Intellectual leadership: I know it when I see it, and not before (David Watson)

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1 SRHEAnnualConference Whereisthewisdomwehavelostinknowledge? Exploring Meaning,IdentitiesandTransformationinHigherEducation(14 16December,2010) Roundtable EXPLORINGINTELLECTUALLEADERSHIP Chair:BruceMacfarlane,TheUniversityofHongKong Abstract The study of leadership and management in higher education is closely associated with examining the challenges of senior academics holding formally designated roles, such as headsofdepartment,deansoffacultyandvicechancellors.bycomparison,relativelylittle attention has focused on understanding the broader concept of intellectual leadership linked to the work of academics in informal and distributed roles operating within and beyond their institutional context. This observation prompts a number of questions which willformthestartingpointforaroundtablediscussion: Whatisintellectualleadership?Whatarethepurposesofintellectualleadership? Whatarethequalitiesorcharacteristicsofanintellectualleader? Whatistheroleofintellectualleadershipbothwithinandwithouttheuniversity? Howcanintellectualleadershipre shapeourunderstandingofconventionalnotions ofuniversityleadershipandmanagement? Howcanintellectualleadershipbefosteredandsustained? Aseriesofopinionpieceshavebeencontributedbyleadingresearchersandwritersabout leadershipinhighereducationinsupportofthisroundtableproposal: IntellectualLeadership:Whatdoesitmean?(RobinMiddlehurst) Whatisintellectualleadership?(RosemaryDeem) Intellectualleadership:IknowitwhenIseeit,andnotbefore(DavidWatson) Intellectualleadershipandtransdisciplinarity(MJCCrabbe) LeadingIntellectuals(AmandaH.Goodall) Intellectualleadershipamonguniversityprofessors:beyondthemachomyth(Bruce Macfarlane) 1

2 IntellectualLeadership:Whatdoesitmean? RobinMiddlehurst(Professorofhighereducation,KingstonUniversityandtheLeadership Foundationforhighereducation) Tothemaninthestreet,who,I msorrytosay, isakeenobserveroflife, Theword Intellectual suggestsstraightaway Amanwho suntruetohiswife. (W.H.Auden,IV,Shorts )(OxfordDictionaryofQuotations.(3 rd.ed.)(1979).oxford, OxfordUniversityPress.p20) Forwhowouldlose,thoughfullofpain,thisintellectualbeing, Thosethoughtsthatwanderthrougheternity, Toperishrather,swallowedupandlost Inthewidewombofuncreatednight, Devoidofsenseandmotion? (Milton,J.,ParadiseLost,1.146)(OxfordDictionaryofQuotations.(3 rd.ed.)(1979).oxford, OxfordUniversityPress.p346) HowEugeneAram,thoughathief,aliar,andamurderer, Yet,beingintellectual,wasamongstthenoblestofmankind. (C.S.Calvery,OfReading)(OxfordDictionaryofQuotations.(3 rd.ed.)(1979).oxford,oxford UniversityPress.p127) Introduction Intellectuals havebeenreveredandreviled,probablyinequalmeasure,overtime,epoch andculture.likemanyotherlabelssuchas hero, activist or saint,theterm intellectual isperceiveddifferentlybydifferentgroupsandsocieties.insocietiesfromancientgreece throughchina,russiaandmodern dayiraq,myanmarandnorthkorea,intellectualshave beenpersecutedandprosecutedforviewsthatchallengeprevailingvalues,ideasorpolitical powerblocs,yetinotherregionssuchasscandinavia,intellectualsenjoyasocialand politicalstatusthatreflectstheirvaluetosociety.thereactiontointellectualsmayliedeep inthecharacterofasociety(ifhofstede s(2001)characterisationsof collectivist and individualist societiesarevalid),ormayberelatedtohow intellectuals perceivetheirrole andcarryouttheiractivitieswithinandoutsideestablished(andsometimesprotected) locationssuchasuniversities,politicalarenas,orthemedia. Ourtopicisnotintellectualsingeneral,butacademicsworkinginhighereducation,witha