# Getting Started in Factor Analysis (using Stata 10) (ver. 1.5)

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1 Getting Started in Factor Analysis (using Stata 10) (ver. 1.5) Oscar Torres-Reyna Data Consultant

2 Factor analysis is used mostly for data reduction purposes: Factor analysis: intro To get a small set of variables (preferably uncorrelated) from a large set of variables (most of which are correlated to each other) To create indexes with variables that measure similar things (conceptually). Two types of factor analysis Exploratory It is exploratory when you do not have a pre-defined idea of the structure or how many dimensions are in a set of variables. Confirmatory. It is confirmatory when you want to test specific hypothesis about the structure or the number of dimensions underlying a set of variables (i.e. in your data you may think there are two dimensions and you want to verify that).

3 Factor analysis: step 1 To run factor analysis use the command factor (type help factor for more details). Total variance accounted by each factor. The sum of all eigenvalues = total number of variables. When negative, the sum of eigenvalues = total number of factors (variables) with positive eigenvalues. Kaiser criterion suggests to retain those factors with eigenvalues equal or higher than 1. Variables Principal-components factoring Since the sum of eigenvalues = total number of variables. Proportion indicate the relative weight of each factor in the total variance. For example, /5= The first factor explains 30.9% of the total variance Cumulative shows the amount of variance explained by n+(n- 1) factors. For example, factor 1 and factor 2 account for 57.55% of the total variance. Difference between one eigenvalue and the next. Factor loadings are the weights and correlations between each variable and the factor. The higher the load the more relevant in defining the factor s dimensionality. A negative value indicates an inverse impact on the factor. Here, two factors are retained because both have eigenvalues over 1. It seems that owner and competition define factor1, and equality, respon and ideol define factor2. Uniqueness is the variance that is unique to the variable and not shared with other variables. It is equal to 1 communality (variance that is shared with other variables). For example, 61.57% of the variance in ideol is not share with other variables in the overall factor model. On the contrary owner has low variance not accounted by other variables (28.61%). Notice that the greater uniqueness the lower the relevance of the variable in the factor model.

4 Factor analysis: step 2 (final solution) After running factor you need to rotate the factor loads to get a clearer pattern, just type rotate to get a final solution. By default the rotation is varimax which produces orthogonal factors. This means that factors are not correlated to each other. This setting is recommended when you want to identify variables to create indexes or new variables without inter-correlated components Same description as in the previous slide with new composition between the two factors. Still both factors explain 57.55% of the total variance observed. The pattern matrix here offers a clearer picture of the relevance of each variable in the factor. Factor1 is mostly defined by owner and competition and factor2 by equality, respon and ideol. This is a conversion matrix to estimate the rotated factor loadings (RFL): RFL = Factor loadings * Factor rotation NOTE: If you want the factors to be correlated (oblique rotation) you need to use the option promax after rotate: rotate, promax Type help rotate for details. See for more info. Thank you to Jeannie-Marie S. Leoutsakos for useful feedback.

5 Factor analysis: step 3 (predict) To create the new variables, after factor, rotate you type predict. predict factor1 factor2 /*or whatever name you prefer to identify the factors*/ These are the regression coefficients used to estimate the individual scores (per case/row) Another option (called naïve by some) could be to create indexes out of each cluster of variables. For example, owner and competition define one factor. You could aggregate these two to create a new variable to measure market oriented attitudes. On the other hand you could aggregate ideol, equality and respon to create an index to measure egalitarian attitudes. Since all variables are in the same valence (liberal for small values, capitalist for larger values), we can create the two new variables as gen market = (owner + competition)/2 gen egalitatiran = (ideol + equality + respon)/3

6 Factor analysis: sources/references The main sources/references for this section are: Books Factor Analysis in International Relations. Interpretation, Problem Areas and Application / Vincent, Jack. University of Florida Press, Gainsville, Factor Analysis. Statistical Methods and Practical Issues / Kim Jae-on, Charles W. Mueller, Sage publications, Introduction to Factor Analysis. What it is and How To Do It / Kim Jae-on, Charles W. Mueller, Sage publications, Statistics with STATA (updated for version 9) / Hamilton, Lawrence C. Thomson Books/Cole, Online StatNotes: StatSoft: UCLA Resources:

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