atsts 779 5,654 Test

CINTIL-PropBank. CINTIL-PropBank Sub-corpus id Sentences Tokens Domain Sentences for regression atsts 779 5,654 Test CINTIL-PropBank I. Basic Information 1.1. Corpus information The CINTIL-PropBank (Branco et al., 2012) is a set of sentences annotated with their constituency structure and semantic role tags, composed

More information

WHY DO TEACHERS OF ENGLISH HAVE TO KNOW GRAMMAR?

WHY DO TEACHERS OF ENGLISH HAVE TO KNOW GRAMMAR? CHAPTER 1 Introduction The Teacher s Grammar of English is designed for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. In discussions of English language teaching, the distinction is often made between

More information

EiM Syllabus. If you have any questions, please feel free to talk to your teacher or the Academic Manager.

EiM Syllabus. If you have any questions, please feel free to talk to your teacher or the Academic Manager. EiM Syllabus EiM Syllabus First, a word about our EiM courses. The Standard Course focuses on the key skills areas of listening, speaking, reading and writing while, underlying this is the emphasis on

More information

Rethinking the relationship between transitive and intransitive verbs

Rethinking the relationship between transitive and intransitive verbs Rethinking the relationship between transitive and intransitive verbs Students with whom I have studied grammar will remember my frustration at the idea that linking verbs can be intransitive. Nonsense!

More information

Scrambling in German - Extraction into the Mittelfeld

Scrambling in German - Extraction into the Mittelfeld Scrambling in German - Extraction into the Mittelfeld Stefan Mailer* Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin August, 1995 Abstract German is a language with a relatively free word order. During the last few years

More information

AUTHOR GUIDELINES Handbook Articles

AUTHOR GUIDELINES Handbook Articles Handbook Articles Table of Contents I. Manuscript Submission 2 II. Article Structure 2 III. Figures, Tables, Audio Files, and Videos 3 IV. Style Preferences 4 V. Formatting 5 VI. Reference Style 5 I. Manuscript

More information

Extraposition, the Right Roof Constraint, Result Clauses, Relative Clause Extraposition, and PP Extraposition

Extraposition, the Right Roof Constraint, Result Clauses, Relative Clause Extraposition, and PP Extraposition Extraposition, the Right Roof Constraint, Result Clauses, Relative Clause Extraposition, and PP Extraposition Mark R. Baltin revised version to appear in The Syntax Companion New York University First

More information

GRAMATICA INGLESA I GUÍA DOCENTE

GRAMATICA INGLESA I GUÍA DOCENTE GRAMATICA INGLESA I GUÍA DOCENTE 1. DATOS GENERALES DE LA ASIGNATURA ASIGNATURA: GRAMÁTICA INGLESA I CÓDIGO: CARÁCTER (señalar con una X la modalidad correspondiente): X Asignatura de Formación Básica

More information

Cross-linguistic differences in the interpretation of sentences with more than one QP: German (Frey 1993) and Hungarian (É Kiss 1991)

Cross-linguistic differences in the interpretation of sentences with more than one QP: German (Frey 1993) and Hungarian (É Kiss 1991) Cross-linguistic differences in the interpretation of sentences with more than one QP: German (Frey 1993) and Hungarian (É Kiss 1991) 1. Quantifier Scope in English (May 1977, 1985) Predictions of May

More information

UNIVERSITY OF ŽILINA in ŽILINA Faculty of Humanities Univerzitná 1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia

UNIVERSITY OF ŽILINA in ŽILINA Faculty of Humanities Univerzitná 1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia Introduction to the Study of English language 1-2 Introduction to the Study of English Language 1: This course focuses on the essentials of English linguistics. It provides students with a general perspective

More information

The Michigan State University - Certificate of English Language Proficiency (MSU-CELP)

The Michigan State University - Certificate of English Language Proficiency (MSU-CELP) The Michigan State University - Certificate of English Language Proficiency (MSU-CELP) The Certificate of English Language Proficiency Examination from Michigan State University is a four-section test

More information

Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission.

Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. Three Reasons for Not Deriving "Kill" from "Cause to Die" Author(s): J. A. Fodor Source: Linguistic Inquiry, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Oct., 1970), pp. 429-438 Published by: The MIT Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4177587.

More information

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON EXAMINATION FOR INTERNAL STUDENTS

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON EXAMINATION FOR INTERNAL STUDENTS UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON University of London EXAMINATION FOR INTERNAL STUDENTS For the following qualifications :- B.A. Italian X255: Issues in Italian Syntax COURSE CODE : ITALX255 UNIT VALUE : 0.50

More information

Syntactic Theory on Swedish

Syntactic Theory on Swedish Syntactic Theory on Swedish Mats Uddenfeldt Pernilla Näsfors June 13, 2003 Report for Introductory course in NLP Department of Linguistics Uppsala University Sweden Abstract Using the grammar presented

More information

Indiana Department of Education

Indiana Department of Education GRADE 1 READING Guiding Principle: Students read a wide range of fiction, nonfiction, classic, and contemporary works, to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United