particularfocuson intellectualleadership.however,itisfirstworththinkingabout intellectualsandhowtheyarereceivedinoursociety,ifwearetounderstandtheirrole withintheacademy.theukhasachequeredhistorywithregardtointellectuals;someare recognisedthroughnobelprizes(chosenfromoutsidetheuk)andothersarerecognised throughthehonours systemorotherpublicprizesfortheircontributionstoscience, engineeringorotherprofessionalandacademicdomains.yetintellectualsarealsoignored ordisownedwhentheirideasarechallengingtopoliticiansortoothervestedinterests (includingacademicinterests):arecentexamplebeingthedismissalofdavidnutt,chairof theadvisorycouncilonthemisuseofdrugsbyalanjohnson,homesecretary,on30 October2009,afterquestioninggovernmentpolicy.TheparticularcontextoftheUKmay, perhaps,callforaparticularkindofintellectualleadershipfromacademics,onethatis 2

3 resilient,forthrightandcapableofwithstandingsignificantacademic,politicalandmedia challenges. Intellectualleadershipinauniversitycontext ThewidersocietalcontextwithinandbeyondtheUKisimportantforanunderstandingof theroleofintellectualsandintellectualleadership,butthisisnotcompletewithoutan appreciationof academicfreedom and institutionalautonomy intheuk,theformer enshrinedinlaw,thelatterpartofcustom,practiceandpublicrhetoric.alsoimportantis theprincipleof freedomofspeech asappliedmorebroadlyinuksociety. Thesethreeconceptsandpractices,Isuggest,lieattheheartofacademicprivilegeand academicduty.thefirstoffersauniqueprivilegewhilealsoplacingadutyonindividual academics(andgroupsofacademics)toexercisetheiracademicfreedombyteaching, researching,publishingandengaginginpublicdialogueanddebate,freeofpolitical constraints.thesecondplacesadutyonuniversitiesindividuallyandcollectivelytoexercise theirautonomybysupportingandpromotingintellectualleadershipatalllevels.thethird placesarequirementonuniversitiesas protectedspaces tosupportandpromotefreedom ofspeech.thesethreeprinciplesofferarationaleandlegitimacyfortheexerciseof intellectualleadershipandalsosuggestarequirementforitiftheseprivilegesaretobe retainedbyhighereducation. Individualacademics,atalllevels,havethepotentialtoexercise intellectualleadership throughthepoweroftheirideaspromulgatedintheclassroom,thelaboratory,seminal textsorothermedia.thispowermaybechannelledandformalisedthroughpromotion withinaninstitution,asindividualsmovethroughtheranksoflecturertoprofessor.other individualsmayearnthesetitlesandassociatedprivilegesthroughenteringacademiavia professionalpracticeroutes.groupsofacademics,particularlyinscienceandtechnology disciplines,mayexerciseintellectualleadershipinsimilarways.butseekingtoexercise intellectualleadership andbeinggrantedtheaccoladeof intellectualleader arenotthe same.recognitionofachievementsisgrantedbyotherswithintheacademyandoutsideit; leadershipwithoutfollowersisapaththatquicklypetersout. Thosewhoarerecognisedas intellectualleaders haveadoubleduty:tocontinueto practicetheirscienceorartasindividuals(andgroups)andtonurtureotherswhowill extendandchallengetheirideas.theywillbeassisted orhindered bythecultureand climatecreatedbytheuniversityinwhichtheyarelocated. Intellectualleadership can flourishorbestifledbyuniversities.whereitisencouragedandpromoted,theuniversityis likelytogainprestigeandreputation.inpractice,universitiespromoteintellectual leadershipthroughacademicandmanagerialchannels.headsofdepartment,deansand ProViceChancellorscanshapethisculturethroughinstitutionalstructuresandprocesses; professorsandresearchteamleaderscanshapetheculturethroughdisciplinesand academicprocesses.bothdomainsshapethestandardsandpracticesoftheacademic enterprise:intellectualleadershipintoday suniversitiesrequiresstrongacademicand managerialcultures. References Hofstede,G.(2 nd ed.)(2001).culture sconsequences:comparingvalues,behaviours, institutionsandorganizationsacrossnations.thousandoaks,ca:sagepublications Ailon,G.(2008). Mirror,mirroronthewall:Culture sconsequencesinavaluetestofits owndesign.theacademyofmanagementreview.33(4):

4 Whatisintellectualleadership? RosemaryDeem(DeanofHistoryandSocialSciencesandProfessorofHigherEducation Management,RoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondon) Intellectualleadershipmightusefullybedefinedasleadershipthatinvolvessettingand enablingotherstocontributetointellectualagendas,theproductionandcommunicationof newknowledgeorthereconstructionandcommunicationofoldknowledgeinnewways andthecapacitytomapandcontributetothefuturedirectionofintellectualcurrents, whetherintheacademicorpublicrealm.itissomethingthatmaybeprovidedeitherviaa formalleadershippositionorinformally.theroleofpublicintellectualsinproviding intellectualleadershipincivilsocietyandthedeploymentofacademicideasandknowledge inpoliticalengagementwasraisedmanyyearsagobyantoniogramsci(hoareandnowell Smith1971),althoughheusedthetermstraditionalandorganicintellectualsratherthan publicintellectuals.inrecentyears,doubthasbeencastonwhethergenuinepublic intellectuals,organicortraditional,stillexistorifso,whethertheyareinseveredecline (Posner2003).However,intheUK,therecentandcontroversialemphasison demonstratingresearch impact intheeconomic,socialandculturalarenasaswellasin academe,inareconfigurationoftheperiodicresearchauditofallresearchactiveacademics, whichhasbeenpreviouslyknownastheresearchassessmentexercise(highereducation FundingCouncilforEngland2009),mayprovideanimpetusfortherevivalofatraditionof publicintellectuals. Intellectualleadershipisnotsomethingthatfiguresextensivelyintheeducationalleadership literature,because,althoughnotexclusivetotheacademicprofession,itseldomarisesin contextsoutsideofacademe.eveninliteraturedealingspecificallywithacademic leadership,intellectualleadershipisnotdiscussedallthatoften.thusinbryman sreviewof recentstudiesofacademicleadership,departmentalleadership(bryman2007),intellectual leadershipisnotoneofthecharacteristicsexplicitlymentioned,althoughthereismention ofrelatedaspectssuchassettingandfacilitatingacleardirection/strategicvision,providing feedbackonperformanceandmakingresourcesforresearchandscholarshipavailable. Goodall sdetailedempiricalstudyofwhogetsappointedtoruntheworld stopuniversities isunusualinpayingattentiontotheacademicrecordofuniversityrectors,vicechancellors andpresidentsandarguingforitsimportanceinresearchintensivehighereducation institutions(goodall2009)however,somerecentstudiesofthoseholdingacademicmanagerposts(deem,hillyardetal.2007;smith,adamsetal.2007)havenotedthateven thosewithpostsatseniorleveloftenwishtoretainsomevestigesoftheiracademicidentity suchaswritingpapersorsupervisingresearchstudents,althoughofcoursethisisnot necessarilythesamethingasprovidingintellectualleadership. Withinuniversitiesintellectualleadershipisoftenprovidedbythosewhorunresearch groupsorteams,althoughthisiseasiertodowithinthecontextoflaboratorybased sciences,engineeringandmedicinethaninthemoreindividuallyscholarbaseddisciplinesin thearts,humanitiesandmanyofthesocialsciences.atthesametime,explicit research management hasbecomeawidespreadandincreasinglyprofessionalisedpracticeinmany universitiesacrosstheworld(greenandlangley2009),asthevisibilityandstatusattached 4