More information

FRENCH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TRAINING

FRENCH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TRAINING FRENCH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TRAINING Beginner 1 This course is intended for people who have never studied French or people who have taken French in the past but have either forgotten most of it or have

More information

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Objetivos de Habilidades: inglés El objetivo de la prueba es comprobar que el alumno ha adquirido un nivel B1 (dentro

More information

Course Syllabus My TOEFL ibt Preparation Course Online sessions: M, W, F 15:00-16:30 PST

Course Syllabus My TOEFL ibt Preparation Course Online sessions: M, W, F 15:00-16:30 PST Course Syllabus My TOEFL ibt Preparation Course Online sessions: M, W, F Instructor Contact Information Office Location Virtual Office Hours Course Announcements Email Technical support Anastasiia V. Mixcoatl-Martinez

More information

Morphology. Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning

Morphology. Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning Morphology Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. Some observations about words and their structure: 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning 2. many

More information

Machine Translation as a Global Enterprise Service at Ford

Machine Translation as a Global Enterprise Service at Ford Machine Translation as a Global Enterprise Service at Ford Craig Plesco Nestor Rychtyckyj Ford Motor Company Ford Motor Company Dearborn, MI 48121 Dearborn, MI 48121 USA USA cplesco@ford.com nrychtyc@ford.com

More information

B2+ Student s Book David Spencer

B2+ Student s Book David Spencer B2+ Student s Book David Spencer Contents 1 p6 Reading Vocabulary Grammar Quirkology human behaviour Sociology, psychology, etc Past tenses Social research experiment Body idioms and human interaction

More information

This paper examines production of complex, noncanonical sentences

This paper examines production of complex, noncanonical sentences 228 JSLHR, Volume 40, 228 244, April 1997 Training and Generalized Production of wh- and NP-Movement Structures in Agrammatic Aphasia Cynthia K. Thompson Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders

More information

Year 10/13 Preparation to AS examination. Spanish tradition La romeria del Rocio reading comprehension.

Year 10/13 Preparation to AS examination. Spanish tradition La romeria del Rocio reading comprehension. Subject SPANISH ADVANCED Year 10/13 Preparation to AS examination Week Unit Title Aims 1 My world My country, My family and Genealogical tree. Vocabulary: relatives Spanish tradition La romeria del Rocio

More information

KEY CONCEPTS IN TRANSFORMATIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR

KEY CONCEPTS IN TRANSFORMATIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR KEY CONCEPTS IN TRANSFORMATIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR Chris A. Adetuyi (Ph.D) Department of English and Literary Studies Lead City University, Ibadan Nigeria ABSTRACT Olatayo Olusola Fidelis Department of

More information

Natural Language Database Interface for the Community Based Monitoring System *

Natural Language Database Interface for the Community Based Monitoring System * Natural Language Database Interface for the Community Based Monitoring System * Krissanne Kaye Garcia, Ma. Angelica Lumain, Jose Antonio Wong, Jhovee Gerard Yap, Charibeth Cheng De La Salle University

More information

ž Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG) associates at least one elementary tree with every lexical item.

ž Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG) associates at least one elementary tree with every lexical item. Advanced Natural Language Processing Lecture 11 Grammar Formalisms (II): LTAG, CCG Bonnie Webber (slides by Mark teedman, Bonnie Webber and Frank Keller) 12 October 2012 Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar

More information

Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1. Topic of the dissertation

Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1. Topic of the dissertation Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1. Topic of the dissertation The topic of the dissertation is the relations between transitive verbs, aspect, and case marking in Estonian. Aspectual particles, verbs, and case

More information

ORAKEL: A Portable Natural Language Interface to Knowledge Bases

ORAKEL: A Portable Natural Language Interface to Knowledge Bases ORAKEL: A Portable Natural Language Interface to Knowledge Bases Philipp Cimiano, Peter Haase, Jörg Heizmann, Matthias Mantel March 1, 2007 Chapter 1 Introduction As the amount of information available

More information

2013 Spanish. Higher Listening/Writing. Finalised Marking Instructions

2013 Spanish. Higher Listening/Writing. Finalised Marking Instructions 203 Spanish Higher Listening/Writing Finalised Marking Instructions Scottish Qualifications Authority 203 The information in this publication may be reproduced to support SQA qualifications only on a noncommercial

More information

TIP INTRODUCTION (TEST DE INGLÉS PRELIMINAR) A Detailed Specification

TIP INTRODUCTION (TEST DE INGLÉS PRELIMINAR) A Detailed Specification TIP (TEST DE INGLÉS PRELIMINAR) A Detailed Specification INTRODUCTION The TIP exam has been scaled in accordance with the levelling specifications of the Council of Europe Common European Framework (CEF)

More information

Slot Grammars. Michael C. McCord. Computer Science Department University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506

Slot Grammars. Michael C. McCord. Computer Science Department University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506 Michael C. McCord Computer Science Department University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506 This paper presents an approach to natural language grammars and parsing in which slots and rules for filling

More information

FORMAT GUIDELINES FOR DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS. Northwestern University The Graduate School Last revised 1/23/2015