5 torankingsingloballeaguetablesbasedonresearchbecomesevermoreprominent (Marginson2005;Marginson2006a;Marginson2007c;StensakerandKehm2009).What researchmanagementmeanscanrangefromsettinginstitutionalresearchthemes(which doesamounttosettingacademicdirections)toassuringgoodresearchgovernanceand ethicalpracticesinhighereducationsettingsoroverseeingthepreparationofresearchbids (Deem2009;Deem2010).Becauseintellectualleadershipcanbeinformalaswellas formal,itmaycomefromawidevarietyofsourcesbothinsideandoutsideacademeandit isnotsomethingthatiseasilysteeredorcontrolled,particularlygiventheimportantroleof disciplinesinshapingacademicendeavour(abbott2001;becherandtrowler2001)andthe internationalcompositionofmostacademics networksandcontacts.intellectual leadershipisnotexplicitlytaughtandindeedtheconventionaldoctorate,outsidemostof thescience,technology,engineeringandmedicine(stem)disciplines,withitsemphasison lonescholarship,isunlikelytofosterit. Wemightconsiderexpendingrathermoreeffortonexplainingtoresearchstudentswhat intellectualleadershipmightmean(i.eitisnotjustaboutwritinggrantapplicationsor publishingpapersbutalsoreferstoacquiringtheartofskilfulandconstructivepeerreview, wideningintellectualnetworks,critiquingandshapingacademictrends,understandingand participatinginteam basedinterdisciplinaryresearch,learninghowtoengagenonacademicaudiencesinbothresearchprocessesandtheapplicationofresearchoutcomes, mentoringofnewresearchersandnurturingacademicfreedom).withintheacademy,itis arguablethatintellectualleadershipismostlikelytobefacilitatedbyenablingacademicsto undertakeexcitingandinnovativeresearch,whichinthenewconditionsoffinancial constraintsandsevererestrictionsonpublicspendingmayprovechallengingindeed. References Abbott,A.(2001).TheChaosofDisciplines.Chicago,UniversityofChicagoPress. Becher,T.andP.Trowler(2001).Academictribesandterritories:intellectualenquiryand theculturesofdisciplines.miltonkeynes,societyforresearchintohighereducation &OpenUniversityPress. Bryman,A.(2007).EffectiveLeadershipinHigherEducation.London,LeadershipFoundation forhighereducation. Deem,R.(2009). Managing academicresearchinuniversitiesorcat herdingforbeginners: theunintendedinstitutionalconsequencesofrecentresearchpolicyintheukrereadingeducationpolicies:studyingthepolicyagendaofthe21stcentury.edm. Simons,M.OllsenandM.Peters.Rotterdam,SensePublishers. Deem,R.(2010)."Herdingtheacademiccats:thechallengesof managing academic researchinthecontemporaryukuniversity."perspectives. Deem,R.,S.HillyardandM.Reed(2007).Knowledge,HigherEducationandtheNew Managerialism:TheChangingManagementofUKUniversities.Oxford,Oxford UniversityPress. 5

6 Goodall,A.(2009).Socratesintheboardroom:whyresearchuniversitiesshouldbeledby topscholars.princeton,princetonuniversitypress. Green,J.andD.Langley.(2009)."ProfessionalisingResearchManagement." ProfessionalisingResearchManagementpostprojectconferenceRetrievedOctober, 2009,fromhttp://www.professionalresearchmanagement.com/. HigherEducationFundingCouncilforEngland(2009).ResearchExcellenceFramework: Secondconsultationontheassessmentandfundingofresearch.Bristol,Higher EducationFundingCouncilforEngland. Hoare,Q.andG.Nowell Smith,Eds.(1971).AntonioGramsci:SelectionsfromPrison Notebooks.London,LawrenceandWishart. Marginson,S.(2005).ThereMustbeSomeWayOutofHere:apaperabouttheYinandYang ofuniversitypositioninginthenelsonsystem.plenaryaddressstothetertiary ManagementConference,Perth,Australia,27 29thSeptember. Marginson,S.(2006a)."Dynamicsofnationalandglobalcompetitioninhighereducation." HigherEducation52(1):1 39. Marginson,S.(2007c).Globalflowsandglobalfield:imaginingworldwiderelationsofpower inhighereducation.unpublishedpaperpresentedtotheesrcgeographiesof Knowledge,GeometriesofPowerSeminarseries,7thFebruary,Gregynog (UniversityofWalesConferenceCentre),Newtown,Powys. Posner,R.A.(2003).PublicIntellectuals:AStudyofDecline.Cambridge,Mass,Harvard UniversityPress. Smith,D.,J.AdamsandD.Mount.(2007)."UKUniversitiesandExecutiveOfficers:the ChangingRoleofPro Vice Chancellors."RetrievedMay2008,from https://www.lfhe.ac.uk/protected_login_form.html?item=smith.pdf. Stensaker,B.andB.Kehm,Eds.(2009).UniversityRankings,Diversity,andtheNew LandscapeofHigherEducation.Rotterdam,SensePublishers. 6

7 Intellectualleadership:IknowitwhenIseeit,andnotbefore DavidWatson(ProfessorofHigherEducationManagement,theInstituteofEducation, UniversityofLondon) Oneofthemajorfaultsofthemodernacademyisitslossofrespectforoursacredwords (like excellence ).Anotheristherelentlessriseofself ascription,atanindividualaswellas aninstitutionallevel.likeallotherformsofleadership,genuineintellectualleadershiphas tobeearned,notasserted.emptyinstitutionalclaimsabout world classness arenotthat farawayfromsomeindividuals aggressiveself promotionas publicintellectuals or thoughtleaders. It sacommonlyrecognisedtraitofgreatsportsmenandwomenaswellasmusiciansthat thosewhocanreally doit don thavetotellyou.there sahumility,andanassociated generosityofspirit,abouttheunquestionablytopperformers.thesamecanbetrueof someleadersinacademicfields,althoughaspectsofourinternalculturemilitateagainst thesetraits.considerthehyperboletowhichsenioracademicscanresortwhentalking aboutthingstheydon treallyunderstand:it soneofmymostrobust laws ofacademiclife thatindividualsgaininconfidencethefurthertheyareawayfromtheirtruefieldof expertise.amonghighereducationinstitutionalleaderstherightmixtureisrare,althoughi haveobservedit:thelatelordericashbyhadbothofthesekeyqualities,andwas extraordinarilyeffective. So,tofollowthelineofargumentthatIcanacknowledgeorgrantintellectualleadership (thereciprocalofwhichisthati mnotpreparedtohaveitthrustuponme),wheredoifind it?formeisatleastasmuchoutsideaswithintheacademy.andthediscoveryisverymuch correlatedwithmypersonal(includingprivate)interests. Thepeoplewho doit formeinclude:greatpianists(andthinkersabouttheirartandwhat itmeansmorebroadly)likealfredbrendelandmitsukouchida;novelists,includingfromthe popularendofthestreet,likejohnlecarré(anextraordinarygazetteerofourevolving socio politicalsituation)orsuethompson(whosestructuredobservationsofourcultureare formeaspowerfulasthoseofgeorgeorwell);and(inmyownacademicfield)historiansof ideaslikerichardsennett,quentinskinnerandbrucekuklick.thereare(currently)no politiciansonmylist(althoughi mmonitoringbarackobama)andvirtuallynoneoftheusual subjectsintermsofthosechosentoregulateourprofessionalorpubliclife. Anexceptioninthelattercaseisthelate(andmuchmissed)LordRonDearing.Ron approachedallofthechallengeshefacedinthevariouseducationalminefieldswhichhe volunteeredtocrossbypretendingtobeaseriouslyengagednaïf.assuchhewon confidenceacrossawiderangeofinterestedparties,andrespectforhisadjudicationofthe mostcomplexandfraughtissues.infactthistrickwassoonrumbledbyanyoneproperly involved;hehadahabitofdiscoveringquicklyexactlywhatwasgoingon.healsohadan extraordinarycapacityforhardwork,forclearthinking,forneverrulingoutanideabecause ofitsorigin,andaboveallforkeepingteamsorgroupsofindividualsfocusedontheir 7