FORMAT GUIDELINES FOR DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS. Northwestern University The Graduate School Last revised 1/23/2015 FORMAT GUIDELINES FOR DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS Northwestern University The Graduate School Last revised 1/23/2015 Formatting questions not addressed in this document should be directed to Student Services,

More information

Curriculum for the Bachelor Degree in English Language and Literature

Curriculum for the Bachelor Degree in English Language and Literature Curriculum for the Bachelor Degree in The curriculum for the B.S.c. degree in (12) credit hours are distributed as follows:- No. 1 2 4 Requirements University Requirements Compulsory Elective Faculty Requirements

More information

CALICO Journal, Volume 9 Number 1 9

CALICO Journal, Volume 9 Number 1 9 PARSING, ERROR DIAGNOSTICS AND INSTRUCTION IN A FRENCH TUTOR GILLES LABRIE AND L.P.S. SINGH Abstract: This paper describes the strategy used in Miniprof, a program designed to provide "intelligent' instruction

More information

Natural Language News Generation from Big Data

Natural Language News Generation from Big Data Natural Language News Generation from Big Data Bastian Haarmann, Lukas Sikorski Abstract In this paper, we introduce an NLG application for the automatic creation of ready-to-publish texts from big data.

More information

INF5820 Natural Language Processing - NLP. H2009 Jan Tore Lønning jtl@ifi.uio.no

INF5820 Natural Language Processing - NLP. H2009 Jan Tore Lønning jtl@ifi.uio.no INF5820 Natural Language Processing - NLP H2009 Jan Tore Lønning jtl@ifi.uio.no Semantic Role Labeling INF5830 Lecture 13 Nov 4, 2009 Today Some words about semantics Thematic/semantic roles PropBank &

More information

Basic English Grammar Module Unit 1A: Grammatical Units

Basic English Grammar Module Unit 1A: Grammatical Units Basic English Grammar Module Unit 1A: Grammatical Units Objectives of the Basic English Grammar module As a student at any level of University study, when you write your assignments or your thesis, your

More information

English Discoveries Online Alignment with Common European Framework of Reference

English Discoveries Online Alignment with Common European Framework of Reference English Discoveries Online Alignment with Common European Framework of Reference COPYRIGHT NOTICE English Discoveries Online, its documentation, and all related materials are copyrighted. All rights are

More information

Things That Look Like Verbs But Aren t (And Why)

Things That Look Like Verbs But Aren t (And Why) 1). Nouns Things That Look Like Verbs But Aren t (And Why) - Gerunds: A gerund looks the ing form of the verb. If it is followed by be or if it follows a preposition then it is a gerund. Running is an

More information

A Minimalist View on the Syntax of BECOME *

A Minimalist View on the Syntax of BECOME * A Minimalist View on the Syntax of BECOME * Sze-Wing Tang The Hong Kong Polytechnic University 301 1. Introduction In his seminal study of lexical decomposition of English verbs, McCawley (1968) proposes

More information

Invited talks (in Hungary unless marked otherwise)

Invited talks (in Hungary unless marked otherwise) Invited talks (in Hungary unless marked otherwise) 1972 On the possibility of applying generative Copenhagen, Denmark grammars for contrasting languages 3rd International Congress of Applied Linguistics

More information

At War with the Weather Managing Large-Scale Risks in a New Era of Catastrophes

At War with the Weather Managing Large-Scale Risks in a New Era of Catastrophes At War with the Weather Managing Large-Scale Risks in a New Era of Catastrophes Howard C. Kunreuther and Erwann O. Michel-Kerjan with Neil A. Doherty, Martin F. Grace, Robert W. Klein, and Mark V. Pauly

More information

LANGUAGE! 4 th Edition, Levels A C, correlated to the South Carolina College and Career Readiness Standards, Grades 3 5

LANGUAGE! 4 th Edition, Levels A C, correlated to the South Carolina College and Career Readiness Standards, Grades 3 5 Page 1 of 57 Grade 3 Reading Literary Text Principles of Reading (P) Standard 1: Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. Standard 2: Demonstrate understanding of spoken

More information

English-Japanese machine translation

English-Japanese machine translation [Information processing: proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing, Unesco, Paris 1959] 163 English-Japanese machine translation By S. Takahashi, H. Wada, R. Tadenuma and S.

More information

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC COMMON CORE ALIGNMENT PROJECT

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC COMMON CORE ALIGNMENT PROJECT NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC COMMON CORE ALIGNMENT PROJECT Book Series: National Geographic Investigates READING- INFORMATIONAL Science TEXT STANDARDS SIXTH GRADE CCSS.ELA- Literacy.RI.6.1 Cite textual evidence

More information

Proceedings of the LFG02 Conference. National Technical University of Athens, Athens. Miriam Butt and Tracy Holloway King (Editors) CSLI Publications

Proceedings of the LFG02 Conference. National Technical University of Athens, Athens. Miriam Butt and Tracy Holloway King (Editors) CSLI Publications GETARUN PARSER A parser equipped with Quantifier Raising and Anaphoric Binding based on LFG Rodolfo Delmonte Ca' Garzoni-Moro, San Marco 3417 Università "Ca Foscari" 30124 - VENEZIA Tel. 39-41-2578464/52/19

More information