8 collectivegoal.hewouldhavebeenastonishedtohavebeencalledanintellectualleader, butthatisexactlywhathewas. Intellectualleadershipandtransdisciplinarity MJCCrabbe(ExecutiveDeanoftheFacultyofCreativeArts,TechnologiesandScienceand ProfessorofBiochemistry,UniversityofBedfordshire) Intellectual leadership can be seen as one of four categories of leadership: Intellectual, Emotional,SocialandMoral(Wepneretal.,2008).Whileallfourareinter related(antonakis et al., 2009), intellectual leadership, relying as it does on scholarship and/or research, is a key factor in the dynamics of a corporate university (Dealtry, 2001), as well as in an individualleader sacademiccredibilityinhighereducationandbeyond. One of the challenges of a leader in higher education is to move out from the relative comfort zone of a specialist subject to a wider area of integration; one of transdisciplinarity. Although multidisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and crossdisciplinarity are often used interchangeably, strictly they have different definitions. Here I use the word loosely an integration or interrelation of disciplinary generated knowledge and non disciplinary generated knowledge and its application to complex problemsandissues.itisaddressingasubjectfromvariousanglesandmethods,eventually cutting across disciplines allowing a new understanding of the subject. Examples include trainingfortropicalconservation(kaineretal.,2006;crabbeetal.,2009),and,inmyown Faculty, linking dance performance(in the Department of Performing Arts & English) with computergraphics(inthedepartmentofcomputerscience&technology)toprovidenew insightsintochoreography,viaanartsandhumanitiesresearchcouncilgrant. Creativityandcriticalthinkingareimportantingredientsforintellectualleadership,andvital for leadership in transdisciplinarity. Here I define creativity as a process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, fueled by the process of either conscious or unconsciousinsight,andcriticalthinkingaspurposefulandreflectivejudgmentaboutwhat to believe in response to observations, experience, verbal or written expressions, or arguments. Iidentifythreekeyelementsinfosteringandsustainingsuchintellectualleadership: Theimportanceoffreedom Theimportanceofcommunication Theimportanceofiteration Intellectualleadershipinotherculturesraisesmanyissues;Chinaisparticularlychallenging fromawesternperspective.thenatureof instructorbehaviour isimportantinrelationto leadership(sleeboom Faulkner,2007),andthisisveryapparentinChina(Patricketal., 2009).WorkingwithUniversities,thecreativeartsandindustriesinChinathrowsthethree elementsaboveintohighrelief.theyneedcontinualre interpretationthroughachinese 8

9 perspectiveforachineseaudience.othercountriesandcultureshavedifferent perspectivesonintellectualleadership.forhighereducationleadersintheukitis importantthatwehavethefreedomtolistentothosecultures,andtocommunicateand interactwiththematalllevels. References AntonakisJ,AshkanasyNM,DasboroughMT,2009.Doesleadershipneedemotional intelligence?leadershipquarterly20, Crabbe MJC, Martinez E, Garcia C, Chub J, Castro L, Guy J, Identifying management needsforcoralreefecosystems.sustainability:science,practice&policy5, DealtryR,2001.Managingintellectualleadershipincorporatevalue.JournalofWorkplace Learning13, KainerKA,SchminkM,CovertH,SteppJR,BrunaEM,DainJL,EspinosaS,HumphriesS,2006. Agraduateeducationframeworkfortropicalconservationanddevelopment.Conservation Biology20,2 13. NicolescuB,2002.ManifestoofTransdisciplinarity.StateUniversityofNewYorkPress,New York,USA,translationfromtheFrenchbyKaren ClaireVoss. PartickJ,ScraseG,AhmedA,TombsM,2009.Effectivenessofinstructorbehavioursand theirrelationshiptoleadership.journalofoccupationalandorganisationalpsychology82, Sleeboom FaulknerM,2007.RegulatingintellectuallifeinChina:thecaseoftheChinese AcademyofSocialSciencs.ChinaQuarterly189, WepnerSB,D OnofrioA,WilhiteSC,2008.Theleadershipdimensionofeducationdeans. JournalofTeacherEducation59,

10 LeadingIntellectuals AmandaH.Goodall(LeverhulmeFellow,WarwickBusinessSchool) To me, the term intellectual leadership means one thing those who lead intellectuals. Great scholars may be thought leaders, but leadership is about hierarchy and real power. Leadershipisnotanintellectualexercise;itisaformalposition,onethatshouldbejudgedin termsofperformance. InthisthinkpieceIwilltrytomaketwopoints.First,thatleadershipresearchisimportant becauseleadersareimportant;second,thatitmattersgreatlywholeadsouruniversities. Beingaleadershipresearcherinabusinessschoolischallenging.Thefieldhaslostrespect. Criticalmanagementauthorsbelievethatleadershipiselitistsotheyignoreit.MBAstudents oftenlooktothe charismaticleader forsolutions.theheadofausbusinessschooltold me all MBA students want Jack Welch to be dean. Psychologists have tended to focus on individual characteristics such as traits, and sociologists have stepped back into the wider context; in my view, the former get too close, and the latter too far. Mostly leadership researchiscriticisedforbeingempiricallyweak. Anotherfactorplaguingthefieldinmyviewistheinherentnatureofsocialsciencetoreject causalinference.thisiscommoninmanyukbusinessschoolsandmaypartiallyexplainthe lowimpactofmanagementresearch.arguably,thesuccessofaleaderwillbeduetomany immeasurable factors, and unlike in science, we cannot randomly assign a CEO to an organization.butdespitethecloudyconditions,itisessentialthatempiricalresearcherstry toestablishtheeffectivenessofheads.leadershavethemostpowerinorganizations,and substantialresourcesareinvestedintheirrecruitmentandpay. Possiblythemostcontroversialviewofleadershipisthatofmanagerialists.Implicitinmuch New Labour policy is the assumption that experts, such as scholars and doctors, either cannot lead or are somehow inferior to professional managers. My research on leaders suggests that this position is flawed. In universities and other organizations where knowledge is central, such as hospitals, it is experts (the best experts) not managers who shouldlead.myworkshowsthatukuniversitiesimproveintheirraeperformancewhen topresearchersareatthehelm.totrytogettoacausalexplanation,ilookattheleadersa numberofyearsbeforeiexamineraeoutcomes,andicontrolforfactorssuchassize. Whyshouldthebestscholarsleadtheiruniversities?Humanstendtoprioritizethatwhich they excel at. A manager will assign greatest importance to management systems and processes, whereas a successful scientist or humanist will prioritize differently. They may focus attention on matters of research. Leaders should, I believe, understand the core businessoftheorganizationtheyaretolead,andtheyshouldbeexpertsinthatactivity.ina researchuniversitythecorebusinessisresearchandteaching.withoutthese,universities donotexist.itdoesn tmatterhowgoodthemanagementsystemsare. 10

11 Toconclude,Ibelievethatifouruniversitiesareledbyscholarswhounderstandtheneeds and values of the core workers academics then the business of the academy will be betterprotectedfrombothgovernmentandmanagerialintervention. Intellectualleadershipamonguniversityprofessors:beyondthemachomyth BruceMacfarlane(AssociateProfessorforhighereducation,TheUniversityofHongKong) Irecentlyconductedastudyaboutintellectualleadershipthankstoadevelopmentgrant fromtheukleadershipfoundation.partofthisprojectinvolvedinterviewing(full) professorsaboutwhatitmeanstobeaprofessor(macfarlane,2011).manyofthese individualswerewhatiwouldcall professorswithoutportfolio.inotherwords,theydidnot holda hybridised (Whitchurch,2006)positionasaprofessorandamanagerialposition suchasaheadofdepartment,adean,oraprovicechancellor.whiletheywerenot necessarily managers theywerestillleadersofotheracademics;peoplewhoarelookedup toforadviceandpossiblyinspiration.howthendotheytrytomeettheseexpectations? Whatstruckmeabouttheirresponsestomyquestionswashowtheyidentifiedaseriesof qualitieswhichany good professorneeds.roughly,thesedivideintoqualitiesconnected withexercisingacademicfreedomandthoseconnectedwithacademicduty.itisatruism thataprofessorhasto profess something.thisinvariablyinvolvesbeingacriticofcertain conceptsandtheoriesinthediscipline,perhapsofdisciplinaryboundaries,oreven conventionsandnormsinsociety.beingacriticisabuildingblockforaprofessor sbeing knownforsomethingmoreconstructive.thiscaninvolvebeinganadvocateforaformof analysis,amodel,concept,idea,amovementorasetofprinciplesconnectedwitha disciplineorprofession.theyareonlyknownbyengaginganddebatingwithothersin variousways. Butbeingaprofessorisnotjustaboutexercisingacademicfreedomandhavingsomething tosay.italsoinvolvesother regardingqualitiessuchasbeingamentorforlessexperienced colleaguesthroughencouragingandnurturingtheirpotential;aguardianofacademic standardsinthedisciplinethroughpeerreviewactivitiesforexample;anacquisitorof resourcestosustainresearchcentresandteams;andsometimesanambassadoronbehalf oftheinstitution.finally,professorsneedtoberolemodels;meta academicswhopossess thecredibilityuponwhichtoleadnotjustgoodresearchersorgoodteachers. Perhapsthemostpreciouscommodityinacademiclifeistime.Alltheseactivitiesdemand selflessnessbygivingafairproportionofthistimeoverforthebenefitofothers.thereisa gendereddimensiontowhatifoundinasmuchthatfemaleprofessorsfeelthattheyare oftenexpectedtotakeonmoreelementsofacademicdutypartlyasaresultofbecominga professor,onaverage,atalaterstageintheiracademiccareerwhentheyhavealready madetheirmaincreativecontribution. Ibelievethateffectiveintellectualleadershipdemandsabalancebetweenthequalities associatedwithacademicfreedomandacademicduty.aprofessormustbepreparedto 11

12 speakoutandhavesomethingthatthey profess inordertoberespected.yet,theyalso needselflessqualitiesassociatedwithmakingacontributionbacktotheirownacademic community.thisisaboutinter generationalequityasmuchasanythingelseinnurturingthe nextwaveofacademicswhowillcarrythetorchforthedisciplineintothefuture.what concernsmeisthatthemessagesofmodernacademiclife demonstratingthe impact of ourresearch,grant getting,andcitationrates arespawningagenerationofselfish professorswhoarerationallywithdrawingfromwiderresponsibilitiesconnectedwith academicduty. WhenImadeapresentationaboutmyworktoanawaydayofseniorstaffataUKpost 1992 universitylastyear,thevicechancellortookissuewithmyanalysisandpronouncedthat whatheneedsareprofessorswhoare selfishbastards.inmyview,wehaveenoughof thesealready.thiskindofattitudeperpetuatesthemachomythoftheprofessoralthoughit issymptomaticofthecompetitive,butoftenhollow,ethosofmodernhighereducation. Whatweneedaremoreprofessorswhotakebothelementsoftheirintellectualleadership roleseriouslybybalancingacademicfreedomandacademicduty. References Macfarlane,B.(2011)Professorsasintellectualleaders:formation,identityandrole,Studies inhighereducation,2011,36:1,forthcoming. Whitchurch,C.2006.ProfessionalManagersinUKHigherEducation:PreparingforComplex Futures.London:LeadershipfoundationforHigherEducation. 12

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